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NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 

JOSEPH HYDE PRATT, State Geologist 



Bulletin No. 26 



The Geology and Ore Deposits 

of the Virgilina District of 

Virginia and North Carolina 



BY 



FRANCIS BAKER LANEY 



3 3 Q 3 3 ■ 

* Prepared by > i , , 
North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

AND THE / , 3 

Virginia Geological Survey 


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AS A JOINT REPORT 




1917 




J. P. BELL COMPANY, Inc. 




PRINTERS 




LYNCHBURG, VIRGINIA 








t i * « «. 



4 I C I t I 



, . . . I 



GEOLOGICAL BOARD 

OF NORTH CAROLINA 



Governor T. W. Bickett, ex-officio, Chairman .... Raleigh 
Frank R. Hewitt Asheville 



Hugh MacRae Wilmington 



John Sprunt Hill Durham 



C. C. Smoot, III North Wilkesboro 



Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist Chapel Hill 



Si o h & 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Pbeface xi 

Author's Preface xiii 

The Geology and Ore Deposits of the Virgilina District, Virginia and 

North Carolina. By Francis B. Laney 

Geography and history 

Geographical sketch 

Location 

Topography 

Drainage 3 

Soil 3 

Climate 3 

Culture 3 

Previous geologic work 4 

Description of the Rocks 14 

Introduction 14 

Gneissoid rocks 17 

Mica gneiss 17 

Hornblende gneiss 18 

Vocano-sedimentary rocks 18 

Introduction 18 

Hyco quartz porphyry 19 

Aaron slate 19 

Virgilina greenstone 19 

Goshen schist 19 

Hyco quartz porphyry 20 

Occurrence 20 

Macroscopic description 20 

Microscopic description 21 

Chemical composition 22 

Analyses of quartz porphyry 22 

Weathering and soil 23 

Goshen Schist 23 

General description 23 

Aaron slate 24 

Occurrence 24 

Macroscopic description 24 

Microscopic description 25 

Chemical analysis 26 

Analysis of typical Aaron slate 26 

Weathering and soil 27 

Virgilina greenstone 27 

Introductory statement 27 

Distribution 27 

Macroscopic description 28 

Microscopic description 29 

Tuffaceous phase 32 

Chemical composition 32 

Classification 33 

Analyses of Virgilina greenstone 33 

Weathering 34 

Intrusive rocks 35 

Redoak granite 35 

General description 35 

Buffalo granite 36 

General description 36 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 

Abbyville gabbro 37 

General statement 37 

Macroscopic description 37 

Microscopic description 37 

Unaltered gabbro 38 

Normal sedimentary rocks 38 

Triassic (Newark) sandstone 38 

General description 38 

Dike rocks 39 

General statement 39 

Granite 39 

General description 39 

Syenite 40 

General description 40 

Gabbro 40 

General statement 40 

Diabase 40 

General statement 40 

Macroscopic description 41 

Microscopic description 41 

Structure and Metamorphism 41 

General statement 41 

Structural features 42 

Folding 42 

Schistosity 46 

Jointing 47 

Faulting 48 

Intrusion of igneous rocks 50 

Metamorphism , 50 

General statement 50 

Textural changes 50 

Mineralogical changes 51 

Mineralization 51 

Weathering 52 

Geologic History 54 

General statement 54 

Mica and hornblende gneiss 54 

Igneous activity 55 

Consolidation 57 

Folding and development of schistosity 57 

Igneous intrusions 57 

Development of the veins and deposition of the ores 58 

Triassic sandstone and diabase dikes 59 

Erosion and weathering 59 

Physiography 59 

Relief 60 

Drainage 61 

Physiographic history 62 

Detailed Description of Veins and Ores 63 

Veins 63 

General statement 63 

Native copper deposits 67 

Mineralogy of the veins 68 

General statement 68 

Detailed description of gangue minerals . 69 

Quartz 69 

Calcite 70 



V] CONTENTS. 

Page 

Epidote 70 

Chlorite 71 

Hematite 71 

Sericite 71 

Albite 72 

Orthoclase 72 

Detailed description of the ore minerals 73 

General statement 73 

Bornite 74 

Chalcocite 75 

Chalcopyrite 77 

Native copper 78 

Klaprothite or klaprotholite 79 

Pyrite 79 

Argentite 79 

Gold 80 

Malachite 81 

Azurite 81 

Cuprite 81 

Melaconite 82 

Chrysocolla 82 

Native silver 82 

Relation of the copper-bearing sulphides to each other 82 

General statement 82 

Relations of bornite and chalcocite 83 

Relations of bornite and chalcopyrite 87 

Origin and deposition of the ores 89 

General statement 89 

Origin of the veins 89 

Deposition of the ore minerals 91 

Continuation of the ore deposits with depth 93 

The Mines and Ores of the Virgilina District 95 

Descriptive geology of the mines and prospects 95 

Seaboard mine 95 

General statement 95 

Description of vein 95 

Ore and gangue minerals 98 

Development 99 

Concentrating plant 101 

Blue Wing mine 102 

General statement 102 

Underground development 105 

Geologic relations 105 

Partial analyses of selected samples of Blue Wing ore 109 

Assays of Blue Wing ore, 1899-1900 110 

Assays of Blue Wing ore, 1907 .* Ill 

Production 113 

Future of the mine 113 

Holloway mine 114 

General statement 114 

Development 115 

Geologic relations 117 

Table of settlement returns on ore shipments, Holloway mine, 1897- 

1903 ' 118 

Mineralogy 121 

Production 123 

Future of the mine 124 






CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 

High Hill mine 124 

General statement 124 

Geologic relations 127 

Production 129 

Future of the mine 130 

Durgy (Person Consolidated) mine 130 

General statement 130 

Geologic relations 132 

Assays of ore and concentrates from Durgy mine smelter returns.. 137 

Production 138 

Future of the mine 139 

Duke mine 140 

General statement 140 

Geologic relations 140 

Future of the mine 141 

Prospects and partially-developed mines 141 

Northeast shaft 141 

Thomas mine 142 

Cross-Cut mine 143 

Barnes mine 144 

McNeny mine 145 

Daniel's mine 146 

Gilliam mine 146 

Wilson mine 146 

Crenshaw mine 147 

Grove mine 147 

Kay mine 148 

Chappell mine 149 

Pontiac mine 149 

Pandora mine 151 

Morong mine 152 

Baynham mine 152 

Anaconda mine 152 

Cornfield property 153 

Pannebaker prospects 155 

Annie Maud prospect 156 

Engle prospect 156 

Gillis mine 157 

Copper King mine 157 

Copper World mine 158 

Fourth of July mine 158 

Arringdale mine 158 

Littlejohn mine 159 

Esther May prospect 159 

Wall mine 159 

Gold Mines and Prospects 160 

General statement 160 

Poole and Harris prospects 161 

Red Bank mine 161 

Luce and Howard mine • 163 

Utilization of the Ores 163 

General statement 163 

Shipment of ore without milling 163 

Milling ores and shipment of concentrates 164 

Concentration by flotation 168 

Smelting ore in the district 169 

Summary 169 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate 

I. Geologic map of the Virgilina district In pocket 

Facing Page 

II. (A) Outcrop of Aaron slate, showing slate bands alternating with 
narrow bands of nearly pure sandstone; (B ) Typical outcrop 
of Virgilina greenstone 24 

III. (A) Outcrop of Virgilina greenstone, North Fork of Aaron's Creek; 

(B) Typical outcrop of Virgilina greenstone 3 miles north of 
Virgilina 29 

IV. (A) Typical outcrop of a large but barren quartz vein near High Hill 

mine; (B) Typical but barren quartz vein exposed in railroad 

cut near Christie, Virginia 65 

V. (A) Photograph of a specimen of ore from Wall mine, showing re- 
lation of ore and gangue minerals; (B) Tracing made from a 
polished specimen of ore from Wall mine, showing relation of 
sulphides and quartz gangue 69 

VI. (A) Photograph of a specimen of ore from Copper King mine, showing 
relation of sulphides to calcite gangue; (B) Photomicrograph 
of a polished section of ore from Blue Wing mine, showing re- 
lation of sulphides to quartz and hematite 70 

VII. Photograph of a polished section of ore from Seaboard mine, showing 

relation of bornite to supergene chalcocite 72 

VIII. (A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Seaboard mine, 
showing relation of bornite to supergene chalcocite; (B) Photo- 
micrograph of a polished section of ore from Seaboard mine, 
showing relation of bornite to supergene chalcocite 75 

IX. (A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Cornfield 
Prospect No. 1, showing relation of chalcopyrite to quartz and 
sulphides; (B) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore 
from Cornfield Prospect No. 1, showing relations of chalcopyrite 

to bornite 78 

X. (A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Cornfield 
Prospect No. 1, showing relation of bornite and chalcopyrite; 
(B) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Corn- 
field Prospect No. 1, showing relation of bornite and chal- 
copyrite 79 

(A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Cornfield 
Prospect No. 1, showing relation of chalcopyrite to bornite and 
chalcocite; (B) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore 
from Cornfield Prospect No. 1, showing relation of bornite to 

supergene chalcocite 80 

(A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Cornfield 
Prospect No. 2, showing typical complex relationship between 
bornite and supergene chalcocite; (B) Photomicrograph of a 
polished section of ore from Pontiac mine, showifig relation of 
bornite to supergene chalcocite 83 

XIII. (A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Seaboard mine, 
showing anastamosing quartz filaments and limonite in the in- 
terior of a veinlet of supergene chalcocite in bornite: (B) Photo- 
micrograph of another area of the specimen illustrated in (A) . . 84 

XIV. (A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Blue Wing 
mine, showing usual type of intergrowth of bornite and chal- 
copyrite; (B) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore 
from Durgy mine, showing both hypogene and supergene chal- 
cocite in bornite 85 



XI. 
XII. 



^ 



ILLUSTRATIONS. IX 

Plate Facing Page 

XV. (A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from High Hill mine, 
showing both usual and graphic intergrowths of bornite and 
chalcocite; (B) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore 
from Durgy mine, showing typical graphic intergrowth of 
bornite and chalcocite 86 

XVI. (A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Wall mine, 
showing typical fine-textured graphic intergrowth of bornite and 
chalcocite; (B) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore 
from Cornfield Prospect No. 2, showing typical lamellar inter- 
growth of bornite and chalcocite 87 

XVII. (A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Wall mine, 
showing both usual and graphic intergrowths of bornite and 
chalcocite; (B) Photomicrograph, highly magnified, of a portion 
of the area shown in (A) ; (C) Photomicrograph, highly magni- 
fied, of a portion of the area shown in (A), deeply etched to 

bring out the cleavages of the chalcocite 90 

XVIII. (A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Cornfield 
Prospect No. 1, showing typical lamellar intergrowth of bornite 
and chalcocite; (B) Photomicrograph, highly magnified, of a 
portion of the area shown in (A), illustrating the typical 
lamellar intergrowth 91 

XIX. (A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Cornfield 
Prospect No. 2, showing peculiar rod-like areas of bornite in 
regular intergrowth with chalcocite; (B) Photomicrograph 
of a polished section of ore from Cornfield Prospect No. 2, show- 
ing reticulated intergrowth of bornite and chalcocite 92 

XX. (A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Cornfield 
Prospect No. 1, showing reticulated intergrowth of bornite and 
chalcocite; (B) Photomicrograph, very highly magnified, of a 
portion of the area shown in (A) 93 

Figure Page 

1. Sketch map showing location of Virgilina district 2 

2. Vertical section of Seaboard mine 96 

3. Flow-sheet of Seaboard mill 100 

4. Vertical section of Blue Wing mine 104 

5. Sketch showing relation between ore and gangue, Blue Wing mine 106 

6. Sketch illustrating relation of ore and gangue and of vein to wall rock, 

Blue Wing mine 108 

7. Sketch illustrating relation of ore and gangue, Blue Wing mine 110 

8. Sketch illustrating relation of ore and gangue, and of vein to wall rock, 

Blue Wing mine 112 

9. Vertical sections and plans of Holloway mine 116 

10. Sketch illustrating relation of vein to wall rock, Holloway mine 118 

11. Cross-section of Holloway vein illustrating the relation of vein to wall 

rock 121 

12. Sketch illustrating relation of vein to wall rock, Holloway mine 123 

13. Vertical section of High Hill mine 125 

14. (A) and (B) sketches illustrating relation of ore and gangue, and of vein 

to wall rock, High Hill mine 128 

15. Vertical section of Durgy mine 132 

16. Sketch showing fragments of schist enclosed in vein, Thomas mine 143 



■ 

I 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Chapel Hill, N. C, July 2, 1917. 



To His Excellency, Honorable T. W. Bickett, 

Governor of North Carolina. 

Sir : — The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, in co- 
operation with the Virginia Geological Survey, has prepared a detailed 
report on the Virgilina Copper District of the two States. Problems to be 
solved in connection with the investigation of this district were joint prob- 
lems, and the two Surveys felt that better results could be obtained by join- 
ing together and carrying through the investigation cooperatively. The 
field work has been done by Dr. F. B. Laney, under the supervision of the 
two State Geologists. 

The report covers a geological and economic investigation of this copper 
district, and I would recommend that this report be published as Bulletin 
No. 26 of the reports of the North Carolina Geological and Economic 
Survey. 

Yours respectfully, 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, 

State Geologist. 



PREFACE 

The publication of this report, entitled "The Geology and Ore Deposits 
of the Yirgilina District of Virginia and North Carolina," is a new depar- 
ture in State Geological Survey reports, since it represents a joint investiga- 
tion of an important copper district lying partly in each state, carried on 
cooperatively by the Virginia Geological Survey and the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey. 

In order to insure uniformity for the district as a whole, the same 
geologist, Doctor Francis B. Laney, was employed by the Virginia and 
North Carolina Geological Surveys to make the survey in the two states 
under the general supervision of the State Geologists of Virginia and North 
Carolina. Doctor Laney was assisted in the field work in North Carolina 
for a part of the time by Doctor Joseph E. Pogue, of the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey; and, in Virginia, by Mr. Joel H. 
Watkins. of the Virginia Geological Survey. 

The investigation covers an area of approximately 550 square miles, 
including parts of Charlotte, Halifax, and Mecklenburg counties, Virginia, 
and parts of Granville and Person counties, North Carolina. Chapter I 
gives a short but concise geographic sketch of the district, including loca- 
tion, topography, drainage, soil, and climate, closing with a complete 
account of previous geologic work in the district in the form chiefly of an 
annotated bibliography. Chapters II and III discuss the general geology 
of the district and give a detailed description and classification of the rocks, 
their structure and metamorphism. Chapter IV comprises a detailed 
description of the veins and ores, in which the mineralogy of the ore and 
gangue minerals is fully described, and the relations of the copper-bearing 
sulphides to each other and the origin and deposition of the ores- are dis- 
cussed. Chapter V, entitled, "The Mines and Ores of the Virgilina 
District," gives a full description of the individual mines and prospects, 
closing with a discussion of the methods best adapted to the utilization of 
the ores. 

The traverse map which has been used as the base of the geologic map 
accompanying this report was prepared in cooperation with the United 
States Geological Survey. 



XII 



PREFACE. 



The author and the State Geologists wish to make grateful acknowledg- 
ment to all persons who have assisted in various ways in facilitating the 
work of this investigation. 

Thomas Leonard Watson, 

State Geologist of Virginia. 



Joseph Hyde Pratt, 

State Geologist of North Carolina. 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

During the field work upon which this report on the Geology and Ore 
Deposits of the Virgilina District is based, the writer had the advantage 
of the supervision and advice of Messrs. Thomas L. Watson and Joseph 
Hyde Pratt, state geologists, respectively, of Virginia and North Carolina, 
and he wishes to gratefully acknowledge his indebtedness to each of these 
men who spared neither time nor expense in furtherance of the work. 

To the U. S. Geological Survey and to the U. S. Bureau of Mines the 
writer is indebted for the privilege of carrying on in their laboratories the 
microscopical and mineralogical investigations necessary in the preparation 
of this report. Many of the facts regarding the texture and structure of 
the different minerals as well as the photomicrographs showing these 
structures would have been impossible without the use of the excellently 
equipped microscopical laboratory of the U. S. Bureau of Mines at Salt 
Lake City, Utah. 

During part of the field work the writer had the assistance in North 
Carolina of Dr.. J. E. Pogue, now Associate Professor of Geology in North- 
western University, and in Virginia of Mr. J. H. Watkins, now Geologist 
for the Southern Eailway Company. Mr. Watkins also did the drafting 
necessary in preparing the geologic map and the plans and drawings illus- 
trating the development work at the different mines and prospects. To 
these men the writer gratefully acknowledges his indebtedness. 

To many of the operators and residents of the Virgilina district the 
writer is under many obligations. Among these are Mr. A. W. Tucker, 
former manager of the Seaboard mine; Mr. Eobt. G, Lassiter, former 
manager of the Blue Wing mine; Dr. Franz Koempel, of the Littlejohn 
Copper Co. ; the late Mr. Wm. M. Pannebaker, owner of much property 
in the district ; Miss Florence Pannebaker ; Mr. J. D. Battershill, formerly 
superintendent of the Holloway mine; Mr. H. C. Crowell, of the Virgilina 
Gold Mining Co.; Mr. F. Durgy, of the Durgy mine; and Mr. John 
Taylor. These persons spared neither time, pains, nor convenience in 
assisting the writer in his work in every way possible for them to do so. 
Without their interest and cooperation it would hardly have been possible 
to collect the data so necessary in the preparation of this report. 

To Miss Florence Pannebaker the writer is greatly indebted for a col- 
lection of ores from the Cornfield Prospect No. 1, which enabled him to 



XIV 



author's preface. 



determine the relationship between chalcopyrite, bornite, and chalcocite. 
This obligation is gratefully acknowledged in the body of the report, p. 87. 

The people of the district without exception were greatly interested in 
the work and were always willing and glad to render any assistance within 
their power. 

Francis Baker Laney. 



THE GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE 

VIRGILINA DISTRICT, VIRGINIA AND 

NORTH CAROLINA 

By Francis B. Laney. 
GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

Location. — The Virgilina mining district is crossed by the North 
Carolina-Virginia boundary line about 140 miles west of Norfolk, Va., and 
40 miles east of Danville, Va. About one-half of the area, which up to the 
present has been the most productive, lies within each state. The North 
Carolina portion, as included in the accompanying map, comprises an area 
about 22 miles long and 18 miles wide, and lies in the northwest portion of 
Granville and the adjoining northeastern corner of Person counties. The 
Virginia area is longer but narrower, is about 50 miles long and 15 miles 
wide, and, excepting a narrow strip along the western side of Mecklenburg 
County, lies within Halifax and Charlotte counties. The town of Vir- 
gilina, from which it takes its name, and which is the principal railroad 
point, is a village of about 600 inhabitants, and is located on the State line 
near the center of the most productive portion of the district. The Norfolk 
and Danville division of the Southern Eailway, on which the town is located, 
crosses the district, approximately following the state line, and renders the 
center of activity easily accessible. The northern end of the district, which 
contains a number of somewhat promising prospects, but no developed 
mines, is crossed by the Eichmond and Danville division of the Southern 
Eailway, which, after crossing the district between Keysville and Drakes 
Branch, two railroad and supply points in the north end of the area, turns 
southwestward and runs within the area near its western border to Dan 
Eiver. The Durham division of the Norfolk and Western Eailway crosses 
the Southern Eailway at Denniston Junction, about 12 miles west of Vir- 
gilina, closely paralleling the western side of the district. Thus it is that 
no part of the district, except the extreme southern end, is without ample 
railroad outlet. The wagon roads for the most part are fair, and some of 
them are good. 

Topography. — The Virgilina district lies wholly within the Piedmont 
Plateau, and presents the topographic features common to that physio- 
graphic province. The topography is mature, the hills are all well rounded, 
and relief is much subdued. In fact, there is little relief noticeable to the 
casual observer, except where streams have cut through the Virgilina ridge. 



2 



GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGIL1NA DISTRICT. 



a low-lying, nearly flat-topped ridge with very gentle slopes, which forms 
the most prominent surface feature of the district. The most marked relief 
is along Dan River, which crosses the district near its center. This stream 
crosses the rocks approximately at right angles to the strike of the 
schistosity, and, where it cuts through the Virgilina ridge, the slopes are 
steep and the topography is rather rugged. The remainder of the district 
is without prominent relief, but is decidedly hilly. 




o 



25 



Scale 

50 75 



loo Miles 



Fig. 1. — Map of a portion of North Carolina and Virginia, showing the location of 
the Virgilina district. 

(Taken from a map of the United States by the General Land Office, 1915.) 



DRAINAGE, SOIL, CLIMATE. 3 

Drainage. — The principal stream is Dan Eiver, which flows in a south- 
east direction across the center of the district. Within the area the Dan is 
joined from the north by Bannister and Eoanoke rivers, and from the south 
by Hyco Eiver and Aaron's Creek. The Eoanoke receives Horsepen Creek 
from the east, and Difficult Creek from the west, while Hyco receives Blue 
Wing and Mayo creeks from the east. These make up the principal streams, 
but rainfall during certain portions of the year is very heavy and smaller 
streams are numerous. The larger streams, especially Dan and Eoanoke 
rivers, hold their course regardless of the character of the underlying rocks, 
but the creeks and smaller streams are greatly influenced, if not controlled, 
by it. Eainfall, especially during the winter and spring months, is heavy, 
and for the most part the district is well watered. 

Soil. — The character of the soil depends upon the nature of the under- 
lying rock. The tuffs and other volcanics produce a lean, shallow soil ; the 
granite produces a strong, rather sandy soil; and the other igneous rocks 
break down into a rather sticky but fairly strong soil. Of all the truly 
igneous rocks, the diabase produces the leanest and least desirable soil. 
The volcano-sedimentary rocks — the greenstone and sericite schists — as a 
rule form a lean and shallow soil. Eock outcroppings are not numerous 
except along stream courses, but almost invariably the partially decayed 
rock is very near the surface. Such soil is generally lean and does not 
produce good crops except when heavily fertilized. The granite is in- 
variably deeply decayed, and produces the most fertile soils in the district. 
When properly cared for and well cultivated, the granite soils yield bounti- 
ful crops, and the most prosperous farms in the district are either in the 
rich, alluvial lands along the rivers or in the granite areas. 

Much of the district is still in forest, but the greater part of the good 
timber has been cut off, so that what remains is either culled forest or "old 
field" pine. The original timber consisted largely of oak and other hard- 
woods with a moderate amount of yellow pine. The present timber, while 
for the most part second class and small, is ample for the needs in mining 
and for fuel. 

Climate. — The climate of the Yirgilina district is agreeable and pleasant 
throughout the year. As a rule it is neither excessively hot during the 
summer nor extremely cold during the winter. The mean annual tempera- 
ture is between 55 and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. The winter temperature 
rarely reaches zero, and in summer does not often go above 90 degrees. 
Average yearly precipitation is between 50 and 55 inches and is fairly well 



4 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

distributed throughout the year. There is only a moderate amount of snow, 
which comes during the months of January and February, and a single 
fall rarely lies on the ground more than a few days. It is therefore feasible 
to carry on out-of-door work throughout the whole year with little or no 
loss of time because of inclement weather. The heaviest rainfall comes 
during the early spring months and in the late fall. July and August 
are the driest and hottest months. Early autumn and late spring are 
delightful. 

Culture. — All types and conditions of rural and village life common to 
the Piedmont Plateau are represented in the Virgilina district as included 
in the accompanying map, Plate I. The type of civilization and culture of 
the people of any portion of the district depends largely upon the fertility 
of the soil upon which they live. The rocks in which the ores are deposited 
produce a very lean shallow soil, and, as a consequence, the Virgilina ridge 
is thinly settled, and as a rule the farms are apparently not very prosperous. 
On the other hand, the alluvial bottoms and the granite soils are rich and 
fertile, and the farms located on these soils are well ordered and prosperous. 
Considerable intelligent effort is constantly being put forth to extend and 
improve the country roads, and its results are showing in graded, well-kept 
roads between all the principal towns and villages. More and more at- 
tention is being given to schools and to general social and economic de- 
velopment. The people are industrious, hospitable, and favorable toward 
outside interests that are calculated to in any way develop the district. In 
fact, many places in the district are as attractive and desirable for homes 
as any other places in this beautiful section of the United States. 

The importance of the mining industry varies according to the market 
price of copper. As the mines are located, equipped, and operated it costs 
from 10c to 12c per pound to produce copper, and, as a consequence, when 
the price is low the mines are usually not operated. It is believed that by 
consolidating interests, or by working cooperatively, that the industry 
could be developed until it would at all times be a profitable business. 

PREVIOUS GEOLOGIC WORK. 

The first account of the region in which the Virgilina ore deposits occur 
is found in the writing of Col. William Byrd, a who, as a member of a com- 



° History of the dividing line between Virginia and North Carolina, as run in 
1728-1729 (published from the original manuscript), Richmond, 1866. 

The Westover manuscripts. Containing the history of the dividing line be- 
twixt Virginia and North Carolina. Petersburg, 1841, pp. 1-102. 

The writings of Colonel William Byrd of Westover in Virginia, Esq. (Edited 
by J. E. Bassett), New York, 1901, pp. 1-277. 



PREVIOUS GEOLOGIC WORK. 5 

mission appointed by the states of North Carolina and Virginia to settle 
a boundary line dispute, in 1728-1729, surveyed the boundary line between 
the two states from the coast to the Blue Eidge. A few names of streams 
commemorate the passage of the party through the Virgilina district. 
These are: Aaron's Creek, Blue Wing a (spelled Blewing in Col. Byrd's 
manuscript, and so named by the party because of the presence of great 
numbers of a kind of water fowl called Blewings on the stream) ; Mayo 
Creek, b named for William Mayo, a surveyor in the party ; and Hyco Eiver, 
to which Col. Byrd gave the name which had been applied to the stream 
by the Indians resident in the region, Hicootomony Eiver, meaning Turkey 
Buzzard. 

The account is one of the most readable of its kind ever written, and 
contains many valuable notes on the soil, the climate, the natural resources, 
and the general conditions of the country through which the party passed. 

The earliest record of geological work in the territory, included within 
the accompanying map of the Virgilina district, is by Win. B. Eogers^ in 
his report as State Geologist of Virginia for the year 1840. A part of 
Professor Sogers' work consisted of geological cross-sections at short 
intervals through the state from east to west. One of these sections 
(No. 95 in the plate of cross-sections accompanying the "Geology of the 
Virginias") was made on a line extending through Clarksville and Halifax 
Courthouse and passes through the central part of the district as mapped, 
while another sirriilar cross-section made on a line from Belfield to Char- 
lotte Courthouse passes through the northern part of the district. The 
chloritic and schistose character of the rocks were noted and remarked upon 
by him, and, as shown by notes in MaeFarlane's Eailway Guide, the 
geological data for which were supplied by Professor Eogers, it is clear 
that he regarded the rocks of the Virgilina district as of pre-Cambrian 
(Laurentian) age. 

Of the section passing through Lunenburg, and Charlotte Courthouse, 

he remarks : e 

"The chief peculiarities presented in this line are the increasing 
abundance of the Hornblende slates and the Hornblende Gneiss, the oc- 
currence of Chlorite, associated with numerous bands of quartz towards its 
western termination . . ." 



a Loc. cit., Vol. 1, p. 93. 

6 Loc. cit., Vol. 1, p. 127. 

c Loc. cit., Vol. 1, p. 95. 

d Eogers, Wm. B. : Eeport of the progress of the Geological Survey of the State 
of Virginia for the year 1840. 

Rogers, Wm. B. : A reprint of the annual reports and other papers on the geol- 
ogy of the Virginias. New York, 1884. 

e Geology of the Virginias, p. 481. 



6 



GEOLOGfY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 



Further in the same connection, in regard to the section passing through 
Clarksville and Halifax Courthouse, he says that "the greenish chloritic 
and talcose rocks are largely expanded . . . " 

Nothing was known at this time of the copper deposits in the district, 
unless the traditions in regard to the Barnes mine (see p. 144) are correct. 
It is reasonably certain, since Eogers does not mention the copper ores, 
that no mining or prospecting were in progress at the time of his field work 
in 1839. 

The first published description of the ores of the Virgilina district is a 
short account of the then recently opened Gillis mine, by Ebenezer Emmons, 
State Geologist of North Carolina, in his report on the Midland Counties," 
published in 1856. Emmons visited the district in the early spring of 
1854, and studied the mine in considerable detail. He classified the country 
rock as "an altered slate belonging to the Taconic system." A brief 
description of the vein is given together with a list of both gangue and ore 
minerals. He remarks that the "vitreous copper" (chalcocite) did not 
change with depth to the "yellow sulphuret" (chalcopyrite) as was ex- 
pected. The account closed with a statement that: 

"The indications which the rocks furnish, taken in connection with the 
fact that there are other veins than the one described in this neighborhood, 
are that this part of Person and Granville (counties) will prove a mineral 
district of considerable importance." 

In 1857 Dr. C. T. Jackson made a private report on the Gillis mine and 
the then known copper-bearing district from which Kerr and Hanna 6 make 
the following quotation : 

"The strata are occasionally disrupted by dikes; about half a mile, 
from the Gillis mine, and dipping westward to it, is a dike bearing N. 20 
degrees E., containing abundant sprigs and grains of disseminated native 
copper. Epidote occurs both in the trap rock and in the quartz, and in the 
slate strata near the dike, which seems to indicate that the trappean rock 
is of the same geological age as the quartz veins." 

The present writer visited this so-called dike and examined the inter- 
vening territory between it and the Gillis mine in close detail, and was 
unable to find even an indication of a dike. The rocks referred to as 
carrying native copper are portions of the massive andesite, and are usually, 
if not always, porphyritic and occasionally amygdaloidal. So far as our 
observations have extended, the only dikes at all closely associated with the 



° Emmons, Ebenezer : Geological report of the Midland Counties. North Caro- 
lina Geological Survey. Raleigh, 1856, pp. 344-346. 

6 Kerr, W. C, and Hanna, Geo. B. : The ores of North Carolina : being Chapter 
II of the second volume of the geology of North Carolina, Raleigh, 1893, p. 219. 



PREVIOUS GEOLOGIC WORK. 7 

ore bodies are the diabase dikes described on pages 107 and 133, which bear 
no genetic relation whatsoever to the ores and veins. Such errors as the one 
just quoted were made before the nature of the rocks had been determined, 
and on such grounds are certainly pardonable. 

In 1857 Emmons 0, published his text-book of American geology in which 
he discussed in some detail his "Taconic" rocks of North Carolina, and the 
veins and economic minerals contained in them. He adds little or nothing 
to what was included in his report on the Midland Counties. 

During the Civil War little or no mining was done in the Virgilina 
district, and, so far as the material available to the writer goes, little or 
nothing of importance was published on the geology between the appearance 
of Emmons' report on the Midland Counties, and the publication of Kerr's 
Geology of North Carolina 6 in 1875. Accompanying this report is a 
geologic map of the state which places the Taconic rocks of Emmons in 
what Kerr called the Huronian, or the uppermost division of the Archean 
as defined by him, but nothing is said of the Virgilina district. 

In 1893 there appeared Kerr and Hanna's c description of the ores of 
North Carolina, in which is given a short description of the district as a 
whole, and detailed notes on the mines in operation when the report was 
written. These authors say that the formation immediately enclosing the 
veins is "chloritic slate," thus correcting the statement of Emmons^ that 
the rocks are argillaceous slates. This report gives a geologic map of the 
state on which the Virgilina district is located. 

One of the most important papers bearing on the geology of a region 
similar in some respects to the Virgilina district, the Catoctin belt, was 
published in 1893 by Arthur Keith, e who states that in 1890 he recognized 
the volcanic nature of the schists of Catoctin Mountain and the Blue Eidge. 
This was four years before Williams^ published his paper on the distribution 
of ancient volcanic rocks along the eastern border of North America, and 
two years before he published his article on the volcanic rocks in the 



a Emmons, Ebenezer : American Geology, containing a statement of the prin- 
ciples of the science, with full illustrations of the characteristic American fossils; 
2 Pts. in 1 Vol., 1857. 

b Kerr, W. C. : Report on the Geological Survey of North Carolina, Vol. 1, 
Raleigh, 1875. 

c Kerr, W. C, and Hanna, Geo. B. : The ores of North Carolina: being Chapter 
II of the second volume of the geology of North Carolina, Raleigh 1893, pp. 214-221. 
, d Loc. cit., p. 345. 

e Keith, Arthur : Geology of the Catoctin belt, U. S. Geol. Survey, 14th Ann. 
Rept., Pt. I., 1893, p. 298. 

f Williams, George H. : The distribution of ancient volcanic rocks along the 
eastern border of North America, Jour, of Geol., Vol. 2, 1894, pp. 1-31. 



! 



8 



GEOLOGY AND OEE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 



Catoctin region of Maryland and Virginia. 0, It, therefore, appears to be 
clear that to Arthur Keith must be given the credit for first recognizing 
the true nature of the great group of volcanic rocks along the eastern coast 
of the United States. 

Keith is also the first geologist who recognized in the Catoctin region of 
Virginia, 6 and described in great detail, volcanic rocks similar in some 
respects to the volcanics of the Virgilina district. The sequence of the 
rocks in the Catoctin belt as determined by Keith is the same as in the 
Virgilina district. Other significant close resemblances between the rocks 
of the two localities are that they have approximately the same mineral- 
ogical and chemical composition (see pp. 33 and 34 for chemical analyses of 
the two), and the andesitic volcanics of both districts contain somewhat 
similar granite intrusives. These facts suggest that both are of the same 
age, and that both were deposited under somewhat the same conditions. 

In 1894 Williams^ 7 published his paper on the ancient volcanic rocks of 
the eastern border of North America, which served to call attention to the 
fact that such rocks exist in great quantity along the Atlantic seaboard 
from Nova Scotia to Alabama. He does not mention the volcanics of the 
Virgilina district, but discusses in considerable detail different types of 
volcanic rocks a short distance southwest of the district. This paper is 
one of the most important contributions to the geology of the general region 
in which the Virgilina mining district lies. 

In 1896 there appeared a bulletin of the North Carolina Geological 
Survey by Nitze and Hanna e on the gold ores of the state. They retain 
Kerr's classification of the metamorphic slates, as Huronian, but add con- 
siderable descriptive matter in regard to the rocks. Since the publication 
of Kerr's report some of the rocks making up his Huronian had been recog- 
nized as of volcanic origin. No detailed geologic work had been done in 
the Virgilina district and it is given about a page and a half, for the most 
part a brief summary of the data given in Kerr and Hanna's ores of 
North Carolina. 

In 1899 Phillips^ published a popular account of the mining operations 
then in progress in the Virgilina district, adding very little to the knowl- 



a Am. Geologist, Vol. 8, 1892, p. 366. 

b Loc. cit., pp. 302-318. 

c Loc. cit., opposite p. 312 and p. 318. 

d Williams, George H. : The distribution of ancient volcanic rocks along the 
eastern border of North America, Jour, of Geol., Vol. 2, 1894, pp. 1-31. 

c Nitze, Henry B. C, and Hanna, George B. : Gold Deposits of North Carolina, 
N. C. Geol. Survey, Bulletin No. 3, Winston-Salem, 1896. 

f Phillips, William B. : Copper deposits of North Carolina, American Manufac- 
turer, March 17, 1899; Abstract, Eng. and Min. Jour., Vol. 67, 1899, p. 382. 



PREVIOUS GEOLOGIC WORK. 9 

edge of the geology, beyond the conditions of mining and a partial list of 
the minerals making up the ores. He stated that the "country rock is 
slate, quartzite, etc., and porphyry belonging to the oldest formations, 
probably Laurentian, and in places impregnated with copper-bearing 
material apart from the seams (veins) themselves." He also published a 
similar account in Mineral Industry , a describing in some detail the Hollo- 
way and Blue Wing mines. 

In 1900 Weed 6 published his "Types of copper deposits of the Southern 
United States," and in it gave the first detailed account of the geology of 
the district. Weed, so far as the writer is aware, was the first to recognize 
the true character of the rocks in which the deposits occur. He says, in 
this connection : c 

"The rocks are all of igneous origin — even the softest and most shaly 
show this character in thin sections under the microscope. But in a few 
instances only, is the igneous nature of the schists recognizable to the eye. 
This was observed at the Thomas mine, where a purplish rock is clearly a 
porphyritic meta-andesite. These schists are cut by dikes of later igneous 
rock (diabase). . . Apart from the dikes, however, I would say, on the 
strength of field observations alone, that the rocks are of igneous origin, 
and belong to the various porphyries which have been discovered in the 
Appalachian belt. This conclusion is confirmed by microscopic examination 
of thin sections, which has shown the rocks to be altered andesites, that is, 
meta-andesites and andesite tuffs." 

In addition to this interpretation of the rocks of the district Weed* 7 

describes four types of copper deposits in the Southern United States as 

follows : 

"1. The first type of deposit is that of a true fissure-vein, the quartz 
vein — formed by the filling of open cavities, with only minor and accessory 
replacement of country rock. The Virgilina deposits are representative of 
this type. The ore is glance and bornite. without chalcopyrite or pyrite. 
The veins cross the schists or conform with them. 

"2. The second type is that of auriferous quartz veins common in the 
Appalachians. Although true fissure-veins, they are formed by the replace- 
ment of country rock along sheeting-planes or true fissures, and accompanied 
by the filling of open cavities as a minor and accessory feature. It is named 
from the Gold Hill mines, where such veins have yielded several millions in 
gold. 

"3. The third type is a pyrrhotite-vein — a true fissure-vein the filling 
of which is essentially pyrrhotite or pyrite, almost barren of quartz, and 
represents the replacement of a zone of sheeted rock which was composed 
largely of metamorphic minerals. 



"Mineral Industry, Vol. 7, 1899, p. 211. 

6 Weed, Walter H. : Types of copper deposits in the Southern United States, 
Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng., Vol. 30, 1900, pp. 449-504. 
c Loc. cit., p. 454. 
'' Loc. cit., p. 452. 



10 



GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 



"4. The fourth type comprises local segregations of native copper, 
copper oxides and carbonates along shear zones in altered igneous rocks. 
Such deposits, so far as known, do not extend below the groundwater level 
in depth." 

The deposits of native copper in quartz and epidote, and in the green- 
stone schists without vein matter, are classified by Weed as belonging in 
his fourth or Catoctin 0, type. This paper also gives detailed descriptions 
of the veins and vein structure, and detailed accounts of the different mines 
then in operation (1900), together with methods and costs of operation. 

In 1901 L. N". White,^ who at that time was superintendent of the 
Durgy mine, published a short paper setting forth his ideas of the geology 
of the district together with description of the veins and ores, with a short 
account of the development work. 

In 1902 Watson published an important contribution to the geology 
of the Virgilina district. This paper deals in considerable detail with the 
general geology and in great detail with the petrography of the district, 
and is the first published description of these features. Watson clearly 
recognized the rock types most closely associated with the ore deposits as 
altered andesites and andesitic tuffs. The microscopic and chemical char- 
acters of the rocks are clearly set forth, but little attention is given to the 
ore deposits, so that the paper in a way supplements Weed's* 2 paper pub- 
lished two years before. The two papers taken together give a good and 
accurate account of the geology and ore deposits of the district. 

Watson states his conclusions 6 as follows : 

"1. The rocks of the area here described have been greatly altered 
through pressure and chemical metamorphism, as indicated in the prevailing- 
secondary schistose structure and the abundant development of the secondary 
minerals — chlorite, epidote, and hornblende — and small amounts of others. 
The alteration has advanced sufficiently far in the schistose phases to destroy 
in most cases the original structure and minerals of the rock. 

"2. From structural, petrographic, and chemical evidences the rocks are 
shown to have been derived from an original andesite, but in their present 
much altered state they are, according to present usage, more properly 
designated meta-andesites ; that these are intimately associated with the 
corresponding volcanic elastics. Furthermore, the popular .name greenstone 



"Keith, Arthur: Geology of the Catoctin belt, 14th Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. 
Survey, Pt. 2, p. 309. 

b White, L. N. : The Virgilina copper district, Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 24, 
1901, pp. 635-639. 

"Watson, Thomas L. : Copper-bearing rocks of the Virgilina copper district, 
Virginia and North Carolina, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am, Vol. 13, 1902, pp. 353-376. 

d Weed, W. H. : Types of copper deposits in the Southern United States, Trans. 
Am. Inst. Min. Eng., Vol. 30, 1900, p. 453. 

" Loc. cit., ]>. 376. 






PREVIOUS GEOLOGIC WORK. 11 

applied to many areas of greatly altered massive and schistose rocks along 
the Atlantic Coast and Lake Superior regions, shown to have been derived 
from an original basic eruptive rock type, has equal application to the exist- 
ing rocks of the Virgilina district. 

"3. The rocks are pre-Cambrian in age and represent an area of ancient 
volcanics similar to others described as occurring along the Atlantic Coast 
region from Eastern Canada to Georgia and Alabama and in the Lake 
Superior region. 

"4. The rocks are cut by numerous approximately parallel quartz veins 
which contain workable copper deposits. The veins have been described as 
true fissure veins, and the ore is glance and bornite without chalcopyrite and 
pyrite." 

Early in 1906 Weed and Watson* published a paper on the copper 
deposits of Virginia, several pages of which are devoted to the geology and 
ore deposits of the Virgilina district. It consists largely of restatements 
of data published by the authors in previous papers 6 with notes concerning 
development work in the district up to the date of publication. They 
describe in some detail the rocks, veins, and ores, the greatest stress being 
laid upon the rocks of the area, which are correctly identified as andesites 
and andesitic tuffs. The following conclusions in regard to the rocks of 
the district are stated : 

"1. The rocks have been greatly altered from pressure and chemical 
metamorphism, as indicated by the prevailing schistose structure, and the 
large development of secondary minerals, chlorite, epidote, and hornblende; 
and smaller amounts of others. The alteration has advanced sufficiently 
far in the more schistose phase to destroy, in most cases, the original 
structure and minerals of the rock. 

"2. From structural, petrographic, and chemical evidence, it is shown 
that the rocks are derived from an original andesite. The altered andesite 
is intimately associated with the corresponding volcanic clastic. The name 
greenstone is applicable to the altered andesite of the district because of the 
abundant development of chlorite in it which imparts a somewhat distinctive 
green color. 

"3. The rocks are pre-Cambrian in age and represent an area of ancient 
volcanics similar to others described from numerous localities along the 
Atlantic Coast region from eastern Canada to Georgia and Alabama." 

Late in 1906, Watson published on the general geologic character and 
mode of occurrence of the copper ores in the Virginia areas, with notes 
on past production. The principal point of interest in this publication 



a Weed, W. H., and Watson, T. L. : The Virginia copper deposits, Economic 
Geology, Vol. 1, 1906, pp. 309-330. 

6 Weed, W. H. : Types of copper deposits in the Southern United States, Trans. 
Am. Inst. Min. Eng., Vol. 30, 1900, pp. 449-504. 

Watson, T. L. : Copper-bearing rocks of Virgilina copper district, Virginia 
and North Carolina, Bull., Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. 13, 1902, pp. 353-376. 

c Watson, Thomas L. : The Copper Deposits of Virginia, Eng. and Min. Journ.. 
Nov. 3, 1906, pp. 824-826. Map and figure. 






12 GEOLOGY AND OKE DEPOSITS OF THE VIKGILINA DISTRICT. 

is that the geology of the ores and associated rocks of the Keysville area 
in Charlotte County, which represents the northern extension of the Vir- 
gilina district, were described for the first time, and their identity with 
those of the Virgilina district farther south was pointed out. 

In 1906 Judd 0, published a short illustrated article on the Virgilina 
district, dealing in a popular way with the development of the district, and 
included short descriptions of the principal mines, and a few general notes 
on the geology of the district. Beyond bringing the account of the develop- 
ment of the district up to the date of publication, the article adds little to 
the geology that was not already known. 

In 1907 Watson & again published an account of the Virgilina district, 
summarizing what he had previously published in the different articles 
herein listed, together with additional notes on the development work. 

In 1907, Weed c included a brief summary of the geology of the copper 
deposits of the Virgilina district in his book entitled "The Copper Mines 
of the World". 

In the early fall of 1908 the North Carolina Geological Survey pub- 
lished a preliminary outcrop and tentative geologic map of the North 
Carolina portion of the Virgilina district by Laney and Pogue.^ This is 
a traverse map on which the geology and veins and mines were shown. The 
work has since been revised and corrected, and the map and all the data 
shown on it are incorporated in the present report. 

In 1910 the writer e published a report on the geology and ore deposits 
of the Gold Hill district, a district lying about 150 miles southwest of the 
Virgilina district, which in part includes ore deposits and rocks similar in 
all respects to those of the Virgilina district. The two districts resemble 
each other in that their most important rocks are of volcano-sedimentary 
origin, which were first highly metamorphosed and rendered largely 
schistose, and then, later, intruded by large bodies of igneous rock, granite, 
diorite, and gabbro. Most of the volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Gold 



a Judd, Edward K. : The Virgilina copper belt, Eng. and Min. Jour., Vol. 82, 
1906. pp. 1005-1008. 

b Watson, Thomas L. : Mineral resources of Virginia, Lynchburg, 1907, pp. 
494-500. 

c Weed, Walter Harvey: The Copper Mines of the World, Hill Publishing Co., 
N. Y., 1907, 375 pp. Illustrated. (For Virgilina district in Virginia and North 
Carolina, see pp. 270-272.) 

d Laney, F. B., and Pogue, J. E., Jr. : An outcrop map of the Virgilina copper 
district, N. C, N. C. Geol. and Economic Survey, 1908. 

e Laney, F. B. : The Gold Hill Mining district of North Carolina, N. C. Geol. 
Survey, Bull. No. 21. Raleigh, 1910. 



PREVIOUS GEOLOGIC WORK. 13 

Hill district are rhyolitic or dacitic in character. There is, however, a 
fair-sized area of greenstone, massive and schistose, porphyritic and tuff- 
aceous, and of basaltic or andesitic character which is very similar to the 
greenstone schists of the Virgilina district. It carries small deposits of 
copper ores similar in all respects to the Virgilina ore deposits. 

Following the Gold Hill report there appeared in the same year (1910) 
a report of the Cid mining district of Davidson County, North Carolina, 
by Pogue. a This district adjoins the Gold Hill district on the northeast, 
and contains similar volcano-sedimentary rocks, except the greenstone. 
The geology of the district is summarized as follows : 

"Wide bands of a sedimentary, slate-like rock, composed of varying ad- 
mixtures of volcanic ash and land waste, have the greatest areal extent. 
Intercalated with these occur strips and lenses of acid and basic volcanic 
rocks, represented by fine- and coarse-grained volcanic ejecta and old lava 
flows. The acid rocks include fine tuffs, coarse tuffs, and breccias, chiefly of 
a rhyolitic and dacitic character; together with flows of rhyolite and dacite. 
The basic series embraces fine tuffs, coarse tuffs, breccias, and flows of an 
andesitic and trachy-andesitic stamp. Gabbro and diabase dikes cut the other 
formations. 

"The region has suffered a period cf severe dynamic matamorphism or 
mashing, consequent upon a great compressive force which squeezed the beds 
into enormous folds; followed by a time of chemical alteration and mineral- 
ization; which in turn was succeeded by a long period of erosion and 
weathering. The rocks have suffered to a variable degree from all these 
factors. In general, each formation has a massive and a mashed or 
schistose phase, with every gradation between the two. . . Finally, 
erosion has planed off all the upper portion of the folded series; but weather- 
ing has prpceeded in excess of erosion to such an extent that the region is 
now deeply decayed, so that only here and there the rocks project through 
a thick mantle of decomposed rock or soil." 

In 1911 the writer 5 published an account of a detailed microscopic 
study of the ores of the Virgilina district with a few general statements 
in regard to the geology. In this paper it was shown by photomicrographs 
of polished sections of the ores that the chalcocite is of two periods of 
deposition, one later than the bornite and derived from it, and one inti- 
mately intergrown Avith and believed to have been deposited contempo- 
raneously with the bornite, which was believed to be of only one period of 
deposition. The general conclusions as stated in the paper are as follows : 



a Pogue, Joseph E.: The Cid Mining district of Davidson County, North Caro- 
lina, N. C. Geol. Survey, Bull. No. 22. Raleigh. 1910. 

6 Laney, F. B. : The relation of bornite and chalcocite in the copper ores of the 
Virgilina district of North Carolina and Virginia, Proc. U. S. Nat'l Museum, Vol. 
40, 1911, pp. 413-424. 

Laney, F. B. : The relation of bornite and chalcocite in the copper ores of the 
Virgilina district of North Carolina and Virginia. Economic Geology, Vol. 6, 1911, 
pp. 399-411. 



14 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGIL1NA DISTRICT. 

"The rocks of the Virgilina district are greenstone and sericitic schists, 
which in places have been intruded by granite and gabbro. The intrusive 
rocks show none of the schistosity of the other rocks. The schists have been 
derived from a series of volcano-sedimentary rocks of two types — andesite 
and quartz porphyry, with a preponderating amount of tuffs corresponding 
to these rock types. Their age is probably early Paleozoic. 

"The veins are true fissure veins which have a more northerly trend than 
the schistosity of the country rock, and the filling of which is quartz — about 
70 per cent silica — with local and varying amounts of epidote and calcite. 
The ore-bearing veins are confined to the more basic portions of the green- 
stone schists, and the values lie in well-defined ore shoots. 

"The ore minerals are bornite and chalcocite. They apparently prefer 
the quartz, but are not confined to any one of the gangue minerals. Bornite 
is present in slight excess over chalcocite, and is apparently of only one 
period of deposition. Chalcocite is clearly of two periods: One confined 
to the upper portions of the veins, more recent than, and filling a network 
of minute fractures in, the bornite; the other contemporaneous and inter- 
grown often crystallographically with it. There is no evidence that any of 
the bornite is of secondary origin. It is, therefore, believed that in the 
Virgilina district the greater part of the chalcocite is a primary mineral 
contemporaneous with the bornite and in no way derived from it, or from 
any other copper-bearing mineral, by processes of secondary alteration." 

In 1911, Weed a published a rather detailed description of the geologic 
character and mode of occurrence of the ores and associated rocks of the 
Virgilina district in Virginia and North Carolina. Individual description 
was given of the principal mines, accompanied by many drawings as text- 
figures illustrating special features of the veins and ores. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ROCKS. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The Virgilina district lies wholly within the Piedmont Plateau and like 
that physiographic province is made up almost wholly of igneous and highly 
metamorphosed rocks. They include ancient metamorphic gneisses and 
schists the origin of which is unknown ; a series of volcanic rocks of both 
acid and basic types and volcanic elastics of each type, together with much 
volcano-sedimentary material ; intrusive rocks of both basic and acid types, 
such as gabbro, diorite, granite, and syenite; a small area of red or brown 
sandstone of Triassic-Newark age; and different types of dike rocks, 
especially diabase. Except the intrusives, the sandstone and the dikes, 
the rocks are all highly schistose and gneissoicl in texture, the meta- 
morphism having been so extensive in most cases that little of the original 



a Weed, Walter Harvey : Copper Deposits of the Appalachian States, Bull. 455, 
U. S. Geol. Survey, 1911, 166 pp.. 5 plates and 22 text-figures. (For the Virgilina 
district, see pp. 67-89.) 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ROCKS. 15 

structure and texture and few of the original minerals of the rocks remain. 
The acid volcanics originally were rhyolite or quartz porphyry and rhyolitic 
tuffs, but in their present condition are largely sericitic schists which may 
or may not show more than remnants of their original minerals and texture. 
In this report these rocks are described under the name Hyco quartz 
porphyry. The basic volcanics, for which the name Yirgilina greenstone is 
proposed, were originally andesite and andesitic tuffs, but have become 
through intense metamorphism chlorite-epidote schists or simply greenstone 
schists. These for the most part retain something of their original 
minerals. The greenstone schists are more closely associated with the ore 
deposits than any other rocks in the district. In fact, so far as exploration 
has extended, the productive veins in the district are confined to these 
rocks. The rocks referred to as of volcano-sedimentary origin consisted 
originally of andesitic ash and tuff with which varying amounts of land 
waste were intermixed at the time of deposition, which probably took place 
under water. It appears that conditions were extremely variable at the 
time of their deposition, and that during some periods volcanic material 
predominated, and at others terrigenous material was most abundant. Thus 
some beds or bands of the rock consist almost wholly of volcanic material, 
while others are made up largely of land waste, while in much of it the 
two are about evenly mixed. Thus, on the one hand, these rocks may be 
fairly pure greenstone, and, on the other, fairly pure sandstone and con- 
glomerate together with many beds made up of the two types of material 
in varying proportion. Like the other volcanics these rocks, which were 
called "sandy tuffs" during the field work, have been highly metamorphosed 
and are now gray, and greenish-gray, sandy schists with more or less of 
their original texture and minerals remaining. Some narrow bands are 
fairly pure conglomerate, some are largely argillaceous sandstone, others 
are fairly pure greenstone, but the greater part of the formation is made 
up of different amounts of each. The name Aaron slate has been proposed 
for these rocks. 

The intrusive rocks, while they are deeply weathered and broken by 
joints, and have suffered more or less chemical metamorphism, are massive ; 
that is, they show little or no schistosity. Of the intrusives, the gabbro, 
while it shows little or no schistosity, has suffered the greatest amount of 
alteration, which has been chemical rather than dynamic, and has to a great 
extent destroyed the original minerals of the rock. 

The red and brown Triassic sandstones and conglomerates are much 
jointed and weathered. These rocks contain much shaly material, and 



16 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

consequently are easily affected by the agencies of weathering. Aside from 
these alterations they are fresh and show no effects of metamorphism. 
This sandstone occupies only a small portion of the area — merely a patch 
along the west central portion of the district near the town of Scottsburg, 
and is of little importance so far as the general geology of the district is 
concerned. 

The dikes, almost wholly of diabase, and of Triassic age, are widely 
distributed throughout the district, are always small, and are of little im- 
portance in the geology of the district. They are all deeply weathered, 
and, as a rule, have no surface outcrops except small rounded boulders 
scattered here and there on the surface along the trend of the dike. In 
the Blue Wing and also in the Durgy mine a dike was encountered in the 
development work. In the Blue Wing mine the dike intersects the vein. 
In neither case has the dike had any influence upon the ore, and their 
occurrence together in the two instances is wholly accidental. 

The rocks will now be considered in greater detail, beginning with the 
oldest formations represented in the district, the biotite and the hornblende 
gneisses and schists. It might be well to state here that this report has to 
do primarily with the economic features of the district — the ore deposits — 
and that the writer believes it not best to burden it with too much detailed 
petrographic description. In this chapter, as in the report as a whole, he 
will endeavor to give only the most important features of the rocks and 
such details as appear to be necessary to a thorough understanding of the 
economic features of the district. While a detailed study of the rocks from 
a petrographic standpoint is, from the viewpoint of pure science, very 
desirable, the writer believes it would detract from rather than add to the 
usefulness and interest of a purely economic report. The practical mining 
engineer, the investor, and the mining public in general are much more 
interested in the facts closely related to the ore deposits and such con- 
siderations as their distribution, their relation to the rocks in which they 
occur, their continuation in depth, their mineralogy, and other practical 
factors, than in petrographic details. The rocks making up the ore-bearing 
horizon, the veins, the ores, and the structure so far as it -may be of im- 
portance in studying, developing, and locating ore deposits, are therefore 
discussed in considerable detail, while many other factors of equal scientific 
interest are treated only in a general way. 






GNEISSOID ROCKS. 17 

GNEISSOID ROCKS. 

Mica Gneiss. 

The oldest geological formation in the Virgilina district is a mica gneiss 
or mica schist, a narrow strip of which is included along the western side 
of the district as shown on the accompanying geologic map, Plate I. This 
formation has a wide distribution west, southwest, and northwest of the 
district, and, in fact, is one of the most important geological formations of 
the Piedmont Plateau. In general characteristics it closely resembles the 
Carolina gneiss of Keith,* a formation of wide distribution in central and 
western North Carolina and South Carolina. 

The rock consists of fine to coarse mica gneiss, mica schist, and fine 
granitoid layers. In places it contains veins and lenses of pegmatitic 
material varying in width from less than an inch to more than a foot. 
These usually lie parallel with the schistosity, but in some instances cross 
it. Quartz veins of similar distribution are not uncommon. It is indeed 
believed to be the same rock described by Keith and others as Carolina 
gneiss. In fact Keith's description of the Carolina gneiss of the Wash- 
ington, D. C, folio is so characteristic of the mica gneiss of the Yirgilina 
district that it might have been written with the Yirgilina rock in mind. 
He says : 6 

"The formation is composed of alternating layers of gneiss and schist 
of a prevailingly gray color, dark bluish gray where fresh and greenish or 
yellowish gray where weathered. Individual bands vary from a few inches 
up to several feet in thickness, with an average of perhaps less than a foot. 
Both kinds of layers are highly siliceous, and are composed mainly of quartz, 
orthoclase, and plagioclase fieldspar, muscovite and biotite. In places the 
rock contains numerous small crystals of garnet. Quartz and mica pre- 
dominate in the mica-schist, and quartz and feldspar in the mica-gneiss, 
some of the latter having the aspect of a fine granite. Certain layers of the 
gneiss are to be seen in which the quartz and feldspar bodies have the ap- 
pearance of sedimentary pebbles, a resemblance which is probably deceptive. 
These individuals are usually round; occasionally, however, they are 
flattened into "eyes." They seldom have a diameter greater than one-fourth 
of an inch. The original nature of the gneiss, whether igneous or sedi- 
mentary, is quite unknown. The thickness of the formation can not be de- 
termined in any way because there are no distinctive beds, but judging from 
the large area which the formation covers, its thickness is doubtless many 
thousands of feet." 

The rock is deeply weathered; in fact, no natural outcrops were found 
except along stream courses. Typical exposures of this rock as well as of 
the hornblende gneiss may be seen along the Southern Eailway near 



° U. S. Geol. Survey, Geologic Atlas of the United States, No. 70 Washington 
folio, 1901. 

6 Loc. cit., p. 2. 



fiorth Carolina State Library 
Raleigh 



18 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

Denniston Junction. The soils produced from this rock are usually light, 
somewhat clayey, and red or reddish-brown in color. 

Hornblende Gneiss. 

Occurring in intimate association with the mica gneiss are narrow and 
irregular areas and dike-like bands of hornblende gneiss. This rock tallies 
very closely in texture, composition, and in mode of occurrence with the 
Roan gneiss of Keith.® In fact his descriptions of the Roan gneiss, so far 
as texture and composition go, are equally applicable to the hornblende 
gneiss of the Virgilina district. The color is usually a greenish-black, but 
in some instances is considerably lightened by a greater amount of white 
material, for the most part plagioclase feldspar, but with varying quantities 
of quartz. It is a well-defined gneiss, consisting of alternating bands of 
hornblende and the light-colored minerals just mentioned. The texture 
of the rock varies considerably, but it is usually of medium grain. There 
is no way of determining its age or its original condition. It is believed, 
however, to be younger than the mica gneiss and intrusive into it. As 
compared with the mica gneiss it has a small distribution, and is not found 
in any other formation in the district. Like the mica gneiss it is deeply 
weathered, and natural outcrops are rare. 



VOLCANO-SEDIMfcNTAHY ROCKS. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The rocks designated as of volcano-sedimentary origin are by far the 
most important formations in the Virgilina district, and make up at least 
three-fourths of its areal extent. Under this group are placed both the 
acid and basic flows and tuffs, and the water-laid tuffs and slates. They 
occur as narrow belts or bands with fairly regular outline, and extend the 
whole length of the district. They, especially the basic (andesitic) flows 
and tuffs, are the most resistant rocks of the region, and form the most 
prominent elevations in the district, the Virgilina ridge, and also constitute 
the ore-bearing horizon. The geologic relation of these rocks to the under- 
lying schists and gneisses is not definitely known. They are believed to 
rest unconformably upon the gneisses and schists, although it is possible 
that they were brought in by faulting. However, if such faulting exists, no 



a U. S. Geol. Survey, Geologic Atlas of the United States, No. 90 Cranberrv 
folio, 1903. 



VOLCANO-SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. 



19 



evidence of it was detected. For convenience of description the formations 
will be treated under the following formation names : the Hyco quartz 
porphyry, the Aaron slate, the Virgilina greenstone, and the Goshen schist. 

The Hyco quartz porphyry consists largely of quartz-sericite schist, 
which represents a mashed and otherwise metamorphosed quartz porphyry 
or rhyolite, and which was tuffaceous in certain areas. The formation ap- 
pears to be the oldest of the volcanic rocks, at least its areal distribution 
indicates that it underlies the other volcanics. It occurs as a narrow belt 
on each side of the district as shown on the accompanying map, Plate I. 
Its largest and most typical exposures occur along Hyco Biver, from which 
it is named. 

The name Aaron slate has been applied to a slate-like rock formed by 
mixtures of varying amounts of andesitic volcanic ash and ordinary land 
waste, which through pressure and other agents of metamorphism , have 
been changed or altered into a kind of hybrid slate — in some places into a 
schist. It varies from nearly pure greenstone to fairly pure argillaceous 
sandstone and slate, and in certain places is decidedly conglomeratic. It is 
realized that the rock is by no means a normal slate, and the term slate 
was applied to it only after much hesitation and many vain attempts to 
find a better name. It is the formation immediately overlying the Hyco 
quartz porphyry, and, like it, is exposed in long narrow bands on each side 
of the district. It is well exposed in many places along Aaron's Creek, 
from which the name is taken. 

The name Virgilina greenstone has been given to the schistose green- 
stone in which all the developed ore deposits are located and which forms 
the Virgilina ridge. It is the altered equivalent of andesitic flows and 
tuffs and, while always more or less schistose, is, in some places, decidedly 
porphyritic and in others plainly tuffaceous. It occurs as long and narrow 
bands which make up the backbone, as it were, of the district. The rock 
occurs in typical development in and near the town of Virgilina, whence 
the name. 

The term Goshen schist is applied to a highly schistose acid tuff, prob- 
ably a tuffaceous phase of the Hyco quartz porphyry. In most places it is 
so highly altered that little or nothing of its original structure and texture 
is discernible. Its manner of occurrence and its relations to the adjacent 
formations strongly suggest that it is the same as the Hyco quartz porphyry, 
only much more tuffaceous. It is so named because of its typical occurrence 
in the southeastern part of the district in the vicinity of Goshen. 



20 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRG1LINA DISTRICT. 

Hyco Quartz Porphyry. 

Occurrence. — The Hyco quartz porphyry or rhyolite lies unconformably 
above the mica gneiss and the hornblende gneiss, and occurs as a narrow- 
band on each side of the Virgilina district as shown on the accompanying- 
geologic map, Plate I. In a few localities the rhyolite is apparently lack- 
ing. In two places, one in the extreme southwest corner of the district, 
and the other a short distance southwest of the confluence of Dan and 
Eoanoke rivers, the formation is cut out for a short distance by the Redoak 
granite. It is also apparently missing for a short distance along the western 
side of the district near the town of Clover. In the extreme southeast 
portion of the area the place of the rhyolite is apparently taken by the 
Goshen schist, which probably represents the highly metamorphosed tuff- 
aceous phase of the quartz porphyry. 

The largest area of the formation is found on the west side of the 
district along Hyco Eiver. At this place it attains its greatest width 
as well as its most typical development. In some places there occur quartz 
veins apparently similar to those in the Virgilina greenstone, but almost 
invariably without ore, or, if not wholly barren, carrying only a trace of 
valuable metal. 

Macroscopic description. — It must be bome in mind that, while this 
rock is described as a quartz porphyry or rhyolite, the name applies more 
appropriately to its original than to its present condition. If one regarded 
only the present texture of the rock, he would call it a sericitic schist, which 
in fact the rock really is. Since much of the formation retains enough 
of its original texture and minerals to enable one to recognize it as a quartz 
porphyry, it was decided to describe it under that name. 

While the Hyco quartz porphyry is, in all instances, decidedly schistose, 
there is usually, except in the decidedly tuffaceous phases, and in some 
cases even in these, enough of the original texture of the rock remaining 
to enable one to identify it with the unaided eye with a considerable degree 
of accuracy. It occurs in two phases, one of medium texture and decidedly 
porphyritic, with phenocrysts of both quartz and feldspar, and the other 
plainly tuffaceous or fragmental. While much of the rock is tuffaceous 
and so highly metamorphosed that its original texture has been more or 
less completely destroyed, the greater part is to a considerable degree 
massive and is clearly porphyritic. The strike of the schistosity as well as 
its dip is similar to that of the other schistose rocks of the district, and 
varies from N". 10 degrees to 1ST. 40 degrees east. The dip so far as was 
observed is always toward the southeast from 70 to 80 degrees. 



HYCO QUARTZ PORPHYRY. 



21 



The color of the rock is usually light gray, that of the porphyritic 
phase always so, while the tuffaceous phase varies from light gray to 
purplish-gray, the color being due to iron oxides. About all that can be 
learned with the unaided eye in regard to the rock's texture and min- 
eralogical composition is that it is usually highly schistose, has a dense 
light gray or nearly white matrix in which are numerous phenocrysts, 
mashed out into lens shapes, of feldspar and quartz. Sericite, recognizable 
because of its pearly luster, coats the surfaces of the fragments of the more 
highly schistose phases. In the tuffaceous phases the fragments are mashed 
and smeared out, but are easily recognized, especially when a cleavage 
surface of the rock is examined. On such a surface the fragments show as 
irregular blotches or spots of varying color. 

Few, indeed almost no, natural outcrops of this formation were seen. 
The rock seldom outcrops at all except in and along streams, and in road 
and other artificial cuttings. 

Microscopic description. — In thin section, under the microscope the fol- 
lowing minerals are recognizable: Quartz, orthoclase, plagioclase varying 
from albite to oligoclase-andesine, hematite, and sericite in large amount. 
The phenocrysts are frequently fragmental, and the quartz usually shows 
resorption embayments. These are irregularly distributed throughout a 
dense, usually cryptocrystalline groundmass of quartz and feldspar in 
individuals so small that the microscope all but fails — in some instances 
does fail — to resolye it. The alteration products of the rock usually contain 
much sericite, which is readily distinguishable by its high polarization 
colors. The feldspar phenocrysts are all much altered, but they are usually 
fresh enough for identification. Quartz phenocrysts were not found in all 
specimens of even the most massive phases of the rock. When they occur 
at all, they are usually in anhedral forms, occasionally as well-defined 
crystals, and rarely as fragments, and show well-formed resorption embay- 
ments filled with groundmass material. The feldspars, both orthoclase and 
plagioclase, occur in short, stocky prisms. They often show twinning and 
in rare instances zonal development. They are often fragmental and in 
most instances so badly altered that identification is by no means an easy 
matter. Sericite is always present in large amount and at times is the 
most prominent mineral in the rock. All phenocrysts show the effects of 
mashing in that they are more or less in the form of lenses or "eyes/' and 
they usually show typical undulatory extinction. 

A few minor accessory minerals, such as zircon, apatite, hematite, etc., 
are present, but in such small amount that they are unimportant. 



22 



GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 



Chemical composition. — A specimen of the typical porphyritic quartz 
porphyry was selected for chemical analysis and gave the results in I in 
the following table. Numbers II to V, inclusive, are analyses of some- 
what similar rocks from localities to the north of the Virgilina district in 
Pennsylvania and Maryland and to the southwest in Davidson County, 
North Carolina, and are included for comparison. It is clear from the 
analyses that the rocks are all closely related, the principal differences being 
in the lime and alkali content and minor variations in the amount of 
silica. Analysis V is of a sericite schist from South Mountain, Pennsyl- 
vania, and is almost a duplicate of the analysis of the Virgilina quartz 
porphyry. Both rocks have suffered a high degree of metamorphism. It is 
believed that, during the alteration from a rhyolite to a sericite schist,. the 
greater part of the Na 2 might be removed while the K 2 uniting with 
other elements to form sericite would remain. It is perfectly clear from 
the analyses that the rocks are all similar, and that if one is a quartz 
porphyry all are quartz porphyries. 

Analyses of quartz porphyry. 





I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


SiO, 


77.78 

12.78 

2.09 

0.31 

0.77 

0.24 

0.54 

3.63 

0.06) 

1.60] 

0.28 

0.66 

Trace 

Trace 


74.67 

10.78 

1.25 

2.11 
Trace 
1.47 
5.31 
2.68 

0.59 
1.30 


73.62 
12.22 
2.08 
4.03 
0.26 
0.34 
3.57 
2.57 

0.40 


76.34 

11.60 
2.41 ] 
0.30 f 
0.06 
0.55 
5.50 
2.75 
0.10} 
0.39 f 
0.26 

Trace 

Trace 

Trace 


73.45 


ALOo 


13.77 


Fe 2 0, 




FeO 


2.76 


MgO 


1.22 


CaO 


None 


Na,0 


0.18 


K,0 


4.47 


H,0— 




H 2 0+ 


3.08 


TiO, 


0.21 


P,0 5 


0:03 


MnO 




C0 2 










100.74 


100.16 


99.09 


100.26 


99.17 



II. 



III. 



IV. 



V. 



Typical quartz porphyry, Blue Wing Creek, 3 miles north of Christie, Va. 

Wm. M. Thornton, Jr., Analyst. 
Rhyolite from Flat Swamp Mountain, Davidson County, North Carolina. 

J. E. Pogue, Analyst, Bull. No. 22 N. C. Geological Survey, 1910, p. 54. 
Devitrified rhyolite from South Mountain, Pa. C. H. Henderson, Analyst, 

Williams, G. H., The volcanic rocks of South Mountain in Pennsylvania 

and Maryland. Am. Jour. Sci., Vol. 44, 1892, p. 493. 
Aporhyolite, Monterey, Berks County, Pa. H. N. Stokes, Analyst, U. S. Geol. 

Survey, Bull. 150, p. 343, Florence Bascom. 
Sericite schist, Pine Grove Furnace, South Mountain, Pa. W. T. Schaller, 

Analyst, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 419, p. 30. : j ■•^ 






GOSHEN SCHIST. 23 

Weathering and soil. — Except in localities, such as along stream courses, 
where erosion is exceptionally active the quartz porphyry weathers some- 
what, but very little faster than the debris is removed by erosion. Hence, 
aside from such localities, and in road and other artificial cuttings, the rock 
is almost invariably covered with shallow soil. Along streams it forms 
rather rugged bluffs of dirty gray color. The soil is usually thin, lean, 
sandy, and not very productive unless heavily fertilized. 

Goshen Schist. 

General description. — The term Goshen schist is used to designate a 
highly schistose, clastic, acid rock, probably of volcanic origin which is 
extensively developed in the southeastern portion of the Virgilina district 
in the vicinity of Goshen. Microscopic examination of thin sections of the 
rock renders it reasonably certain that it is the metamorphosed equivalent 
of an acid tuff. It is, therefore, not at all improbable that it represents a 
very highly metamorphosed area of the tuffaceous phase of the Hyco quartz 
porphyry, and that it should be included with this formation. If such is 
the case, the most careful search failed to find any conclusive proof of it, 
and, until proof is found, it is thought best to keep the two formations 
separate. 

In the hand specimen this rock presents a very fine-grained texture, 
has a light gray color, and is decidedly schistose.' No phenocrysts are dis- 
cernible, and the lack of noteworthy features, excepting the smearecl-out 
fragments, is probably its most important characteristic. The fragments 
are best seen on a cleavage surface, upon which they are mashed out almost 
to a paper-thin condition, and each fragment has a slightly different color 
from the mass of the rock and the adjacent fragments. 

In its present condition the Goshen schist is a well-defined sericite schist, 
and does not show even a vestige of the original texture or minerals of the 
rock. In this respect it differs very much from the Hyco quartz porphyry, 
which always presents something of its original characteristics. The micro- 
scope, while failing to reveal the texture and minerals of the original rock, 
does very clearly show that it was a rhyolitic tuff. It is light gray or almost 
white in color, very dense, and fine-grained except where the schistosity and 
secondary minerals have changed the texture, and is highly schistose. It 
weathers into a light-colored or ashy soil of no great degree of fertility, 
very much like the soil of the Hyco quartz porphyry. So far as is known 
no ore deposits of any kind occur in the rock, hence a detailed microscopic 



24 GEOLOGY AND OKE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

and chemical examination was not made. The distribution of the formation 
is shown on the accompanying geologic map, Plate I. 

Aaron Slate. 

Occurrence. — The Aaron slate has an areal extent almost if not quite 
three times as great as any other member of the Virgilina series, and as 
regards distribution it is the most important formation in the district. It 
occurs as the other formations of the district in long narrow bands, the 
largest of which extend the whole length of the district, except where they 
are cut out by the Eedoak granite. The rock is found in typical develop- 
ment on each side of the Virgilina greenstone which forms the Virgilina 
ridge. Its greatest development is in the southern portion of the district 
along a line from Mill Creek on the west side of the district to Adcock's 
store on the east. Its least development is in the northern portion of the 
area near Keysville. Between the Pannebaker prospects southwest of 
Virgilina and the Pontiac mine, a narrow lens of Aaron slate occurs in the 
Virgilina greenstone, while to the south is a single point and to the north 
from this included area are two points or tongues of the slate extending 
into the greenstone. Also about one mile east of St. Matthew's Church a 
narrow lens of the slate is enclosed in the Goshen tuff. Its distribution is 
shown on the accompanying geologic map (PI. I), to which the reader is 
referred for details. 

Macroscopic description. — Much hesitancy was felt by the writer in call- 
ing this formation a slate, and indeed during all the field work it was desig- 
nated as "sandy tuff," but it is believed that the name slate is more suitable 
than the term sandy tuff. According to strict usage the formation is 
neither a tuff nor a slate, but a kind of compromise between the two. While 
there is much variation in texture and composition, the formation in the 
main appears to be made up of varying proportions of volcanic debris — ash 
and small fragments of an andesitic nature — and land waste, which varied 
from mud through fairly pure quartz sand to small pebbles. That is, the 
formation was originally built up of such material. 

Like the other members of the Virgilina series of volcanic rocks it has 
suffered intense dynamic and chemical metamorphism, and, in its present 
condition it is for the most part a more or less sandy chloritic slate, vary- 
ing, however, from nearly pure sandstone and conglomerate to nearly pure 
greenstone similar in all respects to and not distinguishable from the 
Virgilina greenstone. The purest sandstone found in the formation is 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE II. 



» ! 




(A) Outcrop of Aaron slate, showing- alternating bands of nearly pure sandstone 
and slate. The dip is toward the southeast. Railroad cut three-fourths mile 
west of Vi rail in a. 




B) Typical outcrop of Virgilina greenstone (tuffaceous phase). A short distance 
west of wagon road, two miles southwest of Virgilina. 



AARON SLATE. 



25 



exposed in a cut west of the town of Virgilina. At this place the beds of 
nearly pure sandstone are separated from each other by thin partings of 
slate. The dip and strike of the beds are shown better at this place than 
at any other known locality in the district. This exposure is shown in 
Plate II (A). 

The conglomeratic beds are well shown at many places along Blue Wing 
and Aaron creeks. The most typical conglomerate, and also that contain- 
ing the largest pebbles, occurs in a small cut on the Southern Kailway 
about one-fourth of a mile west of the trestle over Blue Wing Creek. The 
conglomeratic beds, which are badly mashed and highly schistose at this 
place, can be easily traced for considerable distances both northeast and 
southwest of the railroad. In this bed pebbles 3 inches in diameter are 
common, and some 6 inches in diameter are occasionally found. The 
matrix is apparently fine sand with only a minimum amount of volcanic 
material. Farther northeast along Blue Wing Creek many narrow con- 
glomeratic beds consisting of small rounded quartz pebbles in a sandy 
chloritic matrix are exposed. East of Virgilina about three-fourths of a 
mile the conglomeratic beds are again exposed in the public road just east 
of Wolfpen Branch. The quartz pebbles are small, rarely an inch in 
diameter in these beds, and the matrix is the usual sandy, chloritic 
material. This conglomeratic horizon, believed to be the same as that along 
Blue Wing Creek and to have been brought to the surface again by folding 
and erosion, can 'easily be traced for some distance along the strike of the 
beds in both directions from the exposure in the wagon road. 

In the hand specimen, with the unaided eye, one may readily distinguish 
the true character of this rock. The metamorphism has not been intense 
enough to destroy the sand grains, and they can always be recognized in 
the argillaceous and chloritic matrix. The color of the rock depends upon 
its composition. When it is made up largely of quartz sand, the color is 
gray, and with increase of argillaceous and chloritic material becomes darker 
and greener. In natural outcrops the color is usually a dirty, greenish- 
gray, almost the same as that of the lichens which cover its surface. 

Microscopic description. — The microscope reveals little of importance in 
regard to this rock that was not evident in a careful examination with the 
unaided eye. Quartz, chlorite, epidote, zoisite, black ores, especially hema- 
tite, sericite, calcite, occasionally a grain of feldspar, and much fine clay- 
like material make up about all the minerals revealed by the microscope. 
The minerals present in any section as well as the proportions in which 



26 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

they occur always depend upon the nature of the rock. If it contains much 
volcanic debris it will approach the Virgilina greenstone in mineralogical 
composition, and will contain much chlorite and more or less green horn- 
blende, much epidote and zoisite, with a small amount of quartz and vary- 
ing amounts of calcite. If, on the other hand, it approaches a sandstone 
in composition, it will present a great deal of quartz, varying amounts of 
clayey material, and a minimum amount of chlorite, hornblende, and other 
minerals characteristic of the greenstone. If the specimen is taken from 
an area that has suffered intense metamorphism, the quartz grains will 
almost invariably show granulation around their borders, hornblende will 
be more prominent, and much of the original texture, and many of the 
original minerals will have been destroyed through recrystallization. 
Schistosity is well shown by the parallel arrangement of the minerals, as 
well as by the "Augen" structure of the larger quartz grains and pebbles. 

Chemical analysis. — Very little of value is to be learned from a chemical 
analysis of a rock of such variable nature as the Aaron slate. The chemical 
composition will vary as widely as the physical. However, a specimen of 
what was considered typical material was selected for chemical analysis and 
gave the following results : 

I Analysis of typical Aaron slate. 

(Wm. M. Thornton, Jr., Analyst.) 

SiOo 70.53 

Al,6 3 13.21 

Fe,0 3 3.46 

Feb 193 

MgO 1 • 06 

CaO 2.38 

Na.0 4.56 

K 3 0.40 

HoO+ 0.05 

H,0— 1-06 

TiO, 0.78 

P,0 5 • 0.38 

MnO Trace 

CO Trace 



99.80 



The high percentage of silica is due to the quartz sand. The alumina 
and alkalies are probably for the most part from the clayey material, with 
smaller amount from the feldspar fragments which occur sparingly in the 
rock. 



VIRGILINA GREENSTONE 27 

Weathering and soil. — Natural outcrops of the Aaron slate are incon- 
spicuous and rare except along stream courses where it forms rather rugged 
bluffs. Throughout the greater part of its area the rock does not outcrop. 
The soil, however, is usually shallow and not very fertile. The character 
of rock decay and soil from the formation varies according to the nature of 
the rock in the particular area. The sandy beds produce a light, sandy, 
fairly fertile soil, while those which contain little sand and are made up 
largely of volcanic material, produce a thin, lean soil very much like that 
of the Virgilina greenstone. Between these two extremes there are all 
variations. The soil is, as a rule, not regarded as very desirable for agri- 
culture, and much of it is not in cultivation. 
• 

Virgilina Greenstone. 

Introductory statement. — The term Virgilina greenstone as used in this 
report includes the greenstone schists that form the country rock in which 
all the commercial ore deposits of the district thus far discovered are 
located. The formation in its present condition is a well-defined greenstone 
schist. Originally it consisted of andesitic flows, porphyritic in texture, 
and of andesitic tuffs which in amount greatly exceeded the porphyritic 
phase. In many places the rock has been so profoundly metamorphosed 
that it is very difficult, without the use of the microscope, to distinguish 
the tuffaceous from the flow rock. However, in most cases there is little 
or no difficulty in recognizing the two phases. The two types are in all 
places very intimately associated with each other, in fact, so intimately 
that it would be impossible to separate them in mapping. There has, 
therefore, been no attempt to separate them on the accompanying geologic 
map, Plate I. The ore deposits are apparently as closely associated with 
one type of the rock as with the other and there is on this account no very 
urgent call for their separation in mapping. 

Distribution. — The Virgilina greenstone occupies the central portion 
of the district, making up, for the most part, the Virgilina ridge. Except- 
ing a few miles in the vicinity of Eedoak, Va., where the formation is cut 
out by the Eedoak granite, the greenstone extends the whole length of the 
district, and, indeed, much farther both to the northeast and to the south- 
west of the limits of the accompanying geologic map, Plate I. In both the 
southern and the northern portion of the area mapped the formation con- 
sists of a single band, while in the central portion it includes one or more 
narrow bands of Aaron slate. In addition to this there are at least three 



28 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

elongated, lens-shaped areas of the greenstone included in the slate. As 
shown on the map one of these is crossed by the wagon road about two miles 
west of Wilbourn's store. Another occurs at Kagland's mill, and the third 
extends as a narrow band from near Green Level schoolhouse to a short 
distance north of Smith's store on the wagon road about halfway between 
the town of Clover, Va., and Lack's ferry. 

One or the other phases of the greenstone forms the country rock of all 
the known ore deposits of commercial value in the district, and it may be 
seen in typical development, either porphyritic, amygdaloidal, or tuffaceous 
in piles of waste rock at all the mines and prospects in the district. Because 
no workable ore deposits have been found in other formations, the Virgilina 
greenstone is regarded as preeminently the ore-bearing formation of the 
district. This matter is discussed in considerable detail in the chapter on 
the veins and ores, but it may not be out of place to state here that it is 
believed that the greenstone supplied only the conditions suitable for the 
deposition of the ores, and that it is in no way related to the original source 
of the ores. 

The greenstone has its greatest development in the vicinity of Moffett, 
where it attains a width of about four miles. Another place in which it is 
prominently developed is about two miles south of the town of Virgilina, 
in the vicinity of the Pannebaker prospects, where the formation is over 
three miles in width. Its least development is immediately south of where 
it is cut out by the Eedoak granite. At this place it is less than two miles 
in width. 

Macroscopic description. — The three types of the Virgilina greenstone 
are usually distinguishable in the hand specimen without great difficulty. 
Two of them, a porphyritic and an amygdaloidal type, are effusive rocks 
and the other is a tuff derived from the same magma. Of these the tuff 
is by far the most abundant. The porphyritic phase is common, but the 
amygdaloidal is only occasionally found. Except when highly schistose, in 
which condition the amygdules, which are generally composed of material 
differing in color from the mass of the rock, are mashed and drawn out so 
as to very closely resemble the fragments of the tuff, one can easily dis- 
tinguish the amygdaloidal phase from the others. Certain phases of the 
porphyritic type, especially the finer-grained rock, are very difficult to dis- 
tinguish from certain kinds of the finer-textured tuff. This is exceedingly 
difficult when both rocks are highly schistose, and in some instances it is 
possible only with the microscope. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE III. 




(A) Outcrop of Virgilina greenstone, North Fork of Aaron's Creek, five miles north 
of Virgilina. 




(B) Typical outcrop of Virgilina greenstone three miles northwest of Virgilina. 



VIRGILINA GREENSTONE 



29 



The color of the porphyritic and the amygdaloidal rocks varies greatly, 
but is usually a kind of grayish-green, the intensity of the color depending 
upon the relative amounts of chlorite, epidote, and hornblende in the rock. 
Some areas have a purplish-gray color, but this is not nearly so pronounced 
as with the tuffaceous rock, which is occasionally of a decidedly purple 
color. Many specimens of the rock, when viewed on a cleavage surface, 
present a kind of pearly lustre or sheen, which is probably due to the 
development of sericite or some other micaceous mineral in the planes of 
schistosity. It is also not usually possible from the examination of such a 
surface to distinguish the porphyritic rock from certain phases of the 
mashed tuff. The determinative characteristics of the porphyritic rock 
consist of phenocrysts of plagioclase feldspar which can be seen to good 
advantage only when the rock is broken at right angles to the planes of 
schistosity. They are also more readily seen on a slightly weathered than 
on a fresh surface. This is also true to a certain extent of the amygdaloidal 
rock. Further than these feldspar phenocrysts, massive epidote in varying 
amount and in irregular patches, a little secondary quartz, occasionally a 
small amount of secondary calcite, one can distinguish with the unaided 
eye little or nothing as to the texture of the rock. As regards the amyg- 
daloidal rock, one is able in like manner to distinguish the same minerals, 
and in addition the fillings composing the amygdules. Typical outcrops of 
Virgilina greenstone are shown in Plates II (B) and III. 

Microscopic description. — The microscope reveals the presence of the 
following minerals : Plagioclase, hornblende, chlorite, epidote, zoisite, cal- 
cite, clinozoisite, apatite, the black ores, and quartz. 

The plagioclase is all more or less altered and much of it so badly de- 
composed that a positive identification is not possible. However, some of 
the freshest phenocrysts were measured according to the Michel-Levy 
method and found to conform to oligoclase, oligoclase-andesine, and 
andesine. The phenocrysts often present a short, stocky, prismatic develop- 
ment and are nearly always more or less shattered and drawn out into 
"eyes" indicative, of course, of the intense dynamic metamorphism which 
the rocks of the region have suffered. The feldspars of the groundmass 
occur for the most part in slender, prismatic crystals, and are very much 
altered. 

The amphibole appears to be wholly secondary. It has a beautiful light 
green or light bluish-green color, is not at all strongly pleochroic, usually 
occurs in slender, prismatic crystals which are in many instances curved 



30 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

or bent, and in all other characteristics seems to correspond to actinolite. 
In the material studied not even a vestige of the original ferromagnesian 
minerals remained. It is impossible, therefore, to state what the original 
nature of the rock was, whether an augite or a hornblende andesite. 

Epidote occurs in varying amounts in all the thin sections studied. In 
some instances it makes up the greater part of the rock, while in others it 
is only sparingly present. Usually, however, it is very abundant. It gen- 
erally occurs in irregular grains of varying size, and rarely shows well- 
defined crystallographic development. Aside from a variation in color from 
the usual pistachio green to a decidedly yellowish-green, the mineral 
possesses only its usual and normal optical properties. In some instances, 
especially in the rocks immediately associated with the native copper 
deposits, the rock is largely replaced by a mixture of quartz and epidote. 
In such cases the quartz and epidote are most intimately intergrown with 
each other. The mineral is also intimately associated, in some instances 
with chlorite and invariably, except in the quartz-epidote intergrowths just 
mentioned, with zoisite and clinozoisite when the last-mentioned mineral is 
present. 

Zoisite and clinozoisite are alteration products and are derived largely 
from the feldspars. Consequently their abundance in any specimen of the 
rock is to a great extent determined by the degree of alteration which it has 
suffered. The two minerals are very closely related to each other genetic- 
ally, and while not always occurring together they very often do. They are 
also very closely related to epidote, and in many instances the three are 
found together. In fact, epidote and clinozoisite frequently occur with 
gradations, the one into the other, and in some instances the three are 
found together. In fact, epidote and clinozoisite frequently occur with 
gradation, one into the other, and in some instances the same grain is 
part epidote and part clinozoisite. The usual mode of occurrence is in the 
form of irregular grains, although a prismatic form is met with occasion- 
ally. The two minerals have only their usual and normal characteristics. 

Chlorite is one of the most abundant minerals of the Virgilina green- 
stone. It was present in large quantity in every thin section examined, 
and in many it was second in abundance only to the feldspars. It is an- 
alteration product derived from the original bisilicate minerals of the 
rock — in fact, it is exceptional to find even a vestige of the original 
amphibole or pyroxene, the whole having been replaced by chlorite. The 
mineral in ordinary light has its usual light green or pea green color, and 
is seen to be slightly pleochroic. In addition to filling the areas originally 



VIRGILINA GREENSTONE 



31 



occupied by the bisilicate minerals, which it has replaced, it also fills 
irregular spaces in the rock, and fractures in the other minerals, especially 
the feldspars. Between crossed nicols it is seen to be made up of radiating 
bunches or tufts which have aggregate polarization, somewhat like that of 
chalcedony. Aside from this the mineral possesses only its usual and 
normal characteristics. The fact that chlorite is so very abundant in all 
phases of the rock, and at the same time all other ferromagnesian minerals 
are so rare, certainly justifies the name "chlorite-epidote schist," which has 
been given to this rock. 

Calcite is present in considerable amount in all phases of the rock. It 
is in all cases a secondary mineral, probably derived for the most part from 
the decomposition of the original lime-bearing minerals of the rock. It 
occurs in irregular areas and patches, fills fractures and veinlets, and in 
many instances appears* to be replacing the feldspars and other minerals 
of the rock. In some specimens from near the mineralized veins calcite as 
well as quartz is very abundant. 

Quartz occurs in fine granular condition in the groundmass, in some 
instances closely associated with the feldspar microlites, fills minute frac- 
tures, and in some instances appears to be replacing other minerals in much 
the same manner as the calcite. Like the calcite it is much more abundant 
in the vicinity of the veins. It is regarded as a secondary mineral. 

The black ores are present in varying amount in all phases of the rock, 
the most abundant one being hematite. Ilmenite and magnetite appear to 
be present in about equal amount. They have their usual and normal char- 
acteristics. In some places hematite is so abundant that it can easily be 
distinguished in the hand specimen by the unaided eye. In such cases it 
occurs as minute flakes in the planes of schistosity. 

Other secondary minerals, such as kaolin and sericite, occur in con- 
siderable amount. They have their normal and usual characteristics. 
Sericite is present in varying amount in the ores as a gangue mineral. In 
such relations it has been described by Eogers, a who concludes from its 
association with bornite and chalcocite that the latter is a secondary mineral 
and not contemporaneous in deposition with the bornite. It is probable 
that much if not all of the sericite, especially that occurring with the ores, 
is of hydrothermal origin. Kaolinite, on the other hand, may originate 
either by hydrothermal or ordinary weathering processes. It is more 
abundant in the greenstone than sericite. 



° Rogers, A. F. : Sericite, a low temperature hydrothermal mineral, Economic 
Geology, Vol. 11, 1916, pp. 118-151. 



32 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

The amygdaloidal phase of the greenstone is similar to the porphyritic 
phase in all respects as regard minerals, alteration products, metamorphism, 
and texture in general. It differs in that the amygdules are composed to a 
certain extent of minerals foreign to the rock, such as quartz and zeolites, 
in addition to the usual epidote, chlorite, and calcite; and in the texture 
of the groundmass of the rock in the immediate vicinity of the amygdules. 
All the thin sections studied showed the microlites of plagioclase arranged 
with their longest direction tangent to the circumference of the amygdule, 
an arrangement common in amygdaloidal rocks. 

Tuffaceous phase. — As regards mineralogical composition, alteration 
products, color, relation to the veins and ores, and general metamorphism, 
the tuffaceous greenstone is similar to the porphyritic rock. It differs in 
texture, the proportion in which the different minerals are present, and 
consequently in chemical composition. In texture the rock is clearly frag- 
mental, the fragments differing considerably in composition and color, and 
greatly in size and shape. They are all sharply angular, and vary in size 
from less than a centimeter to more than two feet in longest direction. The 
fragments have been so much drawn out in the dynamic metamorphism 
which the rocks have suffered, that it is difficult to recognize them with the 
unaided eye except on a surface parallel with the schistosity. In thin sec- 
tion under the microscope they are easily recognized. In color the frag- 
ments vary from the usual green of the mass of the rock through reddish- 
brown to a kind of purple. 

Chemical composition. — In the table (pp. 33-34) are given chemical 
analyses of carefully selected material as nearly typical of the average 
Virgilina greenstone as could be collected. It represents both the porphy- 
ritic and the amygdaloidal phases of the rock. Numbers I and II are from 
material collected by the writer; the others are from Watson's papers on 
the rocks of the Virgilina district.® 

Certain features of the greenstone are brought out very clearly by the 
chemical analyses, and it may be best to call attention to them. Numbers 
I, III, and IV represent specimens of the porphyritic greenstone taken from 
widely separated localities, and yet they show a marked uniformity of com- 
position throughout. These analyses, taken together with the equally uni- 
form mineralogical composition of the greenstone as shown by the micro- 
scope, prove that the magma from which the rocks now forming the 



° Watson, Thomas L. : The copper-bearing rocks of the Virgilina copper district, 
Virginia and North Carolina, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. 13, 1902, p. 364. 



VIRGILINA GREENSTONE 



33 



Virgilina greenstone was derived probably as uniform in composition as 
such material usually is. 

Numbers II, V, VI, VII, and VIII represent tuffaceous and highly 
altered material, and are not nearly so uniform. They are all low in silica, 
and three of them — V, VI, and VII — are high in alumina, indicating that 
instead of being pure andesitic tuffs they represent material with which 
considerable clay was mixed at the time of their deposition. High lime 
and carbon dioxide contents in I and VII indicate the presence of con- 
siderable calcite in the rock. 

Classification. — The mineralogical composition of the greenstone, when 
taken into consideration with the chemical analyses of the rock, indicate 
very clearly its andesitic character, and also as clearly show that it has 
suffered profound alteration. It will be noted that the analyses of the 
porphyritic rock show a moderate silica content for andesite. This, how- 
ever, only indicates that the rock is an andesite of intermediate composition. 
Nothing remains of the original ferromagnesian minerals of the rock, and 
it is therefore not possible to state whether the original rock was a horn- 
blende or an augite andesite. 

Analyses of Virgilina greenstone. 





I 


II 


III 


IV 


SiO. \ 


62.86 
15.98 
2.44 
2.61 
3.36 
4.54 
4 . 52 
1.22 
0.09 
2.19 
0.89 
0.52 
0.10 
Trace 


47.61 
15.55 
7.33 
1.76 
4.91 
8.60 
4.00 
1.52 
0.04 | 
2.70] 
0.78 
0.45 
0.13 
4.97 


64.12 
16.32 
6.72 
1.38 
0.33 
3.49 
6.22 
0.53 

0.34 

Trace 
Not det. 
0.64 
None 


62.32 


Al 2 6 3 


15.79 


Fe„0, 


3.57 


FeO 


4.61 


MgO 


2.53 


CaO 


3.65 


Na,0 


4.51 


K 2 


0.76 


H,0— 




H 2 0+ 


1.89 


Ti0 2 


0.06 


P 2 5 


Not det. 


MnO 

C0 2 


0.35 
None 








101.32 


100.35 


100.09 


100.04 



I. Virgilina greenstone, porphyritic phase, Thomas mine. Wm. M. Thornton, 
Jr., Analyst. 
II. Virgilina greenstone, tuffaceous phase, Durgy mine. Wm. M. Thornton, Jr., 
Analyst. 

III. Virgilina greenstone, dark purplish gray, porphyritic phase, Cornfield 

prospect. Thomas L. Watson, Analyst. 

IV. Virgilina greenstone (porphyritic phase), Overby prospect. Thomas L. 

Watson, Analyst. 



34 



GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 



Analyses of Virgilina greenstone — Continued. 





V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


Si(X 


51.34 
20.07 
7.03 
4.03 
4.18 
2.83 
1.83 
5.53 

2.90 

0.38 
Not det. 
0.38 
None 


48.20 
22.10 
7.61 
3.95 
0.86 
8.86 
4.90 
1.16 

2.31 

0.24 
Not det. 
0.35 
None 


46.45 

13.79 

7.60 

6.41 

9.81 

10.13 

Not det. 

Not det. 

2.66 

Trace 

Not det. 

Trace 

2.27 


49 51 


ALO, 


22 42 


Fe,0 3 


10 03 


FeO 


2 42 


Mg;0 


2 81 


CaO 


7.68 


Na,0 


Not det. 


KX) 


Not det. 


ILO— ) 




H 2 0+ f 

TiO, . 


3.41 
0.57 


P-A 


Not det. 


MnO 


0.42 


C0 2 


0.90 








100.50 


100.54 


99.12 


100.17 



V. Virgilina greenstone, bright schistose tuffaceous phase, Blue Wing mine. 

Thomas L. Watson, Analyst. 
VI. Virgilina greenstone, bright schistose, tuffaceous phase, Fourth of July 
prospect. Thomas L. Watson, Analyst. 
VII. Virgilina greenstone, bright schistose, tuffaceous phase, Anaconda mine. 
Thomas L. Watson, Analyst. 
VIII. Virgilina greenstone, partially decayed, tuffaceous phase, Anaconda mine. 
Thomas L. Watson, Analyst. 

Weathering. — Natural outcrops of the Virgilina greenstone are not 
plentiful, and are rarely found except in places in which erosion is very 
active. The rock, however, does not decay very much faster than erosion 
can carry away the debris, and in no place is the rock covered with more 
than a few feet of soil. 

Watson a in his paper on the rocks of the Virgilina district gives a 
detailed discussion of the process of weathering from which the following 
quotation is made : 

"The decayed rock is of a pronounced yellowish-brown color, readily 
crumbling under slight pressure. It effervesced very feebly in dilute acid, 
indicating hardly more than appreciable traces of carbonates. When further 
digested for some time in very dilute hydrochloric acid, the brown coloring 
matter was removed and the residue consisted of the usual green products 
composing the fresh rock. The percentage of residue composed of the green 
colored minerals was very large. 

"As indicated by the analyses of the fresh and decayed rock, the change 
has been one of hydration — the assumption of water, accompanied by the 
peroxidation of the iron and the partial removal of the more soluble 
constituents, lime, magnesia, and alkalies." 



a Watson, Thomas L. : The copper-bearing rocks of the Virgilina copper district, 
Virginia and North Carolina, Bull. Geol. Soc. Ani., Vol. 13, 1902, p. 374. 



INTRUSIVE ROCKS. 35 

INTRUSIVE ROCKS. 

Redoak Granite. 

General description. — Four areas of granite occur within the Virgilina 
district as shown on the accompanying map (PL I) : One in the vicinity of 
Buffalo Lithia Springs; one in the vicinity of Redoak post-office; one 
in the extreme southwest corner of the district; and one, only a small 
patch, about one mile west of Christie. Of these the area in the vicinity 
of Redoak is the largest and of the most importance. It has roughly the 
form of an ellipse the longest diameter of which is about 15 miles and the 
shortest approximately 7 miles. In this area the rock is so deeply weathered 
that no natural outcrops could be found, although they were searched for 
with the greatest care. On this account very little could be learned as to 
the character of the formation as a whole. So far as could be learned from 
the few specimens that could be obtained, the rock is a medium-grained, 
light gra}% biotite granite, rather quartzose, and containing orthoclase and 
plagioclase feldspars in approximately the same amount. The area of the 
rock is well marked by the loamy sandy soil which it produces. This is the 
strongest and best soil in the district, and is the most prosperous portion 
of the region. 

The area of granite in the vicinity of Buffalo Lithia Springs is similar 
to the Redoak area. It is a light gray, medium-grained, moderately 
quartzose, biotite granite in which the orthoclase and plagioclase feldspars 
are present in about equal proportion. Natural outcrops are very rare, and 
on this account little can be said in regard to the uniformity of the rock. 
Thin sections of the rock under the microscope show the following minerals 
named in the approximate order of their formation : Apatite, zircon, biotite, 
orthoclase, microcline, plagioclase, and quartz. The rock in places shows 
considerable alteration, and such secondary minerals as kaolin, muscovite, 
sericite, epidote, zoisite, and chlorite are occasionally met with. Small 
areas of a coarse porphyritic granite occur as intrusives in this area of the 
granite. These have been described under the term Buffalo granite. The 
weathering and decay of this area are similar in all respects to that of the 
Redoak area. 

The granite area in the southwestern portion of the district is similar in 
all respects to the areas just described and on that account need not be 
discussed in this place in detail. The topography is somewhat more rugged 



36 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

in this portion of the district than in the other granite areas, and because 
of this outcrops of the rock are more plentiful which make it possible to 
learn more as to the uniformity of the rock than in the other areas. So far 
as could be determined the granite in this area is fairly uniform in both 
texture and mineralogical composition. 

The small area of granite northwest of Christie is not well exposed,* and 
very little could be learned as to its texture and general characteristics. So 
far as could be determined from the material available, it is considerably 
finer in texture than the other areas of the rock which have just been 
described. 

The size and location of the granite areas within the Virgilina district 
are shown on the accompanying geological map (PL I). It should be 
stated, however, in this connection that the boundaries of the different 
areas are only approximately correct. The rock in all the areas is so deeply 
weathered and so deeply buried beneath its own decay that outcrops are not 
plentiful enough to enable one to determine boundaries very accurately. 
The granite produces a soil very characteristic and very different from that 
of any other formation in the district, and by using the soil as a guide it 
was possible to locate the boundaries of the different areas with a consider- 
able degree of accuracy. 

So far as is at present known, there are no ore deposits in any of the 
granite areas, and, so far as observations have extended, there are no 
indications that any such deposits exist in the rock. ISTotwithstanding 
this it is believed that the solutions which deposited the ores were directly 
associated with the intrusion of the granite masses. This matter is dis- 
cussed in detail in the chapter on the origin of the ores and need not be 
repeated here. 

Buffalo Granite. 

Gen&tml description. — The term Buffalo granite is used to designate 
small masses or areas of a coarse porphyritic granite with very large 
feldspar phenocrysts which occur in the Eedoak granite in the vicinity of 
Buffalo Lithia Springs. 

The rock is a light gray, coarse-grained, porphyritic granite which differs 
from the main granite masses very little except in texture. The same 
minerals are present in both rocks, and bear in general the same relations 
to each other. The rock is present only in small amount, and, so far as 
could be determined, is of no commercial importance. 



ABBYVILLE GABBKO. 37 

Abbyville Gabbro. 

General statement. — A considerable area of much altered gabbro occurs 
in the vicinity of Abbyville. No prominent outcrops of the rock could be 
found, and because of this it has not been possible to learn much in regard 
to the texture and general characteristics of the rock as a whole. Such 
outcrops as could be found consist of irregular rounded boulders of a dirty 
greenish-gray color, which in some instances were altered more or less 
completely into an impure soapstone. The boundary of the formation as 
shown on the accompanying geologic map (PI. I) was determined by the 
distribution of such boulders and by the color of the soil, and consequently 
is only approximately correct. The character of the particular outcrop 
depends upon the degree of alteration, and on this account a detailed petro- 
graphic description of the rock would involve more space and time than 
the importance of the rock from an economic standpoint warrants. 

Macroscopic description. — In the hand specimen the gabbro usually has 
a kind of dirty greenish-gray color which varies greatly, depending upon 
the degree of alteration which the rock has suffered; the fresher the rock, 
the darker the color. Usually the rock is coarse-grained, and the individual 
minerals can be recognized by the unaided eye with considerable ease. The 
principal mineral thus recognizable is a light green hornblende. In many 
cases this is the only mineral that can be identified in this manner, but in 
a few instances other minerals, especially feldspars, are recognizable. The 
rock is generally very tough except the most highly altered phases, but 
even the freshest of it is moderately soft so that when an edge is struck 
with a hammer it usually mashes down to a whitish mass instead of 
flaking off. 

Microscopic description. — In thin section under the microscope the fol- 
lowing minerals are recognizable : Pale green uralitic hornblende, badly 
altered plagioclase feldspar, zoisite, clinozoisite, epidote, kaolin, sericite, 
chlorite, calcite, quartz, and black iron ores. The feldspars are so much 
altered that positive ^identification is not possible. They show clear indi- 
cations of broad twinning bands, and doubtless belong in the lower and 
middle portion of the plagioclase series. The fact that lime-rich secondary 
minerals, such as zoisite, clinozoisite, epidote, and calcite, have abundantly 
developed from and are replacing the feldspars, is strong evidence that 
they were originally rich in lime. This type of alteration, known as 
saussuritization, is characteristic only of the lime-rich plagioclases. The 



38 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

other minerals have their usual and normal characteristics, and need not be 
described in detail at this place. The calcite and quartz are both secondary 
minerals. 

It must be stated in connection with the description just given that 
while it is true for the sections studied, other thin sections made from 
portions of the rock in different stages of alteration will certainly show 
different mineralogical compositions and very different petrographic char- 
acteristics. In fact, one thin section examined by the writer contained 
traces of the original pyroxene of the unaltered rock. Thus it is certain 
that by diligent and prolonged search one could find specimens of the 
gabbro that will show practically every stage of alteration from the 
fairly fresh rock to the impure soapstone. 

Unaltered gabbro. — As indicated on the accompanying geologic map 
(PI. I) there are two areas of gabbro in the southern portion of the district. 
The rock in these areas differs materially from that in the Abbyville area, 
and, indeed, may be an entirely different type of rock. In fact, there is 
much evidence that indicates that such is the case, and that the rock is 
intermediate between gabbro and diabase. On this account much hesitancy 
was felt in using the same colors on the geologic map for the different areas. 
The question can not be settled without more extensive microscopic and 
chemical research than the importance of the rock would justify, certainly 
more than an economic report would call for. 

This rock, as seen in the field, is fairly fresh and is of a black or very- 
dark brown color — not decidedly unlike that of a diabase. It has from a 
fine to a medium granular texture. It is very tough and heavy, and in 
places appears to contain an excess of iron ores. When examined in thin 
section, the rock presents the following minerals : Hypersthene, augite,. 
calcic plagioclase which varies from labradorite to anorthite, and large 
amounts of black ores. With these primary minerals there are such 
secondary ones as always develop from such combinations of primary 
minerals. 

NORMAL SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. 

Triassic (Newark) Sandstone. 

General description. — One small area of reddish-brown sandstone of 
Triassic (Newark) age occurs within the district mapped. As shown on the 
accompanying geologic map (PL I), this formation occurs as an elliptical 
area about ten miles long and four miles wide, in the west-central portion of 



DIKE ROCKS. 39 

the district, extending from a short distance southwest of Wolftrap to about 
two miles northeast of the town of Scottsburg. Natural exposures of the 
rock are very rare, in fact only two or three are known to occur, and the 
outlines of the formation as shown on the map are only approximately 
correct. The best-known exposure of the rock is in the railroad cut a short 
distance northeast of Scottsburg, in which place it is decidedly conglomer- 
atic, the matrix being moderately fine redclish-brown sandstone in which are 
embedded pebbles and boulders up to over a foot in diameter. The color 
of the rock varies from chocolate-brown through reddish-brown to almost a 
brick-red. The exposures of the rock are so scarce that it was not possible 
to learn very much in regard to the characteristics of the formation as a 
whole. 

This is one of the disconnected areas of the Triassic which are of 
common occurrence in the eastern portion of the Piedmont Plateau of 
North Carolina and Virginia. The formation, while of much interest from 
a purely geological standpoint, is in no way related to the ore deposits of 
the region, and, on this account, is of no great importance from the stand- 
point of the present report. 

DIKE ROCKS. 

General statement. — As in all other parts of the Piedmont Plateau, dikes 
are numerous in the Yirgilina district, and while they are of little or no 
economic importance they form one of the district's interesting geological 
features. They are as a rule small, but widely distributed, no formation 
being free from them. In age they vary from early Paleozoic to late 
Triassic, the oldest being the syenite, granite, and gabbro, and the youngest 
the diabase of late Triassic age. Disregarding the probability that at least 
a part of the hornblende gneiss of pre-Cambrian age was intruded into the 
mica gneiss in the form of dikes, the dikes of the Virgilina district may 
be divided into the following groups or classes, named in the probable order 
of their respective ages : Granite, syenite, gabbro, and diabase. The largest, 
longest, and most persistent are the syenite dikes, the others coming in the 
following order : Granite, diabase, and gabbro. Of these the diabase dikes 
are the most numerous and granite the least so. 

Granite. 

General description. — Only one granite dike was found during the field 
work. It occurs a short distance east of the railroad at Eandolph station, 
and extends northward a short distance east of the railroad to near Moss- 



40 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

ingford. Its width, as well as it could be determined, varies from 100 to 
about 200 feet, and the rock is fairly uniform throughout the entire length. 
The rock appears to be a medium- to fine-grained, light gray to red granite. 
Its relation, if any exists, to the main granite area in the vicinity of Eedoak 
could not be determined. In some places, especially near the State Farm 
at Saxe, it outcrops strongly, but in most places the outcrops are incon- 
spicuous. 

Syenite. 

General description. — Two peculiar granitic dikes, which appear from 
examination in the hand specimen to be syenite, were found in the district. 
Both of them occur in the northern part of the district, and both have a 
linear length of several miles. The larger and longer of the two is well 
exposed in the town of Drakes Branch, where it has a width of about 150— j— 
feet, and from which it may be traced northward some six or eight miles 
and southward for about twenty miles. So far as could be determined 
from meager outcrops, it maintains a fairly uniform width throughout its 
entire length. According to the observations of Mr. J. H. Watkins, who 
did the field work in that vicinity, this dike intersects the Eedoak granite, 
and is therefore younger than that formation. Beyond a limited use for 
road metal the syenite is not known to have any commercial value. Thus 
far no ore deposits have been found associated with it in any way, and 
there appears to be no reason to expect that any such deposits will ever be 
found. 

In the hand specimen the rock is seen to be rather coarsely crystalline 
and to be made up largely of feldspars, having only minor amounts of 
ferromagnesian minerals and quartz. In color, texture, and general ap- 
pearance the syenite somewhat resembles a coarse-grained granite. 

Gabbro. 

General statement. — In the vicinity of the larger masses of gabbro a 
few small gabbro dikes were found. They are always small, and as far as is 
known do not extend long distances. In color, texture, and, in fact, in all 
particulars, the rock of the dikes is similar to that of the main Abbyville 
gabbro area already described. It is, therefore, unnecessary to repeat the 
description in this place. 

Diabase. 

General statement. — The most abundant and also the most widely 
distributed dike rock in the Virgilina district is diabase. It occurs in the 









... 



STRUCTURE AND METAMORPHISM. 41 

form of numerous narrow dikes, the width and trend of which are indi- 
cated by the presence of small boulders, locally called "nigger heads/' 
scattered here and there on the surface. The rock has been weathered so 
deeply that, so far as observations have extended, the massive rock does not 
outcrop naturally in the district. The dikes are always narrow, and have 
never been known to extend over great linear distances. The diabase is the 
youngest rock in the district, and is found cutting all the other formations, 
even the Triassic sandstone. It also has the distinction of being the only 
dike rock that is in any way associated with the ores, but this association 
is wholly accidental, and there is no genetic relation between the diabase 
dikes and the ore deposits. The dikes are much younger than the ores, and, 
where the two are associated, as in the Blue Wing and the Durgy mines, 
the dikes cut the veins without producing any effects upon the ores or veins. 

Macroscopic description. — The diabase is a massive, fine-grained rock 
of a black or bluish color when seen on a fresh fracture, but often a dark 
gray color on a weathered surface. The rock is usually so dense and the 
texture so fine that with the unaided eye one can distinguish little or 
nothing in regard to its mineralogical composition. It is very heavy and 
is exceedingly tough. 

Microscopic description. — In thin section under the microscope the fol- 
lowing minerals, named in the probable order of their formation, are 
revealed : Black ores, olivine, plagioclase feldspar in narrow, lath-shaped 
crystals, augite, and in some instances a small amount of green secondary 
hornblende. The texture is typically ophitic, and the feldspar laths have a 
decidedly random or haphazard arrangement. The rock is similar in all 
respects to the diabase of the Piedmont region. It has no genetic nor other 
important relation to the ore deposits, and, as it occurs in this district, is 
of no commercial value. 

STRUCTURE AND METAMORPHISM. 

GENERAL STATEMENT. 

In other chapters the nature of the rocks and ores have been discussed, 
and their relationships to each other have been considered. The rocks 
although profoundly altered, both physically and chemically, since their 
original deposition, have been identified and classified, and their areal dis- 
tribution has been determined and shown on the geological map (PL I) 
which accompanies this report. The ores have been studied in their relation 






42 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

to the rocks and veins in which they occur, and the component minerals of 
the ores have been considered in their relation to each other. These studies 
have shown that certain profound changes have taken place in the rocks 
in the district since the original deposition, that many causes have been 
active in the production of the results, and that to a greater or less degree 
each cause has left its own particular imprint or effect upon the rocks or 
ores, each, of course, more or less obscured by the succeeding. The agents 
producing these changes have been physical (pressure) and chemical (solu- 
tion) rearrangement, and redeposition of the respective constituents. 

In the present chapter it is proposed to consider the effects of these 
various physical and chemical agencies as recorded in the rocks and ores, 
and to draw such conclusions as to the forces producing them as seem 
logical. Under the term structure will be considered largely the physical 
agencies, such as folding, mashing, shearing, jointing, faulting, and the 
intrusion of igneous rocks. Uncfer metamorphism will be considered both 
the physical agent, pressure, and the various chemical changes that are 
shown by the rocks to have taken place. These are all scientific and 
theoretical considerations, but upon them rest the very practical considera- 
tions as to continuance of the ore with depth, the character and type of 
rocks in which the prospector may search for ore with the greatest possi- 
bility of finding it, the effect of fractures and faults upon the ore bodies, 
the causes for the segregation of the ores in certain places rather than in 
others, the origin of the ores, their parent rocks, and many other questions 
of prime importance to the mine owner and mine operator. 



STRUCTURAL FEATURES. 

FOLDING. 

The mashed and highly schistose character of nearly all the rocks of 
the district is the most evident effect of the enormous compression to which 
the region has been subjected. The fact that the slaty cleavage of all the 
rocks dips almost invariably to the southeast is another almost, if not equal, 
evidence of the tremendous forces that have been in operation at various 
times in the long-past history of the district. This prominent schistosity 
is one of the last results effected by forces of compression, and is developed 
only after a region is thrown into a series of folds and these closely com- 
pressed. There are a number of possible interpretations of the structure, 
but the one which the writer deems to be most probable is that of a closely 



STRUCTURAL FEATURES. 43 

compressed synelinorium, the folds of which have all been overturned so 
that the dip is almost entirely toward the southeast. The forces of deforma- 
tion have been so intense that the bedding planes and other original 
features of the rocks have been almost entirely obliterated. It is therefore 
only in rare instances that one may observe in the field the actual crests and 
troughs of the folds, or even the bedding planes of the rocks. Thus it 
happens that the presence of folds must be determined by circumstantial 
or inferential evidence rather than upon direct observation. Two con- 
current lines of evidence, such bedding planes as can be found, and the 
areal distribution of the different rock formations as shown on the geologic 
map (PL I), offer conclusive evidence of folding. 

Bedding planes or lines of stratification are found in a few places in 
the district, and, while their dip is almost always uniform and toward the 
southeast, there are in a few places observable variations from this direction 
which indicate clearly the crests of pitching folds. These conditions may 
be seen in a cut on the branch railroad near the switch running from the 
road to the Holloway mine, and in another cut on the same road about one- 
half mile south of the Blue Wing mine ; in an exposure in the wagon road 
a short distance south of Jones Ferry; and to a less extent in an exposure 
in the wagon road where it crosses Wolfpen Branch about one-half mile 
east of Yirgilina. In many other places there are obscure indications of 
similar conditions. The structure has been so greatly obliterated by the 
development of secondary features, such as schistosity and by the heavy 
overburden of decayed rock and soil, that it was not possible to locate on 
the accompanying geologic map (PL I) the anticlines and synclines, and 
thus work out the structure. The bedding planes are for the most part 
parallel with the schistosity, and usually have the same degree of dip. 
These conditions may be seen in almost any prominent rock exposure in 
the Aaron slate. It is especially well shown in a cut on the Southern Kail- 
way about one mile west of Virgilina, where many thin beds of dense slaty 
material alternate with thicker beds of nearly pure sandstone. (See 
PL II (A).) It is also noted that where the bedding planes diverge from 
the general northeast-southwest strike of the district, the rocks are much 
more massive and show their original textures fairly well, and that where 
they are parallel with the schistosity the rocks are highly schistose and have 
suffered intense dynamic metamorphism. These facts indicate pretty 
clearly that there has been much close folding, and the variation in char- 
acter of the rocks may be explained by the fact that dynamic metamorphism 
is always more intense on the limbs of folds than on their crests. The more 






44 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTEICT. 

massive rocks therefore indicate the crests or troughs of folds, while those 
more highly schistose and altered indicate the limbs of the folds. 

An equally strong, if not a stronger, indication of folding is the areal 
distribution of the different rock formations of the district. This is best 
seen on the geologic map (PL I) on which the different formations are 
shown in different colors. It will be noted that there are two general types 
or forms of rock distribution shown upon the map, one consisting of long 
narrow bands terminating for the most part in sharp points, and of blunt, 
more or less ellipsoidal, areas, the former indicating the volcano-sedi- 
mentary rocks and the latter those intruded into them. 

Even a glance at the geologic map (PL I) will show that in a general 
way the narrow bands repeat themselves with great regularity. Any cross- 
section will show that if one assumes a northeast-southwest axis through the 
center of the district, there is a regular sequence of formations on each side 
of this axis. This is well shown in the section exposed across the district 
along the Southern Eailway. The center or axis crosses the railroad about 
the middle of the band of Aaron slate a short distance west of Virgilina. 
Both east and west of this point the formations are repeated in regular 
sequence. It must be assumed that such rocks as these must have been 
deposited originally in approximately horizontal beds or strata, one above 
another. As they occur to-day these strata are turned almost on edge, and 
are repeated in more regular sequence such as one might expect would 
result from folding. 

These lines of evidence seem to prove that the district has been thrown 
into closely compressed folds whose axes have an approximate trend of 
north 30° east. The exact nature and the details of this folding are very 
difficult, if not impossible, to determine. If one assumes one large regular 
syncline such as the distribution of the formations and their relation to 
each other would seem to warrant, it still remains to explain the conditions 
which could permit the building up of beds or strata of rock varying in 
thickness from one to more than three miles. While this conclusion at first 
glance appears to be justified, closer stud}^ reveals another which it is 
believed more logically follows from the observations, and also has the 
advantage of not requiring the assumption of strata of such enormous 
thickness. Therefore while fully realizing that other interpretations are 
possible and logical, the one outlined below is the most plausible to the 
writer. 

The district represents a closely compressed synclinorium consisting of 
numerous anticlines and synclines only a few of which are at present 



STRUCTURAL FEATURES. 45 

determinable, the major axis of which has a northeast-southwest trend 
and is located approximately in the center of the district. The folding has 
been close, and the compression so intense as to impose strong schistosity 
having a trend parallel with the main axis of the synclinorinm and a steep 
southeast dip. What might be assumed from the distribution of the 
formations as their thickness is apparent and not real, there being a number 
of minor synclines and anticlines on each limb of the major syncline. The 
probability of this interpretation is strengthened by the occurrence of 
narrow, spindle-shaped areas of one formation in another, the explanation 
being that they are portions of overlying or underlying formations brought 
down or up in compressed pitching synclines or anticlines. Assuming this 
to be the case, there is no reason for assigning a thickness of more than 
one-half mile to any formation, which would not be excessive for tuffaceous 
rocks. 

While the axes of the major folds have a northeast trend, the shape of 
the different clastic formations indicate very clearly a minor series or 
system of folds with axes almost at right angles to the major series. The 
effect of the second series was to form the first anticlines and synclines 
into a series of cross-folds or folds with axes at right angles to the major 
series, and thus throw the whole district into a series of pitching synclines 
and anticlines. Two such cross-folds and their resultant saddles are clearly 
indicated in the distribution of the formations as shown on the geologic 
map (PI. I), one with an axis running about 20 degrees west of north, 
apexes somewhere near the High Hill schoolhouse, and the other occurs in 
the southern part of the area. Its axis would lie somewhere along a line 
drawn from St. Matthew's church to Bethel Hill. It was not possible 
during the field work to obtain any direct observations such as dip and 
strike of bedding planes to prove the presence of these cross-folds, but the 
distribution of the different formations at these points is so typically char- 
acteristic of pitching folds that it seems logical to assume that they exist. 
If this interpretation is correct, the crest of any of the major folds would 
be described by a wavy line with crests and troughs, and the two localities 
just described are cross-anticlines, while to either side of them are corre- 
sponding synclines. 

Another feature of the folding is that, with very few exceptions, the 
bedding planes of the rocks dip steeply about 70 degrees toward the south- 
east, and have a strike parallel with the major axis of the folding. The 
exceptions to these conditions, as far as could be determined during the field 
work, are few and irregular, and are strongly indicative of pitching folds. 






46 GEOLOGY AND OKE DEPOSITS OF THE VTRGILINA DISTRICT. 

in which case they would mark the troughs and crests of the folds. It is 
believed that the only explanation of this almost universal southeast dip 
of the strata is to assume that during the time of folding there was con- 
siderable thrust from the southeast toward the northwest, and that the 
folds were all overturned toward the northwest. 

SCHISTOSITY. 

Probably the most evident structural phenomenon of the district is the 
very prominent slaty cleavage or schistosity of the rocks. This almost 
invariably has a north to northeast strike, and a dip of from 60 to 80 
degrees toward the southeast. In many places it corresponds to the bedding 
planes of the rocks where such can be distinguished, but on the crests and 
in the troughs of folds the schistosity maintains its usual dip and strike 
regardless of the bedding planes. In studying the structure of the district 
one must, on this account, be very careful not to confuse the primary planes 
of stratification of the volcano-sedimentary rocks with the schistosity, which 
is in no way related to the bedding planes, but has been induced by com- 
pression. It is not intended to affirm that all the rocks of the district are 
uniformly and highly schistose, for such is not the case. The intrusive 
rocks, which are younger than the volcano-sediments, show little or no 
schistosity, and were therefore evidently intruded subsequent to the period 
of intense dynamic metamorphism. Furthermore, in many places, probably 
on the crests and in the troughs of folds, and also in certain areas in which 
the rocks are massive — probably normal andesites instead of andesitic 
tuffs — the schistosity is not so prominent as to obliterate the other features 
of the rock. In many places schistosity has destroyed all the original 
textures and features of the rocks, and is so prominent that they may be 
split into slabs almost thin enough for use as slates. This is especially 
well shown in a bold outcrop on the north bank of Ean Diver, a short 
distance below the mouth of Hyco Eiver. At this place, known as the 
Harris slate quarry, an attempt has been made to quarry the material for 
use as roofing slate, but, so far as the work has extended, the rock has not 
been found to be suitable for such purposes. 

Since it is known that the secondary phenomenon slaty cleavage or schis- 
tosity is developed by compression, and that it forms in a direction normal 
to the axis of application of the force producing it, one may safely conclude 
that the forces producing the schistosity in this district acted in a north- 
west-southeast d i rection . 



STRUCTURAL FEATURES. 47 

The forces producing the folding and schistosity had ceased long before 
the formation of the veins and the deposition of the ores, and, of course, 
have had no effect upon either. The vein matter shows no schistosity. 

JOINTING. 

Joint planes are prominent in all formations, but are more prominent 
in the more massive rocks, and are very abundant where the volcano- 
sediments lie most nearly horizontal, and least abundant where schistosity 
is greatest. In strike the joints tend to group themselves in the northwest 
and northeast quadrants of the circle, with a smaller group having an 
approximate north-south strike, and very few approximating the east-west 
direction. In dip their planes cut the horizon at almost all angles, but it 
appears that by far the greatest number have a steep easterly or south- 
easterly clip. In the schistose formations the majority of the joints have 
a north to northwest strike, and an east to north dip. It is probable that 
the small number of joints in these formations with northeast strike may 
be accounted for on the basis that, because of the prominent schistosity with 
northeast strike, it was easier for the joint-producing forces to relieve 
themselves along the planes of cleavage already developed than to produce 
new fractures. Many of the joint-planes show slicken-sided surfaces, and 
it is not improbable that along many of them there has been more or less 
dislocation, but it is believed that in the great majority of cases they are 
merely fracture planes and not planes of dislocation or fault planes. 

The joint planes have been of far greater importance in the geologic 
history of the district than one might at first thought suspect. They have 
formed the openings in which both dikes and veins occur, except where the 
latter follow the planes of schistosity, which is not usual, and are thus the 
controlling factor in the location, trend, and dip of dikes and veins. It is 
realized that some of the veins may have been developed in fault planes, 
but, so far as could be determined during the field work, there is little 
conclusive evidence that such is the case, and it, therefore, appears safest 
to assume that by far the greater portion of the veins has been developed 
in joint planes, opened in part by the linear force of the crystallization of 
the vein matter, and in part by replacement of the country rock. 

A few words should be said in regard to the time of development of the 
joints. Little evidence on this question is available; but what there is 
indicates that the joints were formed in large part since the close folding of 
the district and the development of the schistosity. Joints are fractures 
in the rocks, and hence are formed in the zone of fracture, while folding- 



48 GEOLOGY AND OEE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

and the development of schistosity are flow phenomena, and are necessarily 
developed in the zone of flowage. 

Furthermore, as shown in the mine workings, the trend of the most 
prominent system of joints in the district so nearly coincides with the 
strike of the schistosity that it is difficult to conceive of the two having 
been developed simultaneously and by the same force. It is not believed 
that all the jointing is necessarily contemporaneous. Indeed it is well 
known that the region has been subjected to more than one period of eleva- 
tion and depression, and it thus seems logical to believe that a certain amount 
of fracturing would take place during each period of earth movement. As 
has been stated and discussed in detail in the chapter on the origin of the 
veins and ores, it is believed that they are connected genetically with the 
intrusion of the great masses of granite of the region, small areas of which 
occurring in the district are shown on the geologic map (PL I). It is 
well known that at one period in the geologic history of the Piedmont 
region enormous masses of granite were forced into the already existing 
rocks, and it is believed that while it is probable that not all the granite 
was intruded at one time, by far the greater part of it came in during 
a single more or less extended period of intrusion. Such great bodies of 
magma coming into the zone of fracture would necessarily produce more or 
less fracturing, some of which would be very deep. Hence it is believed 
that many of the deep fractures, which later were filled with vein water 
and became the ore deposits, were formed contemporaneously with the 
granite intrusions. 

The system of fractures in which the veins occur appear to have been 
formed by a force applied so that the stress could be relieved in part by 
tearing the rock apart along the planes of schistosity, and in part by 
fracturing the rocks along planes forming very acute angles with the 
schistosity, thus giving the veins the appearance of fissures combined with 
■"stringer lead" or rifted schist type of veins. 

FAULTING. 

There is but little direct or conclusive evidence of faulting in the 
district, and such as there is consists of minor displacements of a few feet 
in some of the ore bodies or veins. It seems hardly probable that so much 
dynamic metamorphism could have taken place in the district without 
producing a certain amount of faulting on a large scale. However, if such 
exists, it was not detected. It is not at all improbable that many of the 
prominent veins, both barren and ore-bearing, were developed in fault 



STRUCTURAL FEATURES. 49 

planes ; but, if they were, no direct evidence of it was detected, unless the 
thin laminae of quartz and ore in the rifted schist which forms part of the 
vein in many places, or the slicken-sided walls which are found occasionally, 
are such evidence. The lenticular character of the veins, their pinches and 
swells, when explained on the theory of Becker that the fracture repre- 
sented a wavy line and that any movement of either wall would tend to 
bring two crests and two troughs of the fracture opposite each other, and 
thus produce the pinches and swells, is also evidence of at least a small 
amount of displacement. While technically such movements along fracture 
planes is faulting, yet the results from a structural standpoint might be 
negligible, and, while it is possible that some of the veins were formed in 
planes of profound displacement, one certainly is not justified in assuming 
it from such evidence as that just stated. If such faults exist they were 
formed prior to the formation of the veins and the deposition of the ores, 
since these show no evidence of any such movements. 

In three of the mines, the Seaboard, the Blue Wing, and the Durgy, 
there is minor faulting which affects the veins in a small way. 

The dislocation in the Seaboard mine is at the south end of the 200-foot 
level, and the vein appears to be cut out completely by a cross-fault. There 
is little doubt as to the fault, but the development work has not been 
sufficient to furnish data as to the amount of displacement. Such evidence 
as could be obtained indicates that it is probably a minor fault, and that 
the displacement is> slight. 

The displacement or faulting, as exposed in the Blue Wing mine, occurs 
on the level immediately north of the diabase dike. The vein is shattered 
and displaced a few feet. The fault is probably contemporaneous with the 
intrusion of the dike. 

The dislocations reported in the Durgy veins are all trivial, and appear 
to be similar to that in the other veins. They have no important influence 
upon the ore body and the dislocation is slight. Indeed it may not be fault- 
ing at all, and may be similar to a mud-filled fracture which Weed a states 
was encountered north of the shaft on the third level of the Holloway mine, 
which, while shattering the walls, did not displace the veins. 

It is believed that these minor fractures and faults were probably 
developed during the earth movements attendant upon the outpouring of 
the basalt and diabase, and the intrusion of the trap dikes along the 
Atlantic Coast during Triassic times. So far as could be determined, they 



° Weed, W. H. : Copper Deposits in the Southern United States, Trans. Am. 
Inst. Min. Eng., Vol. 30, 1900, p. 460. 



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50 GEOLOGY AND OEE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

have had no influence upon the vein development, nor upon the mineraliza- 
tion and enrichment of the ore deposits. 

INTRUSION" OF IGNEOUS ROCKS. 

Intrusive rocks occur in considerable quantity in the district. They 
range in character from diabase and gabbro to syenite and granite. They 
all have been discussed in more or less detail in the chapter dealing with 
the rocks, and descriptions need not be repeated here. The syenite, diabase 
and much of the gabbro, and smaller amounts of the granite and diorite 
occur as dikes. The intrusion of these masses of magma has had little effect 
upon the structure of the district, in fact much less than might be expected. 
About the only effects so far as noted, aside from the probabiliy that the 
granitic intrusions are responsible for the solutions which formed the veins 
and ores, and the opening up of joint planes by the dikes and more or less 
bending of the planes of schistosity in the schists by the bodies of igneous 
rock. 

METAMORPHISM. 

General statement. — The term metamorphism is intended to be used 
broadly enough to include all changes which have taken place in the rocks 
of the district since their original deposition or intrusion. There are no 
means of learning even approximately all the changes that have taken place 
in the rocks of the district, nor of knowing the agencies which produced 
them, but enough of the previous, if not original, textures of the rocks 
remain to enable one to trace some of the changes that have taken place. 
Changes are produced by two kinds of agencies, each producing its own 
results, though modified, of course, by the other. These agencies are 
physical, represented by compression, and chemical, represented by meta- 
somatism, solution, and deposition or precipitation. 

TEXTURAL CHANGES. 

The effects of dynamic metamorphism as shown by folding, jointing, 
faulting, and schistosity have all been discussed in considerable detail in 
another place in this chapter. All types of rocks of the district, except 
the Triassic sandstone and diabase dikes, which have been formed since 
the period of dynamic metamorphism, show more or less clearly a record 
of the changes that have taken place. Through pressure combined with a 
certain unknown amount of chemical activity, the open-textured tuffs of both 



, , i 



METAMORPHISM. 51 

basic and acid types, as well as the massive types of the same rocks, have 
been changed into highly schistose rocks, the degree of schistosity varying 
according to the original rock and other factors. The rocks have been 
mashed and their various constituent minerals elongated and flattened and 
compressed until in many instances the original texture of the rock has 
been almost completely destroyed. 

MINERALOGICAL CHANGES. 

Concomitant with the textural changes there have been profound min- 
eralogical changes; original minerals have been completely replaced by 
other entirely different minerals; certain minerals have altered wholly or 
in part to other minerals, and minerals entirely foreign to the rocks have 
been brought in from outside sources and deposited in them. These 
changes have taken place on a large scale, and are characteristic of the 
whole district. They have all been discussed more or less fully in the 
detailed description of the rocks, pages 14-41, and to a less extent in the 
chapter on the origin and deposition of the .ores, but it may not be amiss 
to give a brief summary of the subject in this chapter. 

Each class of rocks, is, to a large extent, characterized by a type of 
alteration peculiar to itself. In the acid rocks, such as the quartz porphyry 
and the acid tuffs, and to a less extent the granite, many of the original 
minerals, especially the feldspars, have been destroyed and their places 
taken by sericite or kaolin. There are all degrees of sericitization depend- 
ing upon the intensity of the forces producing the change, the end product 
being a quartz-sericite schist which shows nothing of the original char- 
acteristics of the rock from which it was derived. In these rocks there have 
been developed also small amounts of biotite, chlorite, and epidote, but 
these minerals are characteristic of the basic rather than the acid rocks. 

The secondary minerals peculiar to the basic rocks, andesite, andesitic 
tuff, and the basic dike rocks, gabbro, diorite, and diabase, are chlorite, 
actinolite, epidote, zoisite, clinozoisite, calcite, and to a less extent biotite. 
As with the acid rocks, there are all degrees of alteration, the end product 
being a chlorite-epidote schist. 

MINERALIZATION. 

The formation of the veins and the deposition of the ores are considered 
as a part of the metamorphic process. As has been stated in discussing the 
veins and ores, it is believed that the material for the veins was largely, 



52 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

and the ores were wholly, derived from sources outside the rocks in which 
they occur. If these assumptions are true, and all the evidence available 
strongly supports them, the formation of the veins and the deposition of 
the ores form, from an economic standpoint, the most important meta- 
morphic event in the geologic history of the region. It is believed that 
the materials for the highly siliceous veins and the ores were derived from 
the great masses of granitic rocks that were intruded into the region long 
after the period of intense dynamic metamorphism was past, and that they 
were carried in solution, probably highly heated, and deposited in fractures 
in the basic schists. The veins are believed to have been formed by opening 
fractures, in part by dynamic forces associated with the intrusion of the 
granite masses, and in part by the linear force of the crystallizing quartz; 
and that they were considerably widened and enlarged by replacement of 
the wall rocks by vein matter and ore where the ore occurs in veins, and by 
ore where the ores are more or less disseminated in the wall rocks near 
the veins. 

It appears to be clear from the study of such ore deposits as the Hollo- 
way and the Copper King mines, ore bodies in which the replacement of the 
wall rock has probably played an important role, that the character of the 
rock has been a very important factor in the development of the ore body. 
From such accounts of the Holloway ore body as were accessible to the 
writer, it seems to be established that some of the pinches and swells in this 
mine were determined by the character of the wall rock, which in this mine 
is variable. Where the wall rock was tuffaceous and more or less open 
textured the ore body is said to have been wide, but where the rock was 
dense and hard as is much of the porphyritic phase of the A^irgilina green- 
stone the ore body is said to have been much narrower. 

WEATHERING. 

The only nietamorphic process active at the present time is the super- 
ficial alteration of the rocks and ores known as weathering. By the term 
weathering is meant all the changes involved in the transformation of the 
rocks into soil. Under surface conditions the rocks are not stable and 
gradually disintegrate and decay until in the final stage they pass into soil. 
The processes involved in this transformation are both physical and 
chemical. The physical forces, important among which are expansion and 
contraction, and the expansion of ice formed during the winter when the 
water in the surface rock is alternately frozen and melted — are in large 
measure responsible for rock disintegration. The chemical reactions 



WEATHERING. 53 

involved produce hydration, oxidation, carbonation, and solution. The 
complex minerals are broken up into simple combinations, the soluble por- 
tions are removed and in the end all that remains of the solid rock is soil. 
The tendency is always from the unstable to the stable, and in the end only 
those combinations of elements remain which are stable under the prevail- 
ing physical and chemical conditions. 

When decomposition proceeds more rapidly than erosion, the rocks 
become covered with a thick mantle of material which at the surface is 
soil, but which gradually becomes with depth the fresh unaltered rock. In 
such a region it is only in places in which erosion is very active, such as 
stream beds and steep slopes, that rock outcrops are found. Much of the 
Piedmont area of the Southern States is in this condition, and indeed the 
same is true of the greater portion of the Virgilina district, as shown on 
the accompanying map, Plate I. 

Weathering affects the veins and ores just as it does the rocks. The 
massive vein matter, quartz and calcite, is broken up, the calcite taken 
into solution, and the insoluble quartz fragments are left behind in the soil. 
The ore minerals are also unstable, are attacked and broken down, the 
soluble portions removed, and the remaining portion, usually iron oxide, 
remains in the form of gossan. The process is rarely carried to completion 
in the Virgilina district, and, so far as data were available, the outcrops 
of the veins even at or very near the surface are marked by green and 
blue copper carbonate stainings instead of by porous masses of iron oxide 
or gossan associated with quartz. As a general rule, the order of alteration 
in vein outcrops is as follows : From surface to level of permanent ground 
water, leached and highly oxidized vein matter with little or none of the 
original ores remaining; from the level of ground water to the depth of 
more or less active circulation, a zone of primary ores more or less enriched 
by high grade secondary ore minerals; and, finally, below this zone and 
extending to the depth of mineralization, the ores as originally deposited. 
In the Virgilina district, the original ores are the rich sulphides, chal- 
cocite and bornite, the veins are tight and the circulation in them apparently 
not very strong. Consequently, there is no marked middle or enriched zone 
in the veins. The important secondary ore minerals are chalcocite, cuprite, 
malachite, azurite, chrysocolla, and possibly tenorite, which with the 
exception of tenorite, are fairly plentiful in the oxidized portions of the 
veins. • 






54 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

GEOLOGIC HISTORY. 

GENERAL STATEMENT. 

In the chapter dealing with detailed description of the rocks, and that 
in which the structure and metamorphism were discussed, many factors 
bearing on the geologic history of the Virgilina district were considered in 
their relation to the subjects under discussion, but anything in the order 
of a connected story of the geologic development of the district would have 
been out of place in those chapters. Since the geology of the surrounding 
region has not been studied in detail, and the relationships of the different 
formations of the district and their areal extent is unknown, no attempt 
will be made to correlate them with any known and described formations. 
Furthermore, so far as observations have extended, all formations exposed 
in the Virgilina district below the Triassic sandstone are nonfossiliferous. 
These conditions make it unwise to attempt to locate in the geological 
column any of the formations except the Triassic sandstone and the diabase 
dikes accompanying it. All, therefore, that will be attempted will be state- 
ments showing as far as possible the origin of the different formations, 
their relation to each other, and brief discussions of the important geologic 
events in the history of the district, together with surmises as to the age 
of the different formations. 

MICA AND HORNBLENDE GNEISS. 

The oldest rocks of the Virgilina district are found on the extreme 
western border of the area mapped (PL I), and it is assumed that its 
history begins with the deposition or formation of those rocks, which are 
of two types, a well-defined mica or biotite gneiss, and a smaller amount of 
characteristic hornblende gneiss, each intimately associated with the other. 
As has been stated in the chapter on the detailed description of the rocks, 
these formations resemble very closely the Carolina gneiss and the Eoan 
gneiss, respectively, and it may be possible that future work will establish 
the similarity. As has been proved in regard to the Carolina and Eoan 
formations, it is believed that the mica gneiss of the Virgilina district 
represents the metamorphosed equivalent of a sedimentary formation, older 
than the hornblende gneiss, which is believed to be of igneous origin, and 
to have been intruded into the sedimentary formation before its metamor- 
phism. It is believed that these gneiss formations are of pre-Cambrian 
age, and that they formed the basement upon which the volcano-sedimentary 
series were deposited. 






GEOLOGIC HISTORY. 55 

IGNEOUS ACTIVITY. 

There is no means of knowing the interval of time that elapsed between 
the metamorphism of the gneisses and the beginning of the igneous activity 
which formed the greater portion of the rocks of the district. But it is 
certain that the basement rocks had suffered intense metamorphism before 
the deposition of the volcano-sedimentary rocks. 

The beginning of igneous activity was marked by the outpouring of 
acid or rhyolitic lava, associated with which was explosive volcanic activity 
on an enormous scale. This is the period that produced the material 
which now forms the mashed quartz porphyry, and acid tuff, and the 
sericite schists which are regarded as the same as the quartz porphyry and 
acid tuff, only more highly metamorphosed. It is impossible to picture 
the details of this and the following volcanic activity, but it is believed, 
from the wide and regular distribution of the rocks, to have been both of the 
fissure types of eruption, in which the lava broke through the already-formed 
rocks at numerous places throughout the whole region. After a great 
thickness of this material was piled up, it appears that the vulcanism in a 
measure subsided, and that there was a change in the type of ejectamenta 
from acid to basic — from rhyolite to andesite — and that during the first 
part of the outpouring of andesitic lava and tuff the volcanic activity was 
either slight or intermittent. These assumptions are based upon the fact 
that the lower part of the basic portion of the volcano-sedimentary rocks is 
in part of terrigenous origin — that is, it consists of basic volcanic material 
intermixed with varying amounts of land waste. In fact, some of the beds 
are nearly pure sandstone, and others are nearly straight conglomerate. 

After an unknown period in which a great thickness of this volcano- 
terrigenous material was laid down, the vulcanism again appears to have 
become very active, and it appears that the ejectamenta became clean 
andesite and andesitic tuff. There is no way of even surmising the duration 
of this type of activity, but it certainly continued long enough for an 
enormous thickness of the andesite and andesitic tuff to be built up. The 
activity seems to have subsided gradually and somewhat in the same manner 
as it developed, since immediately overlying the clean andesite and andesitic 
tuff there is an enormous thickness of volcano-terrigenous material that can 
not in any way be distinguished from similar material built up immediately 
preceding the outpouring of the andesitic material. 

The evidence as to the conditions under which these volcano-sedi- 
mentary rocks were deposited is not clear and conclusive. So far as obser- 
vations have extended, the acid flows and tuffs appear to have been deposited 



56 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRG1L1NA DISTRICT. 

upon dry land. At least no clearly water-laid materials such as con- 
glomerate and sandstone were recognized. On the other hand there is 
nothing to prove they were air-laid or to determine that they were not 
laid down under water. 

When the volcano-terrigenous beds which immediately overlie the acid 
flows and tuffs are examined in detail it is clear that a large part if not 
all of the material was laid down under water. There are irregularly 
intercalated beds of more or less pure sandstone and numerous narrow 
bands of well-defined conglomerate, the pebbles of which are of well- 
rounded quartz, and the matrix of more or less pure, fine andesitic material. 
In fact, the matrix is apparently as fresh and unaltered as similar material 
in the straight andesitic tuffs, a fact which makes it clear that the material 
while clearly water-laid was transported only a short distance, and that 
it was not exposed to weathering agencies for a great length of time. The 
distribution of the sandy and conglomerate beds indicates an offshore of 
or a flood-plain deposit. The fact that the conglomeratic and sandy beds 
occur in similar positions on each side of the area is regarded as evidence 
that the material was deposited in a shallow basin or an open arm of the 
sea. The latter hypothesis is regarded as the more probable of the two, 
since the series of volcano-sedimentary rocks increases greatly in areal extent 
toward the south. 

The age of this volcanic activity is not known, and it has been con- 
sidered by some, especially some of the early writers* on the subject, as 
pre- Cambrian, while more recent students, as well as the first writer on the 
subject, Ebenezer Emmons, 6 regard them as of early Paleozoic age. The 
most conclusive evidence on the subject is by Watson c and Powell, in a 
description of a somewhat similar volcano-sedimentary series of rocks and 
slates lying northeast of the Virgilina district. The slates are interbedded 
with the tuffaceous rocks, and contain early Paleozoic fossils. As the ques- 
tion stands at present there is not sufficient evidence to decide it, but it is 
believed that such as is available indicates that the vulcanism along the 
eastern border of the North American continent occurred in the early 
Paleozoic period. 



a Williams, George H. : The distribution of ancient volcanic rocks along the 
eastern border of the United States, Jour, of Geology, Vol. 2, 1894, pp. 1-31. 

Nitze, H. B. C, and Hanna, Geo. B.: Gold deposits of North Carolina, N. C. 
Geol. Survey, Bull. 3, 1896, p. 37. 

6 Geological report of the Midland counties of North Carolina, 1856, p. 41, 
et seq. 

c Watson, Thos. L., and Powell, S. L. : Fossil evidence of the age of the Virginia 
Piedmont slates, Amer. Jour. Sci. Ser. 4, Vol. 31, 1911, pp. 33-44. 






GEOLOGIC HISTORY. 57 



CONSOLIDATION. 



Eegardless of the manner of deposition of the tuffaceous and sedi- 
mentary rocks, they must have been more or less consolidated before they 
could have been folded. It is believed that the process of consolidation 
was in progress during the deposition of the material, and that within a 
short time after the cessation of the volcanic activity the material had 
become fairly firm and solid rock. The fact that such a large portion of 
the series is water-laid makes it reasonably certain that the period of 
consolidation was short, since the cementation made possible by the presence 
of water would play an important part in the process and greatly hasten its 
completion. 

FOLDING AND DEVELOPMENT OF SCHISTOSITY. 

Following the consolidation of the rocks after an unknown interval, 
dynamic forces again became prominent, and the rocks of the district were 
thrown into closely compressed and for the most part overturned folds. The 
compressive force, as shown by the strike of the axes of the folds, acted in 
a northwest-southeast direction, and was so intense that not only were the 
rocks closely folded, but the process was continued until their original 
textures and structures were largely obliterated, and they were transformed 
into well-defined schists. It is probable that faulting may have accom- 
panied the development of the folding, but, if so, the evidence of faults 
was either obliterated during the period of compression, or it was not 
recognized during the field studies in the district. It is also believed that 
much of the mineralogical alterations took place during the period of 
compression. 

IGNEOUS INTRUSIONS. 

It is believed that the interval between the folding and metamorphism of 
the volcano-sedimentary series and the intrusion of the granite and other 
rocks was a long one. One thing is certain, the rocks had been transformed 
into schists before the granite and other plutonic rocks now in the series 
came in. They are massive and show no indication of having suffered any 
dynamic metamorphism, facts which would be impossible if these rocks 
had been present in the series when it was compressed. There was no way 
of determining the relative age of the different intrusives except that the 
coarse-grained granite in the vicinity of Buffalo Lithia Springs is probably 
intrusive into the finer-textured granite at the same place. The intrusive 
rocks believed to belong to this period are granites of two types, a coarse- 
grained, in some instances decidedly porphyritic, and an even-granular, 



58 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

fine-grained type; a coarse- to medium-textured gabbro, and small areas 
of diorite. From observations in areas of similar rocks outside the district, 
it is believed that the succession, beginning with the oldest, is diorite, 
granite, gabbro. a It is believed that the earth movements attendant upon 
these intrusions formed the greater part of the joints that cut the schistose 
rocks, in many of which mineralized or unmineralized veins of the district 
were developed. 

DEVELOPMENT OF THE VEINS AND DEPOSITION OF THE ORES. 

Closely associated with the intrusion of the granite, probably imme- 
diately following it, came the solutions forming the numerous quartz veins, 
and deposited the ores in the fractures previously formed in the schistose 
andesitic rocks. The reasons for associating the formation of the veins 
and the deposition of the ores with the intrusion of the granite have been 
.given in detail in the chapter on the origin and deposition of the ores 
(pp. 88-93) , but it may not be amiss to summarize them briefly at this place. 
They are: (1) The veins are highly siliceous, containing 65 to 75 per cent 
silica: (2) the rocks in which they occur are decidedly basic; (3) the 
ores and vein filling were derived from a source outside the rocks in 
which they occur and being siliceous they must be genetically associated 
with acid rocks; (4) the time of formation of veins and deposition of ores, 
so far as it could be determined, is approximately that of the intrusion of 
the granite; (5) the granite is the only acid igneous rock known in the 
district which could satisfy the conditions previously stated, and it is there- 
fore believed to have been the source, or at least its intrusion opened up 
the source, from which the ores and vein fillings were derived. So far as 
observations have extended, there is no way of fixing the age of the vein 
formation and the ore deposition. The veins and ores show absolutely no 
indication of having suffered regional metamorphism, and on this account 
they must have been formed subsequent to any of the periods of important 
earth movements in the region. The last of these was the revolution at 
the close of Carboniferous time, and it seems to be clear that the ores were 
deposited some time since the close of this period, but further than this no 
surmises are possible with any degree of fact. What was going on in the 
district between the close of the ore deposition and the deposition of the 
Triassic sandstone is unknown. It is believed, however, that for a long 
period preceding Triassic time the district was under erosion. 



° Lanev, F. B.: The Gold Hill milling district of North Carolina, N. G. Geol. 
Survey. Bull. 21, 1910, pp. 73-74. 






i 






PHYSIOGRAPHY. 59 

TRIASSIC SANDSTONE AND DIABASE DIKES. 

The first geologic event of known age in the Virgilina district is the 
deposition of the red sandstone, a patch of which occurs in the western 
boundary of the portion included in the accompanying map (PL I), near 
Wolf trap station on the Eichmond and Danville branch of the Southern 
Eailway. This occurred during Triassic time, and shows that at least a 
portion of the district was under water, probably the bottom of a narrow 
arm of the sea at that time. It is not known how much of the district 
was covered by the Triassic sandstone, for all that remains of this formation 
at present is the little patch just referred to. Near the close of Triassic 
time occurred the intrusion of many diabase dikes into the rocks of the 
district. While these dikes are not numerous they are well distributed 
throughout the district and the surrounding region. At least two mines 
in the district, the Durgy and the Blue Wing, have disclosed such dikes, 
and in both instances it is perfectly clear that the dikes are younger than 
the veins and ores. 

EROSION AND WEATHERING. 

From the close of Triassic time all factors indicate that for the most 
part the Virgilina district has been under constant weathering and erosion. 
So active have been the agencies of erosion, that notwithstanding the fact 
that the region was reduced practically to base level during Cretaceous time, 
and then rejuvenated by uplift, it is again, from a physiographic point of 
view, in old age. The agencies of erosion are yet active, but the relief of 
the district is so subdued that weathering is more active than erosion, and, 
as a consequence, except in a few places, the rocks are deeply covered with 
soil derived from their own disintegration and decomposition. 

PHYSIOGRAPHY. 

The southeastern portion of the United States presents three distinct 
types of topography, each occupying a distinct area. These physiographic 
provinces, beginning at the coast and extending westward, have been named 
the Coastal Plain, the Piedmont Plateau, and the Appalachian Mountains. 

The Coastal Plain occupies the area extending from the shoreline west- 
ward to an abrupt rise in elevation of the land known as the "Fall Line," 
which has a trend roughly parallel with the coast line. The belt as a whole 
is a rather monotonous plain without prominent elevations. Geologically 
it is made up of Cretaceous and younger sedimentary rocks, including 
much partially consolidated material. 



60 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

Beginning at the "Fall Line" and extending westward to the foot of the 
Blue Eidge is a belt of moderate elevation — 300 to 700 feet above mean sea- 
level. Eelief is moderate and the general appearance is that of a moderately 
level region diversified with low-lying, well-rounded hills, and gently 
sloping valleys. The streams are fairly well graded and are not on the 
whole very swift-flowing. The rocks are for the most part of Paleozoic 
and pre- Cambrian age, and are of both igneous and sedimentary origin. 
They have suffered intense dynamic metamorphism, which has changed 
them for the most part more or less completely into schists and gneisses. 
The region has long been subjected to weathering and erosion, and for the 
most part the rocks are deeply covered with a thick mantle of soil and 
more or less completely disintegrated and decomposed rock. The region is 
regarded as the stumps of an ancient range of mountains which have been 
worn away by long periods of weathering and erosion. This belt or province 
is known as the Piedmont Plateau. 

West of the Piedmont Plateau are the Appalachian Mountains, a region 
of rugged topography, long mountain ranges with many spurs, and steep, 
oftentimes precipitous, slopes, which comprise the highest mountain peaks 
east of the Kockies. The valleys are for the most part narrow. The 
streams have steep gradients and are consequently swift-flowing. The rocks 
are of Paleozoic and pre-Cambrian age, and are of igneous and sedimentary 
origin. For the most part they have suffered intense metamorphism which 
changed them into various types of slates, schists, and gneisses. 

The Virgilina district lies wholly within the Piedmont Plateau, and its 
surface features conform to those of the province in general. 

Relief. 

It is not possible to discuss the surface features in detail or very accu- 
rately without a topographic map, which unfortunately is not available. The 
statements here made must, therefore, be regarded as only approximately 
accurate. However, the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the 
State Survey has run the lines of primary levels for the district, which 
gives the elevation of a few places accurately. The levels were run along 
the railroad from Clarksville to Denniston Junction, thence to South 
Boston, to Keysville and to Buffalo Junction and along Dan Eiver fronf 
South Boston to Clarksville. The elevation of the town of Virgilina is 
516.1 feet. 

The topography of the district is to a large extent determined by the 
character of the underlying rocks. This is especially true of the Virgilina 









PHYSIOGRAPHY. 61 

greenstone. These rocks make up the Virgilina ridge, which attains the 
highest elevation within the district, and which is its most striking surface 
feature. This ridge, while it is flat- topped, low-lying, and has very gentle 
slopes except where intersected by streams, forms the watershed of the 
district, and extends with considerable prominence through a good part of 
its length. It is said to extend with more or less prominence from Dan 
Eiver to about 30 miles south of the state line. The most prominent 
portion reaches from Dan Eiver to 5 or 6 miles south of the state line, 
and the part showing the greatest relief and most rugged topography is 
near the High Hill mine, where Hyco Eiver crosses the ridge. The ridge 
is made up of the andesite and andesitic tuffs with their included terrige- 
nous material, and its boundaries roughly delimit these formations. 

Aside from the ridge, the district possesses nothing more important in 
the way of relief than low-lying, well-rounded hills. The large granite 
area in the vicinity of Eedoak post-office has sufficient elevation above the 
surrounding country to form a low-lying, dome-like hill, deeply scored by 
streams, the highest portion of which is near the center of the area. Taking 
the district as a whole, the only prominent relief or rugged topography is 
along the more important stream courses, south of but including Dan 
Eiver. Hyco Eiver, Blue Wing and Aaron's creeks present fairly rugged 
topography along the lower portions of their courses. 

Drainage. 

The Dan and Eoanoke rivers form the master streams of the district. 
Dan Eiver crosses the district near its middle in a nearly east-west direction, 
while the Eoanoke crosses it in a nearly southeast direction, and unites 
with the Dan to form the Eoanoke a short distance east of the limits of 
the district as mapped. These streams and two others, Bannister and 
Hyco rivers, are antecedent streams and hold their courses irrespective of 
the rocks over which they flow. The courses of the other streams have 
been determined to a great extent if not wholly by the character of the 
underlying rocks, and are therefore consequent streams. 

This indicates that the four rivers are perhaps older than the present 
topography and are, as it were, superimposed upon it, while all the other 
streams are flowing in courses determined largely by the nature of the 
rocks, and have therefore developed with and as a part of the present 
topography. These major streams have developed a surface configuration 
which in a great measure controls the direction of flow of the numerous 



62 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

small streams. Many of the streams. in the district have considerable fall 
in their courses and, as a consequence, flow fairly swiftly; in fact some of 
them in the more rugged portions of the district become roaring, rushing 
torrents after heavy summer rains. The larger streams also, during the 
rainy seasons of late spring and early summer, often overflow their banks 
and inundate considerable portions of the valleys through which they flow. 
Erosion is rapid in the region, and little or no attempt is made on the 
part of the people to prevent excessive land wastage by control of forest 
fires and by grassing the land areas most susceptible to wash. As a result 
much of the soil is washed into the streams, which especially during the 
rainy seasons carry heavy burdens of sediment, and as as consequence, a 
great deal of the land is depleted and very lean. 

Physiographic History. 

A detailed examination of the present surface, in its relation to the 
underlying rocks and the relation of the present drainage systems to the 
geologic formations as well as to each other, offers certain indications of 
previous physiographic conditions of the Virgilina district. 

A close consideration of these facts makes it possible with some degree 
of probability to make a few statements and surmises as to the physio- 
graphic history of the district. The surface features of a region have not 
come into their present form and conditions by mere accident, but have 
been governed by certain laws and conditions. The rate at which a stream 
deepens and modifies its channel depends upon many items, among which 
may be mentioned precipitation, gradient, character of formations over 
which it flows, and these in turn are dependent upon the ever-varying 
geologic conditions of the region. Each major type of surface has its own 
peculiar type of drainage, and as the surface features are changed by any 
geologic process, the drainage likewise changes and accommodates itself 
to the new conditions. One change does not always, nor usually, for that 
matter, completely obliterate the features of the previous cycle, remnants 
of which can almost always be recognized upon close examination. While 
it will be by no means possible to trace the physiographic history back to 
the beginning, it will be possible to enumerate a few of the most important 
items. 

The nature of the rocks making up the greatest part of the Virgilina 
district — volcanic flows, volcanic tuffs with which in places are large 
amounts of terrigenous material, sands, and water-worn pebbles, is clear 
evidence that at the time of deposition the area was low-lying and in part 






DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE VEINS AND ORES. 63 

at least, under water — probably offshore or estuary conditions. After an 
enormous thickness of the volcano-sedimentary material had been built up, 
conditions changed and the region was uplifted high above the sea, probably 
into a mountain range. The closely folded, highly metamorphosed condition 
of the rocks is strong evidence for this assumption. Erosion then became 
active and a system of drainage was established, but what relation this 
drainage bore to the present system it is not possible to state. That the 
region was finally worn down to a comparatively level surface, and then 
submerged in part at least below the sea, is shown by the areas of red and 
brown sandstone of Triassic age which are found in the region and in one 
small area in the district. What the physiographic features were during 
Triassic times one can only surmise. That there was a well-established 
drainage system, and that at least a part of the district was submerged 
below the sea are certain, but there is no way of determining the location 
of the streams nor of knowing how much of the district was submerged. 

It seems probable that the present drainage system has established itself 
since the close of Triassic time, but at what period following this time the 
master streams assumed their present courses is not known. It is certain, 
however, that Dan and Eoanoke rivers and possibly the Hyco assumed 
approximately their present courses prior to the elevation of the district 
with which the present creeks and smaller streams are associated. 

These conclusions are justified by the fact that the rivers follow courses 
contrary to or regardless of the present topography and geologic structure 
of the district. Their courses are largely, if not wholly, independent of the 
rock structure of the district, while the courses of the smaller streams have 
been determined in a large measure, if not wholly, by the geologic structure 
and the character of the formations over which they flow. 

It appears, therefore, that the large streams had assumed their courses 
prior to the last uplift of the district and that they have been able to wear 
down their channels as rapidly as the country was uplifted, and thus that 
to-day these streams have courses that are genetically related to previous 
surface conditions rather than to the present, as are the smaller streams. 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE VEINS AND ORES. 

VEINS. 

General statement. — The veins of the Virgilina district are typical 
fissure veins. With the exception of a few mineralized areas in more or 
less epidotized portions or zones of the true basic schist, the ore deposits 



64 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

all occur in well-defined veins in which quartz is by far the predominant 
mineral. Calcite, epidote, chlorite, in a few instances small amounts of 
plagioclase, probably albite, and in some instances a little orthoclase, are 
present in varying amount. These veins occur in fractures — in some 
instances possibly fault planes — which, taken as a whole have a more 
northerly trend than the schistosity of the country rock, which averages 
about 30 degrees east of north. The majority of the veins have trends 
varying from 30 degrees east to 10 degrees west of north, while a few — 
the so-called cross-courses — vary from 10 to 45 degrees west of north. 
Almost every vein, except the "cross-courses," throughout some part of its 
length follows the schistosity of the country rock. After following the 
schistosity for varying distances, the vein is noted to assume at 
once a more northerly trend, usually only a few degrees, than the schis- 
tosity. This course will be held also for varying distances when it again 
assumes the trend of the schistosit}^ the same being repeated again and 
again. This feature of the veins offers strong evidence in favor of the 
hypothesis that the formation of the veins is a comparatively recent geologic 
event, and that prior to their formation the country rocks had been altered 
into schists and were in much the same condition that they are at present. 
If such were the case it would be quite normal for the shearing forces to 
relieve themselves in part along the parting planes of the schists, which 
are always lines of weakness. Thus any line of stress differing in direction 
from the trend of the schistosity only a few degrees would normally, in 
part at least, be relieved by shearing in the planes of greatest weakness in 
the country rock, that is, in the planes of schistosity. The veins are usually 
not continuous for long distances, but in a few instances a single vein may 
be traced either by the outcrop or continuous quartz debris for distances 
varying from one to two miles, and in one case the so-called Mother Lode 
vein was traced by outcrop or almost continuous quartz debris for nearly 
three and one-half miles. All veins of the district have characteristic 
peculiarities, such as "pinches" and "swells" both linearly and vertically, 
which tend to give them the appearance of numerous connected quartz 
lenses. In fact, in many instances the lenses are disconnected, and in others 
they are joined together only by a mere stringer of quartz. In other cases 
the fractures are apparently continuous for longer distances than the veins 
show them to be. In such cases vein matter has been developed only at 
irregular intervals in the fissures. These peculiarities have a practical 
application in doing development work, in that even though the vein pinches 
to very narrow limits, or is lost altogether, the fracture in which it 



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DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE VEINS AND ORES. ()5 

developed remains, thus giving the miner the walls of his vein which he 
can follow with some assurance that they may open again and more vein 
matter come in. 

It is rare that an important vein fails to present some kind of an out- 
crop at some place along its course, but in a few instances small veins 
which had no surface outcrop have been exposed by cross-cutting and other 
development work. Also in many instances a well-defined vein will, at 
many places in its course, show no outcrop beyond a very small or 
insignificant amount of quartz debris on the surface. As a general rule, 
vein outcrops are rare and are found only where the vein happens to be 
exceptionally large or the topography very favorable for outcrops, such as 
steep-hill slopes or a stream or road cutting. The common and also un- 
mistakable indication of a vein is the great number of quartz fragments 
marking on the surface of the ground the course of the vein. The usual 
outcrop consists of a ledge of irregular quartz boulders varying in size from 
a few inches up to several feet in diameter. A typical outcrop is illustrated 
in Plate IV (A). 

Very few of the workable mineralized veins in the district are more 
than 10 feet wide, and the average width is about 3 feet. That they are 
numerous is shown by the large quantity of quartz debris which is found in 
greater or less abundance everywhere. As opened by mining the veins in 
general have well-defined walls which part readily from the vein in mining, 
although the mineralization is not confined exclusively to the vein, a small, 
but often important amount of ore occurring in the schist at the contact with 
the vein. In many instances numerous fragments and plates of country rock 
are included within the vein. This is so marked in some cases that it gives 
the vein a banded or brecciated appearance. The former especially is true at 
the High Hill and Blue Wing mines and to a less extent at the Durgy mine. 
At the last-mentioned mine in addition to the pseudo-banding, about 100 feet 
north of the shaft, on the 335-foot level the vein was split and included a 
"horse" of country rock in the form of a lens about 25 feet thick and 75 to 100 
feet long. All the mines show numerous more or less altered angular frag- 
ments of the country rock, indicating that there must have been more or less 
brecciation when the fractures were formed. The dump at the Thomas 
mine shows more of such included fragments than any other mine in the 
district. In all such cases some of the fragments and plates of country 
rock included in the vein show evidence of metasomatic replacement in 
that they are in many instances more or less completely altered to quartz. 
This phenomenon is especially well shown in the Blue Wing vein. The 



66 GEOLOGY AND OKE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

quartz thus formed generally has a decided blue or dirty gray color and 
contrasts strongly with the clean vitreous white quartz of the vein. In 
many instances near one of the walls a vein will consist of thin layers of 
quartz interleaved with similar layers or plates of schist, indicating that 
at the time the fracture was formed the schists were rifted or torn apart 
along the planes of schistosity, and that the vein matter had been sub- 
sequently deposited in the rifts. 

In some mines, especially the Durgy and the Blue Wing, the walls at 
the contact with the vein in many places are very smooth and closely re- 
semble slicken-sided surfaces. Such, indeed, may be the case, since it is 
not at all unlikely that there was considerable movement at the time the 
fissures were formed, or even since that time. Where there are no slicken- 
sides nor even any indication of them, the contact between vein and wall 
is generally clear-cut and sharp, and there are no very evident indications 
of replacement of wall rock by quartz and other vein matter. The only 
change at the contact is a kind of dark-colored chloritic material somewhat 
resembling altered schist, which in places wraps the vein. Weed speaks of 
this feature as being prominent at the Holloway vein, and describes it as a 
micaceous wrapping probably derived from the country rock. 

Only a small percentage of the veins are mineralized, and they are 
almost exclusively confined to the Virgilina greenstone. With the exception 
of the Kay mine, every prospect opened to any important extent in the 
district is in a vein in the greenstone. About the only way in which the 
barren veins differ from those that contain the ores is in the fact that 
the ore minerals are lacking. Possibly calcite and epidote are also less 
plentiful in the barren veins, and feldspar and in places hematite are 
equally if not more abundant. So far as is known the quartz of the barren 
vein is similar in all respects to that in the veins which carry values. The 
veins at the different mines have been described in detail under the 
descriptions of the respective mines, and since this chapter is confined to 
descriptions of the veins as a class and to generalizations in regard to them, 
these descriptions will not be repeated here. 

It may be noted that, if upon the accompanying geological map, Plate I, 
a line be drawn approximately 30 degrees east of north from the Duke, 
mine, it will pass through or very near the following mines and prospects : 
The Cross Cut prospect, the Durgy mine, the Northeast prospect, the 
Copper World mine, the Grillis mine, the Thomas mine, the Holloway mine, 
and the Blue Wing mine. Thus this line forms, as it were, an axis along 
which practically all the developed mines of the North Carolina portion of 



DETAILED DESCRIPTION OE THE VEINS AND ORES. 67 

the district lie. It may also be noted that a second, but so far as developed 
at present, a secondary axis or zone of mineralization, is located about three- 
fourths of a mile northwest of the main axis and runs parallel with it. The 
ores of the main axis are those characteristic of the Virgilina district and 
consist of bornite and chalcocite in the usual quartz-epidote-calcite gangue. 
while that of the second includes the native copper deposits of the Catoctin 
type. 

The writer freely confesses that thus far he has not been able to find 
a satisfactory cause for the relationships just described. Several factors 
suggest themselves as possibly having a bearing on the subject, among 
which may be mentioned the following: The mineralization may be asso- 
ciated genetically with certain phases of the Virgilina greenstone and con- 
sequently is found only where these phases of the rock occur. Or on the 
other hand, the mineralized bands or zones may represent lines or zones of 
deep fracturing and faulting which opened channels through which the 
mineralizing solutions came into the greenstone from an entirely outside 
source. The first hypothesis appears to fail because of the fact that, so far 
as could be determined, the greenstone of the mineralized zones does not in 
any way differ petrographically from that outside of these zones. Many 
factors seem to sustain the theory that the mineralized bands or zones 
represent lines of deep fracturing and it is, therefore, offered as a tentative 
explanation of the phenomena. 

NATIVE COPPER DEPOSITS. 

The deposits of native copper and cuprite in epidotized portions or zones 
of the country rock, while not occurring in veins, should be considered in 
this chapter. Thus far these deposits have amounted to very little from a 
commercial standpoint, but to the student of ore deposits they are very 
important, and of course, there is a possibility that such a deposit on a 
large enough scale to be worked on a commercial basis may be discovered. 
These native copper deposits are included by Weed a in his "Catoctin type.' 7 

The writer had little opportunity to study this type of deposit, there 
being only one small prospect in the native copper zone in operation at the 
time of the field examinations. Because of this, details were not obtainable 
and but little in the way of generalization can be given. Thus far only a 
few openings have been made in this type of deposit, and these have been 
for the most part confined to a narrow zone beginning at the southern 



"Weed, Walter H. : Types of copper deposits in the Southern United States. 
Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng., Vol. 30, 1900, p. 452. 



68 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

limits of the town of Virgilina and extending perhaps two miles south- 
westward. So far as noted there is no vein and no typical gangue minerals, 
unless the epidote and quartz be so regarded, and the copper occurs in the 
metallic state as small grains and small irregular areas in the highly 
silicifled and epidotized areas or zones in the country rock. Unlike the 
vein deposits, in linear extension they appear invariably to follow the trend 
of the schistosity of the country rock. The native copper so far as noted is 
confined to areas of epidote, and in most instances in quartz stringers and 
areas in the epidotized schists, suggesting that the solutions which produced 
the alterations in the country rock also brought in the copper. It may also 
be further suggested that the fracturing was not extensive enough to permit 
the formation of the usual vein, the schists having been only sufficiently 
torn apart to permit copper-bearing solutions to circulate to a. limited 
extent through them. This, however, does not throw any light on the 
question as to why the copper should have been deposited in the metallic 
state instead of as sulphides, as in the quartz veins. It might be suggested 
that ferrous iron in the minerals of the country rock may have caused it. 
It is known that minerals, even silicates, rich in ferrous iron may, under 
certain conditions, reduce copper in solutions to the metallic state. 

In a few instances native copper was noted in amygdules in epidotized 
schist derived from areas of amygdaloidal andesite intercalated in the tuffs. 

The cuprite which occurs in this type of deposit is not confined to the 
epidote and quartz, but is found in the parting planes of the schists near 
the native copper in epidote. In some instances small areas were noted in 
the quartz and epidote, filling spaces that had once been filled with native 
copper. Other areas were seen in which a core of copper still remained. 
The cuprite is believed to be of supergene or secondary origin and to have 
been derived from the native copper. 

MINERALOGY OF THE VEINS. 

General statement. — The gangue minerals of the veins, exclusive of in- 
cluded fragments of schist, named in the approximate order of their 
abundance are: Quartz, calcite, epidote, chlorite, hematite, sericite, albite, 
and possibly other plagioclase feldspars in small amount, and pink 
orthoclase. 

The ore minerals named in the approximate order of their abundance 
are: Bornite, chalcocite, native copper, malachite, azurite, cuprite, chal- 
copyrite, chrysocolla, klaprothite ( ?), pyrite, argentite, silver, and gold. Of 
these minerals, bornite (in part), chalcocite (in part), chalcopyrite (in 



68 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

limits of the town of Virgilina and extending perhaps two miles south- 
westward. So far as noted there is no vein and no typical gangue minerals, 
unless the epidote and quartz be so regarded, and the copper occurs in the 
metallic state as small grains and small irregular areas in the highly 
silicified and epidotized areas or zones in the country rock. Unlike the 
vein deposits, in linear extension they appear invariably to follow the trend 
of the schistosity of the country rock. The native copper so far as noted is 
confined to areas of epidote, and in most instances in quartz stringers and 
areas in the epidotized schists, suggesting that the solutions which produced 
the alterations in the country rock also brought in the copper. It may also 
be further suggested that the fracturing was not extensive enough to permit 
the formation of the usual vein, the schists having been only sufficiently 
torn apart to permit copper-bearing solutions to circulate to a limited 
extent through them. This, however, does not throw any light on the 
question as to why the copper should have been deposited in the metallic 
state instead of as sulphides, as in the quartz veins. It might be suggested 
that ferrous iron in the minerals of the country rock may have caused it. 
It is known that minerals, even silicates, rich in ferrous iron may, under 
certain conditions, reduce copper in solutions to the metallic state. 

In a few instances native copper was noted in amygdules in epidotized 
schist derived from areas of amygdaloidal andesite intercalated in the tuffs. 

The cuprite which occurs in this type of deposit is not confined to the 
epidote and quartz, but is found in the parting planes of the schists near 
the native copper in epidote. In some instances small areas were noted in 
the quartz and epidote, filling spaces that had once been filled with native 
copper. Other areas were seen in which a core of copper still remained. 
The cuprite is believed to be of supergene or secondary origin and to have 
been derived from the native copper. 

MINERALOGY OF THE VEINS. 

General statement. — The gangue minerals of the veins, exclusive of in- 
cluded fragments of schist, named in the approximate^ order of their 
abundance are: Quartz, calcite, epidote, chlorite, hematite, sericite, albite, 
and possibly other plagioclase feldspars in small amount, and pink 
orthoclase. 

The ore minerals named in the approximate order of their abundance 
are: Bornite, chalcocite, native copper, malachite, azurite, cuprite, chal- 
copyrite, chrysocolla, klaprothite ( ?), pyrite, argcntite, silver, and gold. Of 
these minerals, bornite (in part), chalcocite (in part), chalcopyrite (in 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE V. 




(A) Photograph of a specimen of ore from the Wall mine showing the relation of 
ore and gangue. The vein was divided at the point from which this specimen 
was taken, and the piece here figured represents the entire width of one 
portion of the vein. 

Dark areas = ore, chalcocite and bornite. Light areas = vein matter, largely quartz. 




(B) Tracing made from a polished surface of a specimen of ore from the Wall mine, 
natural size. Shows the relation of the ore to the quartz gangue. This re- 
lationship is typical of all the mines in the district. The ore and quartz ap- 
pear to be of contemporaneous deposition. 
Black = ore, chalcocite and bornite. White = gangue, largely quartz. 



DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE VEINS AND ORES. 69 

part), pyrite, klaprothite, argentite, copper in the native copper deposits, 
and gold are regarded as hypogene or primary, while a part each of the 
chalcocite, bornite, and chalcopyrite, and all the native silver, cuprite, 
malachite, azurite, and chrysocolla are supergene or secondary. 

From these statements it can be seen that the mineralogy of the veins 
of the Yirgilina district is simple, there being few rare or complex minerals. 
The gangue minerals and the hypogene ore minerals are so intricately inter- 
mixed and intergrown that there is little doubt of all being contemporaneous 
in development. Typical relations between ore and gangue are shown in 
Plate Y. 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF GANGUE MINERALS. 

Quartz. — The ores as they occur in the ore shoots that have been 
opened contain an average of 2% to 3 per cent of copper, and carry an excess 
of from 70 to more than 75 per cent silica. The veins taken as a whole 
will carry a much higher percentage of silica. This shows at a glance that 
the veins must be made up largely of quartz. 

The quartz of the veins is for the most part of the white vitreous 
variety, quite massive, and, while completely crystalline, rarely occurs in 
the form of crystals. As a rule it is very solid and dense and only in very 
rare instances does it show honeycomb structure. In a few places, notably 
in an abandoned field about 3 miles north of Yirgilina, well-terminated 
crystals were found in the quartz debris on the surface. Only one end of 
the crystals showed perfect terminations, the other being broken or ir- 
regular, making it appear as if the crystals had formed with their points 
projecting into cavities. The forms on the crystals are simple, only com- 
mon prism and pyramid faces having been noted. Crystals at this point 
were fairly numerous. They were peculiar in one respect, being made up 
of zones of clear transparent quartz alternating with others of white or 
milky appearance. At the Seaboard mine and to a less extent at the other 
mines quartz occasionally occurs as poorly terminated or rounded crystals 
which in some instances project into the larger masses of ore. As a rule 
the faces of such crystals are not well developed and they closely resemble 
rounded pebbles. Well-terminated quartz crystals occur in small openings 
or vugs associated with calcite crystals in the High Hill mine. Many frag- 
ments of the schists occur as inclusions in the veins, and in a few instances 
some of these were partially replaced by quartz. In many cases they have 
sharp and clear-cut boundaries and show little or no indications of meta- 
somatism. The primary ores and all other minerals in the veins are inti- 



70 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VTRGILINA DISTRICT. 

mately and intricately intergrown with the quartz, which makes up from 
50 to over 75 per cent of the veins. 

Calcite. — Calcite is next in importance to quartz. It occurs regularly 
in all the veins that have been opened, but is more abundant in some mines 
than in others. The Blue Wing vein contains much more of this mineral 
than any other mine in the district. It is massive, crystalline, and irregu- 
larly distributed through and intergrown with the quartz. This in fact is 
typical of the occurrence of calcite in all the veins. Very rarely is it found 
in crystals as in the High Hill mine, where small vugs are lined with well- 
term mated quartz and calcite crystals. Pogue a describes two types of 
calcite crystals from the High Hill mine, one type consisting of a com- 
bination of the positive rhombohedron r(1011) and the rare scalenohedron 
G:(7295), and the other of a symmetrical combination of the scalenohedron 
Y(3251) and the negative rhombohedron e(0112) modified by the positive 
rhombohedrons r(1011) and k(5052), and the rare scalenohedron 
Q:(7295).. 

In the Seaboard and Copper King mines calcite crystals occur with 
poorly developed faces. They are associated with quartz, epidote, albite in 
good crystals, and the ores. In ore from the Copper King mine copper 
crystals are occasionally found projecting into masses of bornite and 
chalcocite. (See p. 157.) 

Calcite as it usually occurs is massive and intimately intergrown with 
the quartz in such manner as to make it clear that the two minerals are 
contemporaneous in development. The ore minerals occasionally occur in 
the massive white calcite in the same manner as they are found in the 
quartz. Very little calcite was noted in the veins in which the predominant 
values lie in gold; however, it is present to some extent in the Eed Bank 
vein. (See p. 161 for description.) 

Epidote. — Epidote as it occurs in the veins possesses only its usual and 
normal characteristics, and is generally intimately intergrown with the 
quartz and rarely with the calcite. Where abundant it carries the sulphides 
as do the quartz and calcite. The color is the usual pistachio green, and 
its texture is generally granular, rarely in well-terminated crystals. In 
some places, especially in the native copper deposits, epidote and quartz 
occur in alternating bands. In such instances the epidote is always 
granular. It rarely or never occurs in crystal form. 



» Pogue, J. E. : Crystallograpliic notes on calcite, Smithsonian Miscellaneous 
Collections, Vol. 52, 1909, Pt. 4, pp. 467-408. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE VI. 




(A) Photograph, natural size, of a specimen of ore from the Copper King mine 
showing association of ore (chalcocite and bornite) and calcite. Some of the 
calcite which is imbedded in the sulphides is in the form of well-terminated 
crystals. 




"r^ y^ 



(B) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Blue Wing mine showing- 
plates of hematite in quartz. Hematite occurs in both sulphides as well as in 
tbe rocks and gangue minerals of the district. An area of intergrown bornite 
and chalcocite is shown on one side of the figure, and a few small areas of 



chalcocite occur in the quartz. 

White = hematite. Light gray = chalcocite. 

Darkest gray = quartz. 



Darker gray = bornite. 



DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE VEINS AND ORES. 71 

Chlorite. — Chlorite is an abundant gangue mineral in all the mines, but 
is more plentiful in some than in others. It possesses only its normal char- 
acteristics, is generally dark green in color, and is likely to be found in 
masses made up of tufts or bunches which show an aggregate polarization 
effect somewhat similar to that of chalcedony. In some instances the 
chlorite might be confused with sericite when the two occur in the same 
section. They may be distinguished from each other by noting the facts 
that chlorite is almost invariably a rather dark green in color, that it does 
not show the change in relief when rotated on the stage of the microscope 
which is characteristic of sericite, and that it always has its characteristic 
low birefringence. In a few places, especially in some of the ore from the 
Copper King mine, in which the mineral is very abundant, chlorite is 
intimately associated with the sulphides, and appears, in* some instances, 
to have been replaced by them. However, in the specimens of this type that 
were studied, the evidence was not conclusive, and it is not certain that 
chlorite and sulphides were not of contemporaneous deposition. 

Hematite. — Micaceous hematite, or specularite, as it is sometimes called, 
is present as a gangue mineral in all the mines of the district. For the 
most part it is present only in small amount, but in some places it is more 
abundant than the sulphides. This is especially true of a small prospect 
about half a mile southeast of the Blue Win^ mine in which hematite makes 
up more than 60 per cent of the metallic minerals of the vein as shown 
in the material on the dump. In many instances the quartz of the gangue 
is literally filled with minute plates of hematite. A typical area of this 
kind is shown in Plate VI (B). In addition to its prominent place as a 
gangue mineral, hematite is also widely distributed throughout the country 
rock. 

Sericite. — Another of the persistent gangue minerals, and one which is 
present in appreciable amount, is sericite. Almost any section of the ores 
and gangue from any mine in the district will show sericite very intimately 
associated with the sulphides. It occurs both as masses projecting from the 
other gangue minerals into the sulphides and as irregular bunches of 
crystals included within them. So far as the writer's observations have 
extended, the relation of the sericite to the sulphides does not warrant any 
positive statement as to the relative age of the two. He is inclined, however, 
to regard them as of contemporaneous deposition. The role of sericite as 
a gangue mineral has recently been studied in much detail by Eogers, a who, 



• Rogers, Austin F.: .Sericite, a low temperature hydrothermal mineral. Eco- 
nomic Geology, Vol. 11. 1016, pp. 118-150. 



72 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

after an examination of a number of polished and thin sections of the 
Virgilina ores, comes to the conclusion that the sericite is later than the 
hypogene chalcocite and the bornite, but earlier than the supergene chal- 
cocite. The article is illustrated with photomicrographs of polished sections 
of ore specimens from the Durgy and the Blue Wing mines, which Professor 
Rogers interprets as showing that the sericite is younger than the hypogene 
but older than the supergene sulphides. The writer, after a very careful 
study of many polished sections as well as many thin sections of the 
Virgilina ores and also a careful study of Professor Rogers' photographs, 
believes that the evidence presented by the ore sections is not conclusive, 
and that it points more strongly toward a conclusion that the sericite is 
contemporaneous with the hypogene sulphides. 

AMie— Albite, and possibly other plagioclase feldspars, is of frequent 
occurrence as a gangue mineral in the Virgilina ores. It usually occurs as 
well-developed crystals which vary in size from one-fourth of an inch to 
one inch in longest direction. It is intimately associated with quartz, 
chlorite, calcite, and the hypogene sulphides. In the Copper King mine 
albite occurs plentifully in well-formed crystals in massive sulphides which 
appear to have replaced chlorite, and the same hand specimen occasionally 
shows albite, quartz, and calcite in close association with the sulphides. It 
occurs in the Seaboard mine (shaft No. 3), with quartz, calcite, epidote, and 
the hypogene sulphides. It is also present in small amount in all the other 
mines of the district, but was not found in such intimate relations with the 
sulphides as in the mines just mentioned. In many of the prospect open- 
ings made in different barren veins in the district, albite is very abundant. 
This is especially true of an abandoned prospect in an old field about one- 
fourth of a mile southwest of the store at Red Bank. In the material on 
the dump at this place a cream-colored feldspar, probably albite, is second 
in abundance as a gangue mineral only to quartz. In the Red Bank gold 
mine albite and a delicate pink feldspar, probably orthoclase, occur fre- 
quently in stringers and veinlets in the ore and in the associated rock. 

Orthoclase. — A delicate pink or flesh-colored feldspar, which, so far as 
methods of identification could determine, in the. absence of chemical 
analyses, is orthoclase, which is found as a gangue mineral in the Holloway, 
Durgy, and Blue Wing mines, and in considerable amount in the tAvo Corn- 
field prospects just south of Virgilina. In the first-mentioned places the 
mineral was not found in actual contact with the ores, but in the Cornfield 
prospects it serves as a host mineral for all the different hypogene sulphides. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE VII. 




Photograph of a polished surface of ore from the Seaboard mine, xlO. This speci- 
men shows a mass of bornite penetrated in all directions by a mesh or net- 
work of chalcocite which has formed in fractures in the bornite. This type 
of chalcocite is clearly of supergene origin and is typical of all such chalcocite 
examined, the only difference being the stage of development. This one is 
farther advanced than any of the others shown in this report. The line in 
the center of many of the chalcocite veinlets is quartz and marks the position 
of the fracture in which the chalcocite began to develop. Running diago- 
nally across the specimen is a more recent fracture which cuts both bornite 
and chalcocite veins. A tinv veinlet of chalcocite has formed in this fracture. 






DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE VEINS AND ORES. 73 

It frequently occurs in the form of small veins or stringers in the country 
rock in the vicinity of the veins. It is also fairly abundant in the Keel Bank 
gold mine, occurring in a similar manner to that in the other mines. The 
occurrence of orthoclase as a gangue mineral in the ore deposits is of con- 
siderable importance in considering the question of the origin of the ores 
and the solutions which deposited them. So far as is known orthoclase 
does not occur as an original mineral in the Virgilina greenstone. The 
discovery of it in appreciable amounts in the ore deposits, therefore, is 
strong evidence in favor of the belief that the ores and the solutions 
depositing them were derived from a source or sources entirely outside of 
the greenstone, and in all probability from a granitic rock. No such rock 
except the Eedoak and Buffalo granites is known in the district, and it is 
therefore believed that the ore deposits are genetically related to the granite 
and that they were formed contemporaneously with the intrusion of the 
granite masses, or immediately following the intrusion while the magma 
was cooling and giving off its emanations. 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE ORE MINERALS. 

General statement. — The ore minerals of the Virgilina district, named 
in the approximate order of their abundance, are : Bornite, chalcocite, 
malachite, native copper, azurite, cuprite, chalcopyrite, chrysocolla, k-lap- 
rothite, pyrite, argentite, silver, and gold. It should be stated that this 
enumeration of the minerals is applicable to the copper and not to the gold 
deposits. In the gold deposits there is very little copper and the principal 
mineral is native gold, which occurs in the more or less silicified schist. 

The following minerals are regarded as of hypogene or primary deposi- 
tion: Bornite (in part), chalcocite (in part), native copper (in the 
deposits of the Catoctin type), chalcopyrite (in part), klaprothite, pyrite, 
argentite, and gold. The following minerals are regarded as of supergene 
or secondary deposition: chalcocite (in part), native copper (in all except 
the deposits of the Catoctin type), chalcopyrite (in part), bornite (in 
part), malachite, azurite, cuprite, chrysocolla, and native silver. 

It might be well to add a word of explanation as to the use of the terms 
hypogene and supergene in describing the ores. These terms are not exact 
synonyms of the terms primary and secondary, respectively. Hypogene is 
used to designate the mineralization brought about through deep-seated 
agencies, solutions or otherwise. Supergene is used to designate the altera- 
tions and mineralization which have been brought about through superficial 
agencies, meteoric waters, oxygen, etc. It is, therefore, clear that they are 



74 GKOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

not used synonymously with the words primary and secondary as applied 
to the deposition of ores. A mineral may, therefore, be secondary in a 
mineralogical sense and still be of hypogene origin. In fact, some students 
of the Virgilina ores believe that the chalcocite which occurs in graphic 
intergrowth with the bornite is, in a mineralogical sense, secondary to the 
bornite, but still of hypogene origin. That is, they believe that this chal- 
cocite was formed later than the bornite, but by deep-seated agencies. Such 
observers believe that the chalcocite which fills fractures in the bornite is 
also secondary in a mineralogical sense and at the same time of supergene 
origin. That is, they believe this chalcocite is younger than the bornite, 
that it was formed by descending meteoric water, and that it was probably 
derived from the bornite. 

Bornite. — Bornite (peacock copper, Cu 5 FeS 4 , 63.33 per cent copper, 
<?5.55 per cent sulphur, and 11.12 per cent iron) is the most abundant of 
the hypogene minerals of the district. It occurs in all the ore deposits and 
forms the most important of the so-called primary minerals. It is always 
massive, but often has a recognizable crystalline structure, and is almost 
invariably more or less intricately intergrown with chalcocite. On a fresh 
fracture the mineral has a beautiful bronze color, tarnishing readily and 
quickly to a kind of copper red, which in turn changes after a short time to an 
indigo blue. The purest bornite found in the district, that is, the bornite 
with the least chalcocite, occurs in the Seaboard mine. In most occurrences 
it is so intimately intergrown with chalcocite that it is all but impossible 
to free the two. When a polished section of bornite is etched and examined 
with the microscope it is seen to be made up of an interlocking mass of 
medium-sized, anhedral grains of different orientation. When the mineral 
is intergrown with chalcocite the intergrowths, when they involve the 
individual grains, are invariably along definite crystallographic directions 
of the two minerals. 

In a recent article" Allen has shown that the chemical composition of 

natural bornite is Cu 5 FeS 4 instead of Cu 3 FeS 3 as given in most text-books 

of mineralogy. In this paper he quotes an analysis of bornite from the 

Virgilina district by Dr. Chase Palmer 7 ' of the U. S. Geological Survey as 

follows : 

Per cent 

Cu * 62.50 

Fe 11.64 

S 25.40 

"Allen, E. T. : The composition of natural bornite. Am. Jour. Sci., 1016. Vol. 41, 
pp. 400-413. 

"Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., 1015. Vol. 5. p. 351. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE VIII. 










Ji* 



.O m m 



(B; Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from the Seaboard mine. Shows 
typical development of supergene (secondary) chalcocite in bornite. 
Similar in all respects to (A), except that the alteration in this section is 
farther advanced, and the statements made in regard to (A) are equally 
applicable to this section. It may be noted that there are at least two con- 
stituents in the chalcocite areas. These, so far as could be determined, con- 
sist of quartz and limonite. They are better shown in Plate XIII (A) and 
(B), which is a more highly magnified area from a polished section of ore 
from the Seaboard mine which shows the same phenomena in better de- 
velopment. 

Light gray = chalcocite. Dark gray = bornite. Black =rpits. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE VIII. 




.-5 Y^ 



(A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from the Seaboard mine. Shows 
typical development of supergene (secondary) chalcocite in fractures in 
bornite. The alteration begins in the minute fracture-openings, often so small 
that they are invisible except with the very highest powers of the microscope, 
and extends inward into the bornite until in the end only minute island-like 
patches of bornite remain in a mass of chalcocite. In many instances, as 
shown in the largest fracture in the photomicrograph, a line of quartz and 
iron oxide marks the original fracture in which the chalcocite began to 
develop. 

This pattern is very different from the graphic intergrOwth, and is strong 
evidence against the supergene origin of such intergrowths. 

White lines = chalcocite. Dark areas = bornite. 



DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE VEINS AND ORES. 75 

This analysis which differs very slightly from the theoretical composi- 
tion of the mineral shows the exceptional purity of some of the Virgilina 
bornite. The only impurity recognized by Dr. Palmer in the specimen 
analyzed was a minute amount of chalcopyrite. 

Like chalcocite and chalcopyrite, the bornite of the Virgilina district is of 
two periods of deposition. One portion, by far the largest, is of hypogene 
origin and constitutes the most important original or primary ore mineral 
of the district. Another portion, much smaller than the first, is of super- 
gene origin and occurs as a replacement mineral in veinlets in chalcopyrite. 
Except in the ore from the Glasscock shaft of the Pontiac mine and in 
that from the Cornfield No. 2 prospect, bornite is very rarely found in 
association with chalcopyrite. It was in specimens of ore from the Corn- 
field Xo. 2 prospect that the supergene replacements of chalcopyrite by 
bornite were found. This subject is treated in considerable detail on 
page 153, and the descriptions need not be repeated in this place. Plates 
IX and X are photomicrographs of ore showing bornite in its different 
relations to chalcopyrite. 

Occasionally, as a result of supergene processes, bornite alters to chal- 
copyrite, as is shown in Plate IX (A). The alteration is discussed in detail 
on page 87. The usual and most frequent alteration of bornite in the 
Virgilina district is to chalcocite, and unless the chalcocite which occurs in 
graphic intergrowth with the bornite represents a hypogene alteration of 
the bornite, which the writer thinks is not the case, the chalcocitization of 
the bornite in this district is always a supergene alteration and is brought 
about only by superficial agencies. A typical intergrowth of bornite and 
chalcocite is shown in Plate XV (A and B). There is nothing in connection 
with such intergrowths, so far as the writer can see, that even suggests a 
replacement of the bornite by chalcocite. Such, however, is not the case as 
regards the chalcocite which occurs in fractures in the bornite as shown in 
Plate VIII (A and B). This type of ore is characteristic of the upper 
portion of the deposits, and so far as the observations of the writer have ex- 
tended is not found below the depths reached by superficial alterations. It is 
clearly of supergene origin, represents secondary enrichment, and is brought 
about by descending meteoric waters. The relation of bornite and chal- 
cocite to each other is discussed in detail in another place, page 83, and 
need not be repeated here. 

Chalcocite. — Chalcocite (copper glance or vitreous copper, Cu 2 S, 79.80 
per cent copper and 20.20 per cent sulphur) as an ore mineral in the 



7f) GEOLOGY AND OEE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

Yirgilina district is second in importance only to bornite, and the two 
together make up probably 90 per cent of all the copper-bearing minerals of 
the district. Indeed, it is doubtful that chalcocite is even subordinate to 
bornite. In the Holloway mine, so far as could be determined, chalcocite 
was by far the more abundant of the two minerals, but, as regards the other 
mines, it is probably subordinate to bornite. So far as observations have 
extended chalcocite occurs in the district only in the massive form. A care- 
ful lookout for chalcocite crystals was kept during the entire field work, but 
none was found. As is well shown under the microscope, the massive min- 
eral as it occurs in this district is made up of irregular, interlocking, small- 
to medium-sized anhedral grains of different orientation. So far as could 
be determined from the cleavage in the different grains, as brought out by 
etching a polished surface, the mineral is in the orthorhombic form. Some 
students of the Virgilina ore deposits take this fact as proof that the 
chalcocite was deposited from low temperature solutions. It has been shown 
by Allen a that artificial chalcocite, when deposited at a temperature above 
91 degrees C, crystallizes in the isometric system, and when at lower 
temperature it assumes the orthorhombic form. It is not known that the 
same is true of chalcocite deposited under the conditions of temperature 
and pressure that prevail during the deposition of minerals in the deep- 
vein zone. Under such conditions it is not known that chalcocite could 
not be deposited in the orthorhombic form at a much higher temperature 
than 91 degrees C, or, even if it were deposited in the isometric form, it 
is not known that it might not, in the course of time, or as a result of 
* changes in the conditions, revert to the orthorhombic form. Until more 
is known about the subject the writer feels that it is not safe to base any 
far-reaching conclusions as to the origin of natural chalcocite or the 
temperature at which it was deposited, on so slender a premise as the 
relation of temperature to the crystal form of artificial chalcocite. He 
believes that the relation of chalcocite and bornite to each other, as well 
as the general conditions of the vein, indicate very strongly that the 
graphically intergrown bornite and chalcocite were deposited contempo- 
raneously and that they are, therefore, both deep-seated hypogene minerals. 

Chalcocite occurs in two very distinct ways in the bornite : as a super- 
gene mineral secondary to and filling fractures in the bornite, and as a 
hypogene mineral intergrown, in many instances graphically, with it. The 
former type is shown in Plate XIV and in Plate XVI (A and B). The 



"Posnjak, E., Allen, E. T., and Merwin, H. E. : Economic Geology, Vol. 10, 1915, 
p. 491. 



DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE VEINS AND ORES. 77 

latter type is well illustrated in Plates VIII and XII. The supergene or 
secondary chalcocite occurs for the most part in two forms, as replacement 
of the bornite along lines of fracture, and as rims of varying width repre- 
senting replacement that has taken place around the periphery of areas 
of quartz embedded in the bornite and at the contact between bornite and 
larger areas of quartz. These types of replacement are also characteristic 
of chalcocite in chalcopyrite. They are illustrated in Plates IX and XL 
In one instance, in ore from the Cornfield No. 2 prospect, a specimen was 
found which showed a rim of chalcopyrite between an area of quartz and 
bornite with a minute rim of chalcocite between the chalcopyrite and the 
quartz. This specimen is illustrated in Plate IX (A). These relations 
between the different minerals indicate that the bornite was first replaced 
by the chalcopyrite which in turn was replaced by chalcocite. In all the 
clearly supergene or secondary chalcocite examined, regardless of the min- 
eral or minerals with which it was associated and from which it had been 
derived, it was invariably closely related with fractures in the original 
sulphide or to a contact between the original sulphide and a gangue 
mineral, usually quartz. Such, however, is certainly not the case with the 
chalcocite which is intergrown with the bornite. It is true that there are 
many fractures across the intergrown sulphides, in which chalcocite has 
developed, but they are clearly later than the intergrowths, and, so far as 
the writer was able to ascertain, had absolutely nothing to do with their 
development. 

The color Of the hypogene chalcocite is by no means uniform, but 
presents various tints of bluish-gray. Occasionally a specimen is found 
which in polished section shows areas of the mineral of different colors, 
each clearly outlined from the others and having its own distinct figure or 
pattern. This fact has been noted in chalcocite -from other localities, espe- 
cially from Butte, Mont., but the causes underlying its formation are not 
known. Chalcocite of two colors is shown in Plate XIX (A). In this 
instance the areas of the mineral having the deeper color are graphically 
intergrown with bornite while the others are not. 

Clialcopyrite. — Chalcopyrite (yellow copper, Cu 2 S.Fe 2 S 3 , copper 34.50 
per cent, and sulphur, 35.00 per cent) is found in sufficient quantity to be 
of any importance as an ore in only two mines or prospects in the Virgilina 
district, the Pontiac and the Cornfield Xo. 2 prospects. In all other mines 
or prospects, so far as could be determined, the mineral, if present at all, 
occurs only in very small amount. In fact, except in the two places just 
mentioned, chalcopyrite is one of the scarcest minerals in the district. It 



78 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIKG1LINA DISTRICT. 

occurs in two ways in both of these prospects, as a hypogene mineral, con- 
temporaneous with the bornite with which it is more or less intricately 
intergrown, and as a supergene mineral filling fractures in the bornite and as 
rims around quartz areas embedded within the bornite. Plate IX (A and 
B) shows the supergene, while Plate X (A) shows the hypogene chal- 
copyrite. In many instances the associations of hypogene chalcopyrite and 
bornite are apparently similar in all respects, as regards physical form and 
pattern, to those of hypogene bornite and hypogene chalcocite as illustrated 
in Plate XIV (A and B). An interesting relation between bornite and chal- 
copyrite is shown in Plate X (A). In this instance the bornite appears 
to be secondary to and to have replaced the chalcopyrite, but whether it 
is of hypogene or supergene origin is not clear. It appears to have 
developed in a fracture in the chalcopyrite, and extending outward from 
the fracture to have extended to varying distances into the host mineral. 
Following the change, after considerable secondary bornite had developed, 
the conditions evidently changed and some of the bornite was altered to 
chalcopyrite, which occurs as minute veinlets in the bornite. A still later 
change in the conditions is shown by the fact that some of the secondary 
bornite as well as some of the secondary chalcopyrite has been altered into 
chalcocite. These last two alterations are pretty clearly of supergene origin ; 
the first alteration in the series, that of the chalcopyrite, is believed to be 
of supergene origin. However, if, as some students believe, the intergrown 
chalcocite represents a hypogene alteration of bornite, it appears to the 
writer that the alteration of chalcopyrite into bornite, as it occurs in the 
ores from Cornfield No. 2 prospect, may possibly be of hypogene origin. 

Native copper. — Native copper occurs in the Virgilina district in two 
ways : as a supergene mineral in the upper zones of the sulphide-bearing 
veins, and as a hypogene mineral closely associated with quartz and epidote 
in the so-called native copper deposits; that is, in deposits of the Catoctin 
type, such as the Native Shaft in the southern limits of the town of 
Virgilina, and in the Pannebaker and other prospects farther south in the 
same area. 

Native copper of the first type, so far as observations have extended, 
occurs almost invariably as thin plates in fractures in the altered ores, and 
is confined to the upper and altered portions of the veins. It was found in 
the High Hill, the Holloway, and the Durgy mines, and it probably oc- 
curred in other openings. It is present only in minute quantities and 
consequently is of no importance commercially. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE IX. 







Jrr^rr\ 



(A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Cornfield Prospect No. 1. 
Shows supergene chalcopyrite occurring as a rim at the contact of bornite 
and quartz and as gash veinlets in the bornite. Supergene chalcocite also 
occurs as a very narrow rim at the contact of the quartz and chalcopyrite, 
indicating that after the replacement of the bornite by chalcopyrite at the 
quartz contact, conditions changed and the chalcopyrite was replaced by 
chalcocite at the contact of the chalcopyrite. The photograph does not dis- 
tinguish between the chalcopyrite and the chalcocite. 

White lines and rim = chalcopyrite. Gray = bornite. Larger black area = 
quartz. Black dots = pits. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE IX. 




.5 



W\YV\ 



(B) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Cornfield Prospect No. 1. 
Shows supergene chalcopyrite occurring as rims around irregular areas of 
bornite. 

White = chalcocite. Gray = bornite. Black = quartz. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE X. 




Srrim 



(B) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Cornfield Prospect No. 1. 
Shows bornite in what are believed to be both supergene and hypogene re- 
lations with hypogene chalcopyrite, together with gash veinlets of supergene 
chalcopyrite in the supergene bornite. Supergene bornite that could be 
recognized as such is very rare in the Virgilina district; in fact, it was found 
only in this one prospect. In this section it occurs in what appears to have 
been a fracture in the hypogene chalcopyrite and to have developed from it in 
a manner similar to that of the formation of chalcocite in fractures in bornite. 
Minute veins of supergene chalcopyrite and chalcocite are seen in the large 
area of supergene bornite. 

Light gray = chalcopyrite. Dark gray = bornite. Light gray 
veinlets = chalcopyrite. Darker gray veinlets = chalcocite. 

Black = quartz. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE X. 




rr\ rw 



(A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Cornfield Prospect No. 1. 
Shows bornite and chalcopyrite in typical association in ore which is be- 
lieved to be of hypogene origin. The pattern formed by the intergrowth 
very closely resembles the coarser intergrowths of bornite and chalcocite, but 
there are not so many hook-shaped forms. Occurring as rims at the contact 
of both chalcopyrite and bornite and quartz, and as narrow gash veinlets in 
both, is a small amount of supergene chalcocite. 

White areas — chalcopyrite. Dark gray areas = bornite. Light gray rims 
and veinlets = chalcocite. Black = quartz. 












DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE VEINS AND ORES. 79 

The native copper in the deposits of the Catoctin type does not occur 
in veins, but in silicified and epidotized areas of the Virgilina greenstone. 
These deposits are always of irregular outline and the metal is distributed 
very irregularly through the quartz and epidote, evidently preferring the 
quartz, but occasionally in the epidote. Weed a believes that as a general 
rule copper deposits of the Catoctin type are formed by superficial altera- 
tion and that the values are always of shallow depth. So far as the writer's 
observations have extended, the native copper deposits of the Virgilina 
district are clearly of hypogene origin, and he believes there are no valid 
reasons for assuming that they are limited to shallow depth. 

In these deposits the copper occurs in irregular and distorted crystals, 
as in irregular branching or tree-like form which generally show imperfect 
crystal faces, and as anhedral grains which seem to have accommodated 
themselves to the spaces available for their development. The copper as a 
rule is fairly pure, but in some instances it contains an appreciable amount 
of silver. 

Klaprotliite or Klaprotlwlite. — Klaprothite, 3Cu 2 S.2Bi 2 S 3 (copper 
25.30 per cent, bismuth 55.53 per cent, sulphur 19.17 per cent), a copper- 
bismuth sulphide, or at least a mineral having the physical properties of 
klaprothite, so far as they could be determined under the microscope, occurs 
very sparingly in the Virgilina ores. Thus far it has been found only in 
microscopic grains which could not be isolated for chemical examination. 
It was carefully compared under the microscope with known klaprothite 
from Butte, Mont., and so far as could be determined the two minerals are 
identical. The mineral was found only as small grains of fairly regular 
outline, embedded in the bornite. 

Pyrite. — Pyrite (iron pyrites, "fool's gold/ 7 FeS 2 ) is one of the scarcest 
minerals in the Virgilina rocks and ores. In fact, it is so rare that one, 
unless he exercises the greatest care, will overlook it entirely. It was found 
most plentifully in the Cornfield No. 2 prospect, and in very small amount 
in ore from the Durgy and Blue Wing mines. It occurs as minute crystals 
and in veinlets in the greenstone associated with the ores. 

The statements just made apply to the copper and not to the gold mines 
and prospects, in which pyrite while by no means an abundant mineral is 
present in appreciable amount. 

Argentite. — Argentite (vitreous silver, silver glance, Ag 2 S, silver 87.10 
per cent, sulphur 12.90 per cent) is distributed throughout the bornite and 



".Weed, Walter H. : Types of copper deposits in the Southern United States. 
Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng., Vol. 30, 1900, pp. 498-499. 



80 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OP THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

chalcocite in minute amounts. Indeed it is so rare that the most careful 
microscopic examination of a great many polished sections of the richest 
ores at high magnification will be necessary in order to locate it. It was 
found in ore from the Blue Wing and the Durgy mines, respectively, in 
which it occurs as minute grains of fairly regular outline. So far as the 
writer could determine argentite does not replace the minerals in which it 
occurs, and it is believed to be of hypogene origin and contemporaneous 
with the sulphides in which it occurs. Such evidence as could be obtained 
indicates very strongly that all the silver in the original ores occurs in the 
form of argentite. The silver value, while it increases with the copper 
value of the ores and concentrates, varies widely in different samples from 
the same mine, and by no means bears a regular ratio to the copper as it 
necessarily should if silver were in chemical combination with either of the 
copper-bearing sulphides. In the reports of assays from the Durgy mine, 
available to the writer for study, the silver values varied from a trace to 
nearly one-half ounce per ton for each per cent of copper in the ore. This 
is a wider variation than might reasonably be expected if the silver were in 
chemical union with the copper-bearing sulphides, and exactly what would 
result if the silver were present as a definite silver mineral and irregularly 
distributed throughout the copper-bearing sulphides. 

Gold. — Gold occurs in varying quantity in the ores from all the mines 
in the district, the amount varying from a trace to about 0.13 ounce to one 
per cent of copper. The gold values, however, are very irregular, and so 
far as can be estimated from such data as were available the average gold 
value is probably not much more than one-tenth of this amount. 

Of the accessible records those from the Durgy mine showed the 
highest gold values. However, so far as could be learned, there is very 
little difference in the gold value of the ore from the different mines. 

So far as is known the gold in the copper-bearing sulphides occurs 
only as the native metal. The assay records all show great variation in the 
gold value and that there is little or no ratio between it and the percentage 
of copper, facts which show that the gold is not a regular constituent of 
the copper-bearing minerals. 

A careful lookout was kept during all the field work for specimens of 
copper ores carrying gold in visible quantity, but without success. The 
search was continued with the microscope in the laboratory with only 
doubtful results. The operators in the district state that occasionally a 






VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE XL 




YY\ YV\ 



(A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Cornfield. Prospect No. 1. 
Shows hypogene bornite and chalcopyrite and supergene chalcocite in quartz. 
The chalcopyrite is included in the bornite, while the chalcocite forms a 
narrow rim around the irregular areas of the bornite and chalcopyrite. 

White in the gray = chalcopyrite. Gray = bornite. Light rims — chalcocite. 
Black = quartz. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE XL 










rr\ rr\ 



(B) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Cornfield Prospect No. 1, 
showing supergene (secondary) chalcocite in bornite. The chalcocite in this 
section, while it is pretty clearly of supergene origin, shows almost typical 
graphic intergrowths between the two sulphides, thus affording strong evi- 
dence that such intergrowths may result from supergene agencies and that- 
taken alone they are not of very great diagnostic value in deciding questions 
as to origin of chalcocite. 

White = chalcocite. Gray = bornite. Black = pits. 
Intersecting lines = scratches from polishing. 






DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE VEINS AND ORES. 81 

specimen is found in which the gold can readily be seen. Pratt a in his 
professional report on the Durgy mine confirms these statements. He says : 

"In cleaning np the Chilian mill, after crushing a considerable amount 
of ore, there are often found small nuggets of free gold, some of which have 
weighed from 8 to 10 dwt." 

Malachite. — Malachite (the green carbonate of copper, CuCO s . Cu(OH) 2 , 
cupric oxide 71.90 per cent, carbon dioxide 19.90 per cent, water 8.20 per 
cent), the basic, green carbonate of copper, occurs prominently as a coating 
and stain in the oxidized portions of all the copper deposits in the district. 
In most instances it consists of only thin films and stains in the quarts, 
and other vein matter, and in the greenstone lying next to the copper 
minerals, and of itself is of little or no commercial value. In a few cases, 
as at the Glasscock shaft of the Pontiac mine and in the upper part of the 
Hollo way mine, it occurred in larger amount, in radiating tufts and masses, 
and was probably valuable as an ore. It is clearly of supergene origin and 
is formed by the oxidation of the copper-bearing minerals and native copper. 
Malachite forms the principal criterion for guiding the prospector in his 
search for copper deposits in the district. 

Azurite. — Azurite (the blue carbonate of copper, 2CuC0 3 .Cu(OH) 2 , 
cupric oxide 62.20 per cent, carbon dioxide 25.60 per cent, water 5.20 per 
cent), the basic, blue carbonate of copper, is found with malachite in the 
oxidized ores from all mines and prospects in the district, but in much 
smaller amount than the green carbonate. In a few places, especially in 
the Glasscock shaft of the Pontiac mine and in a few places in the Holloway 
mine, it was more abundant. In the Glasscock ore it occasionally is found 
in well-formed monoclinic crystals. In this mine azurite was found in 
sufficient quantity to have some value as an ore. It must be stated, how- 
ever, that in this district the copper carbonates are present in such small 
amount that they are of little or do importance commercially. 

Cuprite. — Cuprite (red oxide of copper, Cu 2 0, copper 88.80 per cent, 
oxygen 12.20 per cent), while present only in small amount, occurs in 
the oxidized portions of practically all the mines and prospects in the 
district. It is more abundant in the so-called "native deposits," that is, 
deposits of the Catoctin type, than in the vein deposits. In these deposits 
it usually is found as a red stain in the associated rock or coating and 
replacing the particles of native copper. It is usually massive, but occa- 



a Pratt, Joseph Hyde: A Report on the Property of the Person Consolidated 
Copper and Gold Mines Company. 1904, p. 6. 



82 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

sionally is found showing more or less well-developed crystal faces, and 
very rarely in the form of long, acicular, hair-like filaments, the so-called 
"plush copper ore," or chalcotrichite. In this last-mentioned form the 
mineral was found only in the Copper King mine in which, in very rare 
instances, it occurs in small vugs in the partially oxidized ore. Except in 
the "native deposits" cuprite is negligible as an ore of copper. 

Melaconite. — Some of the black, earthy material closely associated with 
the partially altered material on the old dump at the Gillis mine closely 
resembles melaconite, the impure cupric oxide. Very little of the material 
was available, and the writer was not able to positively identify it. How- 
ever, it is believed to be melaconite. It is clearly an alteration product 
from the usual copper ores and in this district is of no importance as an ore. 

Clirysocolla. — The Gillis mine has also the distinction of having fur- 
nished the only ehrysocolla, the hydrous silicate of copper, found in the 
district. The material was found in a small pile of ore which had lain upon 
the dump for years. The color varied from greenish-blue to dark brown and 
the mineral was evidently very impure. . Physical and chemical tests, how- 
ever, made the identification reasonably certain. The mineral is present in 
only small amount and is of no importance as an ore. 

Native silver. — Xative silver has been reported as occurring in minute 
amount in the upper portion of the sulphides in nearly all of the important 
mines of the district. The writer was able to find the mineral only in a 
single piece of ore from the dump of the High Hill mine. In this specimen 
the silver occurred as a thin film in a minute fracture in the ore, and was 
clearly of supergene origin. 

RELATION OF THE COPPER-BEARING SULPHIDES TO EACH OTHER. 

General statement. — The relations of the sulphides to each other have 
been discussed with some thoroughness in the pages devoted to the detailed 
description of the ores, pp. 63-82, but it has been thought v best to repeat 
and to some extent enlarge, in this place, the descriptions of the inter- 
relations of the ore minerals which have a bearing upon their origin, 
deposition, and the secondary alterations which they have suffered. Of 
greatest importance in these respects are the graphic intergrowths between 
bornite and chalcocite in the primary ores, or, in other words, the ores 
believed to be of hypogene origin. These relationships are so character- 
istically different from those of the secondary, or supergene sulphides, 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE XII. 




/ 



p.. 



.5 



ry\rr\ 



(B) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from the Pontiac mine (Glasscock 
shaft). Shows typical supergene chalcocite in bornite. Similar in all 
respects to the section shown in ( A ) . 

White = chalcocite. Gray = bornite. Black = pits. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE XII. 




,£ 



y^>r> 



(A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Cornfield Prospect No. 2. 
Shows very clearly the typical pattern of supergene chalcocite in bornite. 
Note the irregularity of outline and the ragged edges of the chalcocite. It is 
a far cry from this sort of pattern to the regularity of pattern and even line 
boundaries between the two sulphides in the graphic intergrowths such as 
are shown in plates XVI and XVIII. It does not seem possible that similar 
agencies acting under similar conditions and upon exactly similar minerals 
could produce results so markedly different. 

Light gray = chalcocite. Dark gray = bornite. Black = pits. 



DETAILED DESCRIPTION OP THE VEINS AND ORES. 83 

that when the two are contrasted it is very difficult to understand how the 
two types or textures could have been formed by similar processes. These 
features will be discussed and illustrated, and some surmises as to the origin 
of the different textures will be made, and their bearing upon the broader 
subject, the origin and deposition of the ores, will be considered. 

Belations of bornite and clialcocite. — In the ores of the Virgilina district 
bornite and chalcocite occur in two very distinct relations to each other. In 
the first type the chalcocite occurs in the bornite in well-defined graphic 
intergrowths which so far as form is concerned are similar to the eutectic 
intergrowths in alloys, and there appears to be no conclusive evidence that 
the two sulphides are not of contemporaneous deposition. In the second 
type the chalcocite occurs in fractures, in irregular areas, and as rims 
around areas of bornite. The relations of the two sulphides in this case 
make it perfectly clear that the chalcocite is of supergene origin and that 
it has replaced the bornite. 

The intergrowths between bornite and chalcocite occur in two forms, 
one in which the two minerals show a more or less irregular distribution, 
and one typically graphic. 

The irregular intergrowth, as it is seen under the reflecting microscope, 
consists of myriads of the most irregular, angular, and hook-shaped areas of 
chalcocite embedded within the bornite. The appearance can best be 
imagined by thinking of a section through a honeycombed, cellular, or 
sponge-like mass of chalcocite so completely merged into a similar mass of 
bornite as to leave absolutely no spaces between the two components. So 
far as could be determined from careful microscopic study of more than 
100 polished sections of such intergrowths, the chalcocite is in no way 
related to fractures in the bornite nor to any known process of supergene 
alteration. Many specimens examined contained fractures in which super- 
gene chalcocite had formed, but these, so far as the writer could determine, 
cut across both minerals of the intergrowths alike without showing any 
indication that the intergrown chalcocite was genetically related to the 
fractures in any way. Many specimens of such intergrowths were to a 
greater or less extent porous, so that when polished sections were made the 
surfaces presented minute pits and openings. These, while apparently more 
numerous in the bornite, were by no means confined to it, and none of 
them were found which showed any alteration of the bornite around the 
openings, except where a fracture had broken through the opening. This 
type of intergrowth is found in great abundance in the ores from all the 



84 GEOLOGY AND OKE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

mines. In fact it is characteristic of the Virgilina ores, and, so far as 
observations have extended, it is not in any way related to the depth from 
which the ores are taken. Fine examples were fonnd in ores from the 
deepest workings of the High Hill, the Seaboard, the Bine Wing, and the 
Durgy mines. 

In many instances a single area under the microscope shows a field in 
which the irregular and the graphic intergrowths both occur, Plate XV II 
(A). In fact, it appears that the graphic is only a special case of the 
irregular intergrowth in which the form of the intergrowth was controlled 
by the crystallographic phenomena of the two minerals. Photomicrographs 
of typical irregular intergrowths are shown in Plate XIV (A and B). 

In the polished section the typically graphic intergrowths occur in three 
fairly well-defined types, one in which the two minerals occur in more or 
less regular, alternating lamellae, one which presents a reticulated pattern, 
and a third which is more or less irregular. It is not intended to state that 
these three types of graphic intergrowth are separate and distinct from 
each other, for there is every gradation from one into the other. In fact 
almost any graphic intergrowth will present an example or examples of all 
three types. 

In the graphic lamellar intergrowth the bornite and chalcocite occur in 
minute alternating lamellae, with still more minute lines of one mineral, 
usually chalcocite, breaking across a band of the other and joining another 
of its own kind. The pattern of this type of intergrowth when seen in 
polished section is an almost exact duplicate of the pearlite eutectoid in 
steel. Pearlite consists of a mechanical mixture of ferrite (free alpha 
iron) and cementite (an iron carbide, Fe 3 C). Pearlite results from the 
contemporaneous solidification of ferrite and cementite as the alloy cools. 
Thus the lamellar graphic intergrowths still more closely resemble the 
eutectic or eutectoid structures of alloys. So far as observations have ex- 
tended the lamellar intergrowths of these ores bear no relationship to 
fractures in the bornite and probably not to any known supergene processes. 
Such intergrowths are illustrated in Plate XVIII (A and B), and in Plate 
XVI ( B ) . When these lamellar intergrowths are etched so as to reveal the 
internal structure of the component minerals, it is clearly seen that the 
intergrowths have developed along crystallographic directions in the min- 
erals, and that, regardless of the method of their development, they are 
really crystallographic intergrowths. 

The irregular graphic intergrowths differ from those of the lamellar 
pattern only in that the anastamosing filaments or branches of the com- 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE XIII. 










•*' 










•mm 



■^"'■■Ir 



'.«%■ 



m r^ 



(A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from the Seaboard mine. Shows 
the network of quartz and iron oxide that occasionally occurs in chalcocite 
veinlets which develop in fractures in bornite. In this structure the chalcocite 
at the borders of the developing veinlets is fairly pure. The anastamosing 
network of minute threads of quartz and limonite follow the replacement 
process very closely and extends its filaments, in many instances almost to 
the outer edge of the chalcocite. 

These are strange phenomena and the writer can not oft'er an explanation as to 
their origin and development. 

Light gray = chalcocite. Dark gray = bornite. 
Xetwork in light gray = limonite and quartz. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE XIII. 









m m. 



(B) Photomicrograph of a different area in the polished section illustrated in (A). 
Similar in all respects to ( A ) , except that it shows a kind of banding of 
the limonite and quartz on each side of the center of the veinlet of chalcocite. 
The notes on (A) are equally applicable to this section. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE XIV, 




.5 



»yvry\ 



(B) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from the Durgy mine. Shows 
chalcocite of two periods of deposition, one of hypogene origin intergrown 
normally with the bornite, and one of supergene origin and filling fractures 
which cross both the hypogene chalcocite arid the bornite. So far as could be 
determined the fracturing occurred long since the intergrown chalcocite was 
deposited and is in no way related to it. 

White = chalcocite. Dark = bornite. Black = pits. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE XIV. 




yyy yv\ 



(A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from the Blue Wing mine. Shows 
normal intergrowth of hypogene chalcocite and bornite. So far as can be 
determined the areas of chalcocite are in no way related to fractures in the 
bornite nor to any visible channels of circulation along which solutions could 
flow. In fact the ore is perfectly massive and the texture here illustrated 
extends throughout all the ore of the deposit. If it represents secondary en- 
richment by supergene processes it remains to explain the means by which the 
solutions penetrated every portion of the massive bornite. yntil proof to 
the contrary has been produced the writer will adhere to the belief that such 
intergrowths are the result of hypogene processes and. that the two sulphides 
are of contemporaneous deposition. 

White = chalcocite. Dark = bornite. 



DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE VEINS AND ORES. 85 

ponent minerals, instead of lying in roughly parallel lamellae, bear a most 
intricate relation to each other. In most instances they appear to make up 
larger areas of the ore and the filaments are slightly larger than those of 
the lamellar intergrowths. They also are of more frequent occurrence. 
This type of intergrowth also, so far as physical form is concerned, very 
strikingly resembles certain copper-silver alloys, and many copper-rich 
mattes. The resemblance is so close that if unmarked photomicrographs 
of the three — the ore, the alloy, and the matte — are placed side by side, it 
is exceedingly difficult if not impossible to distinguish one type of structure 
from the other. Such graphic intergrowths are shown by etching to have 
formed along definite crystallographic directions, such as cleavage or parting 
planes in the minerals involved. They are therefore crystallographic as 
well as graphic. Photomicrographs of typical examples of this type of 
intergrowth are shown in Plates XVI and XVII. 

The reticulated graphic intergrowths are similar to the irregular type 
except that in most instances the filaments of the intergrowth are joined so 
as to form triangles and irregular-shaped closed areas. Etching reveals the 
fact that those intergrowths in most cases have taken place along crystallo- 
graphic directions, and that in their formation crystallographic phenomena 
determined the form of the intergrowth. In the material available for 
study, reticulated intergrowths were very rare. Unsatisfactory photo- 
micrographs of this type of graphic intergrowth are shown in Plate XX. 

As has been 1 said, these intergrowths are in reality all special cases of 
the irregular intergrowths of bornite and chalcocite which have already 
been described. So far as the writer's observations have extended these 
intergrowths do not bear any genetic relation whatsoever to fractures or 
channels of circulation in the bornite, and so far as could be determined 
they are in no way connected with any known supergene processes. The 
pattern formed by the two minerals as seen in polished section bears a 
striking resemblance to the pattern formed in alloys of two components, 
one of which is present in excess. In some areas of such an alloy one 
component will be found in excess, in another area the other component 
will be in excess, while in still another the two will be present in graphic 
intergrowth in the form of a eutectic. Of course it is not intended to even 
suggest that these ores were deposited from so simple a system as one of 
only two components. It is altogether probable that a great many com- 
ponents entered into the system from which they were precipitated. 

In the second great type of the relation of chalcocite to bornite in the 
Virgilina district the chalcocite occurs as veinlets of varying size in 



86 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

fractures in the bornite, as rims around small areas of bornite, and as ir- 
regular areas surrounding openings in the bornite. This type of chalcocite 
invariably shows unmistakable signs of supergene origin and forms as a 
replacement of bornite. Very little beyond the photomicrographs of the 
different phases is necessary in the way of description of such ores. They 
show the relation of the two minerals to each other better than can be ex- 
plained in written descriptions. 

The veinlets of supergene chalcocite in bornite vary in width from 
sub-capillary cracks, scarcely visible even with the highest powers of the 
microscope, up to well-defined veins 10 or more centimeters in width. Cer- 
tain specimens from the Cornfield Prospect No. 1 showed fractures in the 
bornite so small that they were not clearly visible at a magnification of over 
2,100 diameters, which were rimmed, with films of chalcocite, thus showing 
that such minute fractures could serve as channels for circulating super- 
gene solutions. The alteration proceeds outward from the fractures until 
the whole mass of bornite has been changed into chalcocite. It was inter- 
esting to note that in every specimen examined the contact between the 
bornite and chalcocite is invariably perfectly sharp and clear-cut. It was 
noted, however, that in some instances the bornite nearest to the contact 
with the chalcocite tarnished more quickly and apparently more easily than 
that farther away from the contact. The rapidity of the alteration depends 
among other factors upon the amount of fracturing which the bornite has 
suffered. In many of the larger veinlets of such chalcocite there are 
dendritic "skeletons," as it were, of limonite which was probably derived 
from the iron in the bornite during the process of alteration. Plate VIII 
and Plate XII (A and B) are photographs showing veins of such super- 
gene chalcocite in various stages of development. Plate XX (A and B) 
exhibits photographs showing typical dendritic "skeletons" of limonite in 
supergene chalcocite veins in bornite. 

The rims of supergene chalcocite which form at the contact between 
bornite and the gangue minerals develop in a manner similar in all respects 
to that in the veinlets described in the last paragraph, and consequently 
do not call for further description in this place. Plate XI (A) is a photo- 
micrograph showing such rims of chalcocite at the contact between bornite 
and quartz. 

The irregular areas of supergene chalcocite surrounding openings in 
bornite are shown in Plate XI (B). They are formed in the same way 
that the other supergene secondary chalcocite is formed and do not require 
further description. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE XV. 




^ 



m rr\ 



(A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from the High Hill mine. Shows 
graphic and usual intergrowths of bornite and chalcocite. These intergrowths 
are not in any way connected with fractures in the bornite (at least none are 
visible at a magnification of 2,500 diameters ) , and the writer believes the two 
sulphides are of contemporaneous deposition. 

Light = chalcocite. Dark = bornite. Black = pits. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE XV. 




r^w^ 



(B) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from the Durgy mine. Shows a 
typical graphic intergrowth of bornite and chalcocite. It will be noted that 
this section shows the irregular intergrowth, while that illustrated in (A) 
is largely of the lamellar type. They both show very marked similarity to 
the eutectic structures so characteristic of alloys, mattes, and slags, and the 
writer believes they represent contemporaneous deposition of' the two sul- 
phides. 

Light = chalcocite. Dark = bornite. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE XVI. 




™™ 



(B) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Cornfield Prospect Xo. 2. 
Shows a typical lamellar intergrowth of chalcocite and bornite similar to the 
exceedingly fine lamellar intergrowth shown in Plate XVIII. When such inter- 
growths are etched it is clearly shown that in most instances the two minerals 
are intergrown along crystallographic directions. 

White == chalcocite. Dark = bornite. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE XVI. 



A \ 








Yr\YY\ 



(A 



Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from the Wall mine. Shows a 
typical example of graphic intergrowth of bornite and chalcocite. This 
structure is so different from that of supergene chalcocite in bornite and so 
closely resembles the structures which are characteristic of alloys, mattes, and 
slags, that the writer, while admitting that it may possibly form as a secondary 
process, still believes that it is formed in a very different manner from the 
structures shown in plates VII and VIII. He believes that such structures 
form as a result of hypogene more often than from supergene processes and 
that in such cases as this the evidence is far more strongly 
hypogene process and of contemporaneous deposition of the two 

White = chalcocite. Gray = bornite. Black = pits. 



in favor of 
sulphides. 






DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE VEINS AND ORES. 87 

In studying the photomicrographs of the supergene secondary chalcocite 
and comparing them with those of the hypogene intergrowths of the two 
minerals especial attention should be given to the form or pattern of the 
two minerals in each type of ore. A glance is sufficient to demonstrate 
that they are decidedly different. Indeed they are so different that the 
writer can not understand how they could all have formed as a result of 
similar processes. It is known that the second type of chalcocite was formed 
as the result of supergene processes and that it is secondary to and replaces 
the bornite, and it is not understood how the same processes could possibly 
produce types of structure so materially different from the graphic inter- 
growths, which are consequently believed to be of hypogene origin, and 
contemporaneous with the bornite. 

Relations of bornite and chalcopyrite. — Bornite occurs in two distinct 
relations to chalcopyrite, as a hypogene mineral intergrown with it, and as 
a supergene mineral replacing chalcopyrite. Chalcopyrite in turn bears 
exactly similar relations to bornite. It occurs as a hypogene mineral con- 
temporaneous with bornite and intergrown with it, and as a supergene 
mineral secondary to and replacing bornite. Chalcopyrite is by no means 
an abundant mineral in the Virgilina district. In fact, it is very rarely 
found in any of the larger and extensively developed mines. Indeed it is 
so rare in all the developed mines in the district that from these alone 
nothing could have been learned as to its relation to the other sulphides. 
Fortunately, however, it was found in greater abundance in two partially 
developed mines, the Glasscock shaft of the Pontiac mine, and the Cornfield 
No. 2 prospect. From these material was obtained which showed the rela- 
tions described and illustrated in this chapter. The best specimens were 
obtained from the Cornfield* Prospect No. 2. Those from the Glasscock 
shaft, however, are similar in most respects, and furnish supplementary 
evidence as to the relation of chalcopyrite to the other sulphides. 

The intergrowths of chalcopyrite and bornite are in the main similar 
to the irregular intergrowths of bornite and chalcocite which were described 
on p. 83. The relations are not so intricate and no graphic intergrowths 
of the two sulphides were found. In the intergrowths examined there was 



"This prospect was filled with water while the writer was engaged upon the 
field work for this report, and therefore not accessible. In the summer of 1915 the 
owner of the property, Miss Florence Pannebaker, had the shaft unwatered and 
instituted further development work. Noting the abundance of chalcopyrite, Miss 
Pannebaker collected and sent to the writer the specimens which are herein described. 
The writer wishes to acknowledge his obligations to Miss Pannebaker for supplying 
him with these important specimens and data concerning them. 



88 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

found absolutely no conclusive evidence, and, indeed, no indications, for 
that matter, that the chalcopyrite and bornite are not of contemporaneous 
deposition. It is therefore believed that such is the case and that both 
sulphides in such instances are of hypogene origin. The photomicrograph, 
Plate X (A), shows the relationship of the two minerals so well that no 
further description is necessary. 

The supergene bornite, secondary to and replacing chalcopyrite, occurs 
as veinlets in chalcopyrite probably in the same manner as supergene 
chalcocite develops in bornite. The photomicrograph, Plate X (B), 
shows the typical form of occurrence of supergene bornite. It appears to 
the writer that the evidence that the bornite is of supergene origin and 
that it has replaced the chalcopyrite along the fractures is perfectly clear. 

It was interesting to note that in some areas of the specimen, which 
showed to best advantage supergene bornite in hypogene chalcopyrite, 
there was an appreciable amount of supergene chalcopyrite occurring as 
a replacement of both hypogene and supergene bornite. This supergene 
and secondary chalcopyrite is by no means abundant, but is found occa- 
sionally in ore from both the Cornfield Prospect No. 2 and the Glasscock 
shaft. It, so far as observations have extended, occurs only in two forms, 
as veinlets in minute fractures in the bornite, and as rims surrounding 
particles of bornite at their contact with the different gangue minerals. 
Plate X (B) shows supergene chalcopyrite occurring as minute veinlets 
replacing supergene bornite which in turn occurs in the same manner as a 
replacement of hypogene chalcopyrite. Plate IX (A) is a photomicro- 
graph showing replacement rim of supergene chalcopyrite at the contact 
of hypogene bornite and a small area of quartz. It is not brought out in 
the photograph, but the specimen shows that a narrow replacement rim of 
chalcocite has formed at the contact of the rim of chalcopyrite. 

These "flarebacks" or reversals in the normal processes of replacement 
are not uncommon and are found in many of the well-known copper 
deposits of the world. They are of common occurrence in the Butte ores. 
The alteration has also been produced in the laboratory. The method of 
producing it was discovered by Prof. S. W. Young, of Stanford Univer- 
sity, and consists in immersing fragments of chalcocite or bornite in a 
fairly dilute solution of ferrous sulphate and slowly passing hydrogen 
sulphide through the solution. The reaction takes place rather quickly 
and in a short time the fragments will be coated with a film of chal- 
copyrite. The reactions take place at room temperature and under normal 
atmospheric pressure. These conditions are likely to occur occasionally in 



DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE VEINS AND ORES. 89 

upper portions of ore deposits, and the discovery of Professor Young ap- 
pears to offer a satisfactory explanation of the phenomenon. 

Chalcocite occurs as rims and veinlets in chalcopyrite just as in bornite, 
but, so far as observations have extended, never in intergrowths with it. 
Chalcopyrite has not been found in the Yirgilina ores as a replacement 
mineral in chalcocite. 

ORIGIN AND DEPOSITION OP THE ORES. 

General statement. — The facts in regard to the veins, the gangue min- 
erals, the ore minerals, the relations of the minerals to each other, and the 
relations of veins and ores to the rocks in which they occur afford premises 
upon which to base certain theories in regard to the origin of the veins 
and the origin and deposition of the ores. In the discussions and descrip- 
tions on the previous pages the writer has endeavored to confine himself 
primarily to statements of fact and to recording such observations in 
regard to the geology and ore deposits of the Virgilina district, drawing 
such conclusions and offering such explanations as appeared to be obvious 
and to be warranted by the observations. In this place he will attempt to 
offer such theoretical conclusions and submit such explanations in regard 
to the origin of the veins, and the origin and deposition of the ores as, in 
his judgment, the foregoing descriptions warrant. He is fully aware of 
the size of the questions as well as their complexity and offers his theories 
and explanations only as a possible solution, leaving to future students 
the final solution of the problems. 

Origin of the veins. — The origin of the veins has been discussed in a 
general way in the first part of this chapter, in advance of the detailed 
discussion of their mineralogy. Since the minerals of the veins and their 
relation to each other have such an important bearing upon the subject, 
in fact, are the very premises upon which theories and conclusions in 
regard to the origin of the veins must be based, it was decided to postpone 
the detailed discussion of, and the proposal of theories relative to, the 
subject until those items had been considered in detail. 

It has been shown in the chapter on the description of the rocks that 
the rock in which all the mineralized veins occur is basic in character, 
having the mineralogical and chemical composition of andesite. It has 
also been shown in the descriptions of the individual veins and in the 
discussion of their mineralogy in this chapter, p. 68 et seq., that their pre- 
dominant mineral is quartz, and that one of their minor, but persistent, 






90 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

minerals is orthoclase. Both of these minerals are foreign to or occur very 
sparingly in rocks so basic as the andesitic material forming the Virgilina 
greenstone. It has also been shown that the veins are much younger than 
the Virgilina greenstone in which they occur and that they were not 
formed until the tuffs and flows which make up the greenstone had been 
consolidated, folded, mashed, and metamorphosed into schists. These facts 
all indicate that a very long period of time elapsed between the building 
up of the andesitic tuffs and flows, and the formation of the veins. 
Furthermore it has been shown that, so far as it was possible to determine, 
the normal Virgilina greenstone does not contain even a trace of copper. 
It has also been demonstrated that the veins were developed in fractures, 
possibly fault planes which intersect the schistosity of the greenstone at 
acute angles, and which, therefore, were not formed until after the rock 
had become a schist. All these facts indicate clearly that a source for the 
vein matter, both gangue and ore minerals, must be sought entirely outside 
of the rock in which they occur, the Virgilina greenstone. Such source 
must be a rock or magma which could normally supply the highly siliceous 
gangue minerals, quartz and orthoclase, as well as the ore minerals, and 
at the same time provide for the formation of the other gangue minerals, 
such as epidote, chlorite, calcite, and plagioclase feldspars. The only rock 
in the district, or in the region for that matter, which fulfills all these 
conditions is the granite. It is therefore believed that the veins were 
derived from the granitic magma and that they were formed as a con- 
comitant phenomenon, probably contemporaneous with its intrusion or 
following immediately thereafter when the cooling magma would be giving 
off its emanations. It is also believed that the sulphides, the orthoclase, 
the greater part of the quartz, and possibly the plagioclase feldspars, were 
derived directly from the granitic source, and that the other minerals were 
derived largely from the country rock through alteration of its normal 
minerals. The causes for deposition are believed to have been such factors 
as decrease in temperature and pressure of the rising solutions, their com- 
mingling with other solutions, and the influence of the wall rock of the 
fissures through which they were moving. 

It is also believed that the vein-forming solutions did not find open 
cavities in which to deposit the vein matter. It is not understood how 
such cavities could possibly remain open under the conditions which seem 
to have prevailed during the formation of the veins, it is believed, how- 
ever, that the solutions rising through the fractures widened them into the 
present veins through the forces of crystallization of the growing minerals 



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VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE XVIII. 




QS ZTls^ryT* 



(Bj Photomicrograph of a very highly magnified area of the section shown in (A). 
It may be noted that two types of structure are shown, one decidedly lamellar, 
and the other, normal graphic intergrowth, shows a very marked resem- 
blance to pearlite in steel. Pearlite consists of a kind of mechanical mixture 
of ferrite (free alpha iron) and cementite (Fe 3 C) to which Howe applied the 
term eutectoid. The two constituents in pearlite certainly solidify con- 
temporaneously as the melt cools. In the case of the sulphides here shown it 
is not known whether or not the two were deposited contemporaneously, but 
it is made clear by etching the polished surface that the intergrowth is along 
crystallographic directions — cleavage or parting planes in the chalcocite, 
and that it is therefore a crystallographic intergrowth. It is also interesting 
to note the extremely minute lines of chalcocite crossing through the bornite 
and joining adjacent lamellae of chalcocite. 

White = chalcocite. Dark = bornite. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE XVIII. 







r , ^ , „., ,, 




......... . .. 



*■ ': 









-i 



vrt tqt\ 



(A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Cornfield Prospect No. 1, 
showing graphic intergrowth of chalcocite and bornite. This intergrowth is 
believed from general relations to be of hypogene origin, but there is no way 
of proving that such is the case. If of supergene origin it offers strong evi- 
dence that in this case the alteration has been from chalcocite to bornite, it 
being noted that the bornite occurs in what appears to be a fracture in the 
chalcocite. This section is another good bit of testimony that the evidence 
afforded by graphic intergrowths as to the origin of the components is, to 
say the least, ambiguous. 

White == chalcocite. Gray = bornite. Black = pits. 
Intersecting lines = scratches made in polishing. 



DETAILED DESCRIPTION OE THE VEINS AND ORES. 91 

of the vein, and through replacement of the wall rock by vein matter. It 
is also probable that the openings may have been increased by earth move- 
ments, faulting, etc., along the fractures in which the veins were forming. 

Deposition of the ore minerals. — The relation of the different sulphides 
to each other has been discussed in detail in another place in this chapter 
and need not be repeated here further than to state that the ore minerals, 
bornite, chalcocite, and chalcopyrite are of two periods of deposition. Dur- 
ing the first of these periods the original ore minerals were deposited from 
deep-seated, probably hot, solutions derived from a magmatic source be- 
lieved to have been the granite. The ore minerals thus deposited are the 
so-called hypogene minerals, and consist of bornite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, 
and minor amounts of other sulphides, such as pyrite, klaprothite, argentite, 
etc. So far as the writer has been able to determine there was only one 
period of hypogene mineralization, but it was probably of considerable 
length, and it is not known that conditions remained unchanged or that 
the active solutions were the same throughout the period. One thing, 
however, is certain : The minerals believed by the writer to be of hypogene 
origin as they are found to-day invariably bear exactly similar relations 
to each other, entirely regardless of the mine or portion of the district from 
which they are taken. It must be remembered that the three important 
hypogene minerals, bornite, chalcocite, and chalcopyrite, and possibly 
some of the minor sulphides, also occur as replacement minerals of super- 
gene origin. These, however, always have their own peculiar character- 
istics which are very different from those of the same minerals which are 
believed to be of hypogene origin. It is therefore clear that in attempting 
to decide to which type of mineralization any particular specimen of ore 
belongs, the question must be decided upon the relations of the component 
minerals of the ore to each other instead of upon the presence or absence 
of certain minerals, taking into consideration, of course, the location in the 
vein from which the specimen was taken. The features which the writer 
believes to be clearly indicative of hypogene origin of the different sulphides 
are the various types of complex and graphic intergrowth between the 
component minerals, and the relation of sulphides to gangue minerals. 
These have been described in detail on pp. 82-87. 

During the second period of deposition, also an extended period be- 
ginning when the ores first came under the influence of the agencies of 
weathering and continuing until the present, the same major sulphides, 
chalcocite, bornite, and chalcopyrite, were deposited as were formed during 



92 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRG1LINA DISTRICT. 

the first period of deposition. It is not known whether or not either of 
the minor sulphides, pyrite. klaprothite, or argentite, was formed during 
this period. The conditions under which these second period or supergene 
minerals were formed are entirely different from those of the first, or 
hypogene period. The supergene minerals were deposited by downward- 
moving meteoric waters, and are consequently limited to the upper portion 
of the veins, not extending below the depths reached by such waters. The 
minerals thus formed bear definite relations to fractures and other open- 
ings which permit the circulation of the downward-moving water, and, 
consequently, their relations to each other and to the minerals in which 
they occur are very different from those of the hypogene minerals. They 
always represent alterations in the hypogene sulphides in which they occur 
and usually are found in fractures and surrounding openings in the host 
mineral. The subject, however, has been discussed in detail on p. 73 el seq., 
and need not be repeated here. 

The most interesting and at the same time the most puzzling feature 
of the Virgilina ores are the graphic intergrowths described on pp. 82-89. 
Their interpretation is not only of great interest and value to the science 
of ore deposits, but is also of much value in forming estimates as to the 
continuation of the ore deposits with depth, and therefore of great value 
in forming estimates as to the future of the district as a whole. It, there- 
fore, seems best to summarize the principal theories that have been offered 
as explanations of them. 

The first theory thus presented was given by the writer® in his paper 
on the ores and minerals of the district in 1911, and it is the one to which 
he still holds after having made an exhaustive microscopic study of the 
subject. It is, that the intergrown bornite and chalcocite are both hypo- 
gene or primary minerals and that they are of contemporaneous deposition. 

The writer believes that such crystallographic intergrowths are formed 
only when the component minerals are of contemporaneous deposition, and 
that they are similar to the same type of intergrowths in pegmatite, other 
sulphide intergrowths, such as sphalerite and pyrite, galena, argentite, and 
bismuthinite, galena and stibnite, and many others, and to the eutectic 
and eutectoid intergrowths of sulphides in mattes and of metals in alloys, 
all of which produce the same type of pattern. So far as the writer's 
experience has extended such intergrowths have never been found to have 
formed as the result of supergene agencies and processes. 



° Laney, Francis Baker: The relation of bornite and chalcocite in the copper 
ores of the Virgilina district of North Carolina and Virginia, Proc. U. S. Nat'l 
Museum, Vol. 40, 1911, pp. 413-424; ibidem, Economic Geology, Vol. 6, 1911, pp. 
399-411. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE XIX. 




.i 



Tr\ynr\ 



(A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Cornfield Prospect No. 2. 
Shows chalcocite of two distinct shades of color, one a delicate bluish gray, 
and the other normal. The bluish gray chalcocite is in graphic intergrowth 
with bornite which shows in the photographs as irregular areas, as minute 
dots, and in elongated rod-like forms. The two chalcocites are not clearly 
differentiated from each other in the photograph, but are easily distinguish- 
able by the eye. The evidence as to the origin of such structures is not con- 
clusive, but the writer believes the minerals were deposited contemporaneously. 

Light gray = chalcocite. Dark gray = bornite. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE XIX. 



■ . 



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(B) Photomicrograph of another portion of the section shown in (A). Shows 
a different pattern of the reticulated graphic intergrowth between chalcocite 
and bornite. 

Light gray == chalcocite. Dark gray — bornite. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE XX. 



, ' ., m tefe a* * am > Br 




jiS. 



v^ -^ 



( B ) Photomicrograph of a portion of the same section shown in ( A ) , but very 
highly magnified in order to show the intricacy of the reticulated intergrowth. 
Light gray = chalcocite. Dark gray = bornite. 



VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE XX. 




J 



rr> m 



(A) Photomicrograph of a polished section of ore from Cornfield Prospect No. 1. 
Shows reticulated intergrowth of bornite and chalcocite. By etching the 
section it shows clearly that the minerals are intergrown along crystallo- 
graphic directions. Such occurrences as this add to the difficulty of account- 
ing for the formation of the graphic intergrowths as characteristic of the 
Virgilina ores. In the present instance there are reasons for believing them 
to have resulted from supergene agencies, but there is no proof that they are 
not of hypogene origin and that the two minerals were deposited contem- 
poraneously. 

Light gray = chalcocite. Dark gray = bornite. 



DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE VEINS AND ORES. 93 

A second theory is, that the bornite in the intergrowths is a primary 
mineral and of hypogene origin, and that the chalcocite represents a 
secondary alteration of the bornite but that it is of hypogene origin. That 
is, the adherents of this theory believe that the chalcocite is a secondary 
mineral formed by deep-seated agencies. 

So far as the writer can see, there is no way of either proving or dis- 
proving this theory. He has studied in great detail secondary hypogene 
alterations in the silver ores of Tonopah, Nev. The patterns there 
formed by such processes are similar to those formed in ordinary supergene 
enrichment. He therefore believes that the adherents of this theory must 
prove that such patterns can and do result from hypogene alterations in 
earlier hypogene sulphides before they can apply it in explanation of these 
intergrowths. 

A third theory is that the bornite is a primary or hypogene mineral, 
and that all the chalcocite is a replacement of the bornite and of supergene 
origin. 

It is felt that before the adherents of this theory can offer it they must 
first explain how the same agencies acting under the same conditions can 
produce such different and characteristic results as the chalcocite which 
occurs as replacement veinlets in the bornite on the one hand and the 
graphic intergrowths on the other. Furthermore, so far as the writer is 
aware, such graphic intergrowths have never been shown to result from 
supergene agencies. 

A fourth theory, offered by Segall a as an explanation of certain 
reticulate crystallographic intergrowths in the Butte, Mont., copper ores, 
is that such intergrowths are the result of replacement of chalcocite along 
crystallographic directions by bornite. 

Each of these four theories has its ardent adherents, but so far as the 
writer's judgment goes, neither theory has been proven nor disproven. As 
stated above and fully realizing the strength of the other theories, he 
believes that in such graphic intergrowths as those characteristic of the 
Yirgilina ores, the evidence points more strongly toward contemporaneous 
deposition of the two minerals and he still adheres to that theory. 

CONTINUATION OF THE ORE DEPOSITS WITH DEPTH. 

The descriptions and generalizations in regard to the rocks, the veins, 
and the ores, and the geological structure of the Virgilina district as 



a Segall, Julius : The origin and occurrence of certain crystallographic inter- 
growths. Economic Geology, 1915, Vol. 10, pp. 462-470. 



94 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

given in foregoing portions of this report appear to the writer to warrant 
a few statements and surmises as to the continuation of the ore deposits 
with depth. 

It has been shown that all the geological evidence in regard to the 
subject indicates that the veins and ores have been derived from deep- 
seated sources, probably from an intrusive magma entirely independent 
of the greenstone in which they occur. It has also been shown that the 
veins were developed in fractures, possibly fault planes, which extend to 
unknown, but certainly great, depths. When these factors are considered 
together it is reasonably certain that the ore deposits are by no means 
merely superficial phenomena and that they will extend to depths beyond 
the limits of mining. While there is no means of proving it, the writer 
regards it as reasonably certain that the intergrown chalcocite and bornite 
are hypogene minerals of primary deposition and therefore that there will 
be no change to leaner minerals with depth. It is not intended to assert 
that any one ore shoot will continue to indefinite depth, for such a state- 
ment would be preposterous. What the writer believes and what he 
intends to say is that the veins with all their irregularities as to width and 
metal content will probably continue to great depths. The size and value 
of an ore deposit as shown in reasonable development may form a basis 
upon which to base expectations as to what further exploration may develop. 
It is, therefore, the writer's opinion that if the upper 300 or 400 feet of 
development work in an ore shoot develops ore of commercial value, the 
ore thus developed will form a basis for expectations as to what further 
exploration would develop and that the development may be carried for- 
ward to great depths with reasonable hope of success. 



THE MINES AND ORES OF THE VIRGILINA 

DISTRICT 

DESCRIPTIVE GEOLOGY OF THE MINES AND PROSPECTS. 

SEABOARD MINE. 

General statement. — The Seaboard mine, owned by the Seaboard Copper 
Company, of Boston, Mass., is located on the west one of two approxi- 
mately parallel low-lying, flat-topped ridges extending northeastward from 
the center of the Virgilina district. It is about fonr and one-half miles 
northwest of the town of Virgilina, located on the Danville and Norfolk 
Division of the Southern Eailway, which is the nearest shipping point. 
It is reached by a good wagon road and is so located that a branch line 
connecting it with the main line of the railroad at Virgilina could be built 
at minimum expense. The country adjacent to the mine is fairly well 
timbered with both pine and oak, and there is an abundant supply of 
material for mine timber, lumber, etc. There is not an abundant supply of 
water for the mine, but a small stream about three-fourths of a mile south- 
east could be made to furnish an ample supply by the building of a dam and 
installing pumps to send the water from the stream to the mine. In fact, 
a small dam has been built at a suitable place on this little creek and the 
water which was used in the development of the mine was pumped from 
this place. 

Copper is said to have been first found on this property in 1899, and 
between this date and 1902 two shafts, Nos. 1 and 2 of the company, were 
started and each sunk to a depth of about 100 feet. This early work was 
done by a Mr. Williams and consisted of little more than prospecting. In 
1902 the property was purchased by its present owners, who at once 
proceeded to sink a new shaft, No. 3, and to continue work in shaft No. 2. 
No. 2 shaft was sunk to a depth of about 260 feet and drifts were broken 
off from it at the 100- and 200-foot levels, respectively. The work thus 
far done amounts to about 600 feet of drifts in addition to the shafts, and 
was all done for development purposes, and no ore was taken out except 
that which came from the development work. 

Description of vein. — The ore-bearing ground consists of a well-defined 
quartz-epidote vein carrying a small amount of calcite. This vein varies 
in width from one and one-half to eight feet, averaging three and one-half 



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SEABOARD MINE. 97 

to four feet, and is traceable on the surface by means of quartz debris for 
a distance of about one and one-half miles. Three ore shoots have been 
located, one at shaft No. 3, one at shafts Nos. 1 and 2, and the third 
about one-half mile north of shaft No. 2 near the public road running 
west from Eed Bank. Of these ore shoots only that at shafts Nos. 1 and 2 
has been developed to any important extent; the others, however, espe- 
cially that at shaft No. 3, appear to be fairly well mineralized and to 
warrant further development. In addition to this, the main vein, there 
is another well defined but smaller vein lying about 200 feet west. This 
west vein is well marked by quartz and epidote on the surface and is 
traceable for about three-fourths of a mile, and has been opened by a 
shallow shaft about 1,200 feet south of shaft No. 1. This prospect opening 
showed the vein to be narrow but to carry a small percentage of copper. 
Both veins have a strike of from 5 to 10 degrees west of north and dip 
about 80 degrees to the east. The schistosity of the country rock strikes 
approximately north and south, and it is thus seen that the veins cut the 
schistosity at sharp angles. They are believed to be true fissure veins and 
to have been developed in fractures which, as a rule, in this district have 
a more northerly trend than the schistosity of the country rock, though 
in many instances their trend is parallel with the schistosity. These veins 
have well-defined walls and part readily from the country rock. However, 
in places there is a small amount of mineralization of the wall rock at its 
contact with the • vein. As is usually the case with veins in this region, 
these present many irregularities, the most important of which consist of 
"pinches" and "swells," both horizontally and vertically. The develop- 
ment at this mine has not gone far enough to show the extent of irregu- 
larities that have been noted, but there are decided "pinches" in at least 
two places with corresponding "swells" in two others. - The veins are much 
more highly siliceous than the country rock, and are believed to have been 
derived from sources other than the rocks in which they occur. This sub- 
ject, however, is discussed in the chapter on the origin of ores. 

The ore shoots, so far as the development has proceeded, are well min- 
eralized and appear to have a slight pitch to the south. The ore does not 
occur in any one portion of the shoot to the exclusion of all others. In 
some instances it is distributed rather uniformly throughout the vein. In 
others it is largely concentrated near one wall with only a small amount 
scattered irregularly through the rest of the vein, while in still others the 
principal values occur near the middle of the vein with only a small amount 
in other portions of it. There is always more or less barren material in 



98 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

the vein, but it is so located that it can not be left in the ground in mining. 
The only structural feature affecting the developed portion of the mine 
appears to be a small fault which was encountered in the south end of the 
drift on the 200-foot level, at which point the vein appears to be cut out 
completely. All indications, however, are that the disturbance is slight 
and that the vein could probably be picked up again by drifting a few feet 
into the hanging wall at the end of the drift. 

Ore and gangue minerals. — The ore at this mine consists of bornite and 
chalcocite together with a small amount of malachite in the upper portions 
of the vein. In certain portions of the ore shoot bornite appears to be more 
abundant than in any other mines of the district. In fact, the purest bornite 
found during the field investigations was taken from this mine. Much of 
the unaltered ore, however, like that from the other mines of the district, 
consists of bornite and chalcocite intergrown in such manner as to indicate 
that the two minerals were deposited contemporaneously. In the ore from 
the upper portions of the ore shoot much secondary chalcocite occurs in 
the bornite as veinlets varying from knife-edge seams to one-fourth inch 
in width. These penetrate the bornite in all directions and vary in size 
from the finest line, often scarcely visible even with the highest powers of 
the microscope, up to veins of pure chalcocite one-fourth inch in width. 
See Plate VIII (A and B). The centers of nearly all of the largest 
chalcocite-filled fractures are marked by sponge-like areas of some material, 
which in some instances appears to be quartz and limonite, and to mark the 
original fracture in which the chalcocite began to develop. In most cases 
these areas are of appreciable size and include particles of chalcocite and 
appear to have developed simultaneously with the chalcocite. Plate XIII 
(A and B). 

When a polished section of ore showing these chalcocite veinlets is etched 
with hydrochloric acid and examined under the microscope, the material is 
seen to be porous and to resemble a sponge, and to be filled with minute 
specks of chalcocite. The boundary between these veinlets of secondary 
chalcocite and the bornite is generally regular, but. the material within the 
chalcocite usually presents a somewhat feathery outline. The boundary line 
between the chalcocite and bornite is always perfectly clear cut and sharp, 
and there is absolutely no gradation of one mineral into the other. It is 
also clear from microscopic examination that each little vein of chalcocite 
in all probability started as a mere film in the fracture and grew to its 
present size, but how this growth took place is not made clear by microscopic 



SEABOARD MINE. 99 

study of the veinlets. It does appear, however, that it took place at the 
periphery of the material already deposited, and that the veinlets increased 
in size at the expense of the bornite. However, the chemistry of the process 
has not yet been worked out. In some instances chalcocite-fllled fractures 
in the bornite appear to be of two periods, one earlier than the other, and 
in such instances the more recent fractures cut across the chalcocite veinlets 
in the older ones. Fractures also occur in the areas of intergrown chalcocite 
and bornite, and in such instances the secondary veinlets cut across both the 
primary chalcocite and the bornite. The relations of the two minerals in 
such cases leave no doubt as to the secondary nature of the chalcocite in 
'the veinlets. 

The gangue minerals in this mine consist of quartz, epidote, calcite, 
chlorite, albite, and hematite. Quartz is by far the most important gangue 
mineral and makes up more than three-fourths of the vein. Calcite and 
epidote are present in about equal amounts, while albite, chlorite, and 
hematite are only sparingly developed. The greater part of the quartz is 
massive, and shows no tendency to form crystals. However, in some 
instances, especially in openings or vugs, quartz, calcite, and albite were 
found with good crystal development, and all were intergrown with the 
bornite and chalcocite. The peculiar association of gangue and ore min- 
erals in this mine presents some features which have an important bearing 
on the genesis of the ores, and the subject is discussed fully in the chapter 
on this subject. v 

Development. — The development of this mine consists, as has been 
stated, of three shafts, Nos. 1, 2, and 3. Shaft No. 1 was the first to be 
sunk, and extends to a depth of 110 feet; shaft No. 2 is on the same vein, 
is located 113 feet south of shaft No. 1, and is the main working shaft of 
the mine. It is about 350 feet deep and from it two levels have been 
broken off, one at 100 feet and the other at 200 feet. The 100-foot level 
has been driven in the vein about 225 feet northward, intersecting shaft 
No. 1. The vein throughout this distance has an average width of about 
four and one-half feet and a copper content of approximately 2 to 2.5 
per cent. The second level extends 105 feet north from the shaft and 
90 feet south. On this level the vein is slightly narrower than at the first 
level, but the copper content is approximately the same. At the point 
where the second level was broken off from the shaft, the vein is narrow 
and not very promising, but at the bottom of the shaft it has widened 
considerably, has increased in ore content, and is much more promising. 



100 



GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGIL1NA DISTRICT 



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Fig. 3. — Flow-sheet of Seaboard mill as designed and c.onstructed by A. W. Tucker, 
1909. 



SEABOARD MINE. 101 

Practically no ore has been taken from this shaft except that which was re- 
moved during the development work. Shaft No. 3 is 105 feet deep, is located 
about 900 feet south of shaft No. 2, and no drifting has been done. At the 
time of the field work this shaft was filled with water and, therefore, in- 
accessible. The ore on the dump, however, is entirely similar to that taken 
out of No. 2. No observations as to the width of this vein or the extent 
of the ore shoot could be made. However, it was reported that the vein 
is about 5 feet in width and fairly well mineralized. A generalized vertical 
section showing the development of the mine at the time the field work was 
in progress is shown in figure 2, page 96. 

Concentrating plant. — It is generally agreed by those who have studied 
the ores of the Virgilina district that the future development of the district 
depends upon the ability to concentrate the ores. In order to solve the 
problem of concentration, which had been attacked in a desultory way at 
two or three mines in the district, the Seaboard Copper Company employed 
Mr. A. W. Tucker, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and 
supplied him with the necessary ore for experimental work. This work, 
which was carried on in the laboratory of the Institute in Boston, gave 
satisfactory results, and in 1907 the company erected, under the super- 
vision of Mr. Tucker, a 50-ton mill in which the ore is given the following 
treatment : 

On being hoisted from the mine the ore passes through a rock breaker 
and is crushed to 'two inches, then passed over a picking belt from which 
barren material is rejected as waste, and ore approximating 10 per cent 
or more in copper is selected for direct shipment. The remainder is re- 
duced to one-fourth inch by a crusher and rolls and is passed through a 
series of 4-compartment Harz jigs. From the jigs three products are 
obtained, a 50 per cent copper concentrate; a hutch product, which goes 
direct to a set of Wilfley tables; a middlings; and tail product, which 
goes to a battery of stamps and which, after being stamped through 60 
mesh, is subjected to treatment on Wilfley tables. From these a 25 per cent 
copper concentrate is obtained. The slimes are collected and are run on 
Wilfley slime tables, the concentrates from which are added to that from 
the regular tables. No figures were obtainable which would give the total 
percentage of copper saved by the mill. However, in the experimental work 
in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology above referred to, a similar 
equipment to the one just described was used, and a saving of between 
80 and 85 per cent of the assay value of the ore was obtained. The. flow 
sheet of this mine, which was furnished by Mr. Tucker, is shown in 
figure 3, page 100. 






102 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

The mill was operated only a short time, and the ore treated consisted 
of about 2,200 tons of second-grade material left over after hand picking. 
From this there was extracted about 77 tons of concentrates. Smelter 
returns from these were as follows : Hand-picked ore averaged 7.45 per cent 
copper, 1.50 ounces of silver, and .01 ounce of gold per ton, respectively. 
Table concentrates averaged 23.85 per cent copper, 2.89 ounces silver, and 
.02 ounce gold per ton. 

While it is evident that the data just given are not sufficient to warrant 
any far-reaching statements as to concentration of the Virgilina ores in 
general, it is believed that they do show conclusively that a properly con- 
structed and operated mill will concentrate the ores in a satisfactory 
manner, and they also indicate that such a mill should be constructed 
somewhat along the lines of the Seaboard mill. 

BLUE WING MINE. 

General statement. — The Blue Wing mine is located about one and one- 
half miles southeast of the town of Virgilina, from which it is reached by a 
good wagon road. The branch line of the Southern Eailroad running from 
the junction about 1 mile east of the railroad station at Virgilina to the 
Holloway mine passes within 100 feet of the Blue Wing shaft, and thus 
furnishes excellent shipping facilities. 

While the timber lands surrounding the mine have been cut out, there 
is still an ample supply of both hardwood and pine for mine timbers. At 
the time of the field work there was such an abundant supply of cord wood 
that the mine management found it a much cheaper fuel than coal. 

There is only a moderate supply of water, which is derived from a small 
brook near the mine. In winter and spring the supply is ample, but during 
the late summer and fall, the dry season in the region, the brook is often 
dry and water for mining or milling purposes is scarce. However, it is 
believed that by impounding the water during the spring there could be 
provided at small expense a supply sufficient for all actual needs during 
the dry season. In case this water should fail, it is certain that an ample 
supply could be obtained by pumping from Aaron's Creek about one and 
one-half miles east of the mine. 

The mine takes its name from Blue Wing post-office, long since 
abandoned, which was located a short distance west of the mine at the 
time of its opening, and which in turn received its name from Blue Wing 
Creek located about 2 miles west of the post-office. It is reported that 
during the year the mine was opened about 500 tons of high-grade ore 






BLUE WING MINE. 103 

were taken out and shipped. The property after passing through several 
hands was acquired about 1895 by its present owners, the Boston and 
Carolina Copper Company, a Massachusetts organization maintaining 
offices in Boston. It has been operated spasmodically rather than steadily, 
and has been allowed to lie idle the greater part of the time. The causes 
for this idleness, so far as they could be determined, appear to have been 
litigation, certain transactions looking toward a consolidation of the more 
important mines of the district which the company was trying to effect, 
and the varying price of copper. There has never been a time since the dis- 
covery of the mine when it would not have been regarded at least as a 
very favorable prospect. The causes for so much intermission in operation 
are thus attributed more largely to market, financial, and other conditions 
affecting the operators than to the lack of ore in the mine or of promise 
in the prospect. The last work was done in 1909 by E. H. Westlake of the 
Tennessee Copper Company under an option granted by the owners of the 
property. Under this agreement the mine was operated, but not con- 
tinuously, from July 1, 1909, to January 1, 1910, and about 3,000 tons 
of ore were shipped which averaged between 2 and 3 per cent of copper. 
During this work the shaft was sunk an additional 80 feet, giving it a total 
depth of 360 feet and about 400 feet of new drifts were driven. 

The surface plant consisted of the housing for the shaft and the neces- 
sary machinery for operation, consisting of a steam boiler, a small hoisting 
engine, a good 10-drill air compressor, picking belt, and equipment includ- 
ing a rock breaker. There are also bins for storing about 100 tons of ore, 
and a repair and blacksmith shop. 

Nothing in the way of concentration has been done during recent years 
except such sorting of ore and elimination of waste as could be done on a 
picking belt, which work was done efficiently and cheaply by negro women. 
It is reported that in the early days of the mine' crude attempts were made 
at concentrating the ore. The plant for this purpose is said to have con- 
sisted of the necessary crushing equipment, a set of Harz jigs, and a 
Frue vanner. The equipment was so meager and ill adapted to the ore, 
and the work was done in such a # desultory way, that it proved a decided 
failure and was soon discontinued. This failure must not be taken to 
indicate that the ores are not amenable to concentration, for from experi- 
mental work, and also from actual mill practice on other ores of the 
district similar in all respects to the Blue Wing ore, it is certain that with 
modern equipment and intelligent management these ores can be concen- 
trated without difficulty. 










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BLUE WING MINE. 105 

Underground development. — The property has been tested and de- 
veloped by one working shaft about 360 feet deep, 3 prospect shafts 
varying in depth from 50 to 125 feet and about 1,700 feet of drifts, which 
were broken off from the main shaft at four levels: 91 feet, 148 feet, 210 
feet, and 266 feet, respectively, from the surface. Considerable stoping has 
also been done in what appear to be two distinct ore shoots, one at the main 
shaft and another immediately north of the diabase dike which crosses 
the vein about 120 feet north of the shaft. In the first-mentioned ore 
shoot the stoping extends from about 30 feet from the surface to the 
260-foot level and in the second from about 50 feet from the surface to 
the 210-foot level. Nothing in the way of exploratory work except the 
shaft has been done in ground deeper than the 266-foot level, although 
all indications are that the two ore shoots will probably extend to a much 
greater depth than has been reached by any of the present workings. The 
vein varies from about 2 to more than 6 feet in width, averaging perhaps 
4 feet, and the values are distributed irregularly through it, with some- 
times portions of the walls being mineralized. Consequently, in order to 
be certain of obtaining all the values in drifting and stoping, it is always 
necessary to remove the entire vein, and, in some instances, a considerable 
portion of the walls. The drifts andstopes, therefore, represent at least 
the actual width of the vein and show the irregularities as to outline that 
it presented. A vertical section through the mine showing the development 
up to 1910 is shown in figure 4, page 104. 

Only the usual and well-known methods of mining were used in this 
mine. Modern air drills were used in sinking and driving, and together 
with light stoping drills furnished the equipment for use in breaking the ore. 
Both the overhead and underhand methods of stoping were employed, the 
one being used which was most suitable for the ground to be removed. The 
mine apparently makes only a moderate amount of water, which was easily 
handled with a small Cameron pump. The broken ore was trammed to 
the shaft, hoisted in buckets, and dumped in a bin about 20 feet above the 
collar of the shaft. From this bin it was passed through a rock breaker 
and reduced to 2 inches, and then passed over a grizzly which removed all 
material less than 1 inch. The oversize went on the picking belt from 
which the waste rock was removed; the ore then passing into bins from 
which it was shipped. 

Geologic relations. — The country rock at the Blue Wing mine is the 
typical greenstone schist of the district, and does not differ essentially 



106 



GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 



from the rock at the Holloway, Durgy, and Seaboard mines. Technically 
speaking, the rock is a mashed and much-metamorphosed andesitic tuff, 
associated with which is a small amount of normal andesitic lava which in 
some places is slightly porphyritic and in others decidedly amygdaloidal. 
The intense metamorphism to which the rock of the district has been sub- 
jected has to a large extent obliterated its original characteristics and 




Pig, 5. — Ore from Blue Wing mine, showing banded structure. The white ground 



is calcite, with some quartz in little lenses. The solid black is bornite. 
parallel lines represent schist. Scale, natural size. (After W. H. Weed.) 



The 



transformed it into a chlorite-epidote schist which varies in color from 
dark green to a purplish-gray. It almost invariably has a decided slaty 
cleavage or schistosity, which in the vicinity of the Blue Wing mine has a 
trend of from 20 to 30 degrees east of north and dips from 70 to 80 degrees 
toward the southeast. This subject, however, is discussed in the chapter 
devoted to the detailed description of the rocks of the district. 



BLUE WING MINE. 107 

There is at this mine an interesting phenomenon that occurs at only 
one other mine in the district, namely, the Durgy mine. This is a dike 
of olivine diabase about 15 feet wide, which cuts across the vein some 150 
feet north of the shaft. The dike trends approximately north 35 degrees 
west and dips about 65 degrees to the southwest. Thus, as the shaft is 
increased in depth, it necessarily approaches nearer the dike, and, unless 
the dip of the latter changes, will intersect it at a depth of about 425 
feet. The intrusion of this dike followed the development of the vein and 
ores at a great interval of time and is believed to have had no influence 
in the formation of the vein or ores. The only effect noted so far as the 
mine has been developed consists of a slight shattering of the vein at the 
contact between it and the dike, and in a few places by slight displacement 
on the north side of the dike. This displacement is especially noticeable 
on the fourth level, where the vein is badly shattered and apparently dis- 
placed about 8 feet toward the east. 

The vein is a typical fissure vein, and is made up dominantly of white 
quartz with much calcite and variable amounts of epidote, chlorite, and a 
few other minerals. The vein, which varies in width from 2 to 6 feet, will 
average about 4 feet, and, while locally it appears to follow the schistosity 
of the country rock, taken as a whole, it has a somewhat more northerly trend 
than the schistosity. It presents many irregularities in shape and form, 
but maintains its average width with much persistence. Within it are 
included many fragments and strips of more or less altered country rock, 
and in many instances it presents a decidedly sheeted appearance caused 
by the vein matter filling spaces between the torn-apart or rifted schists. 
As a rule, both foot and hanging walls are well defined, although in places 
one or the other is rendered obscure by the development of numerous layers 
or plates of vein matter in the rifted schist. The foot-wall is probably 
more clearly defined and is more easily followed in mining than the 
hanging wall. However, as a rule, both walls are well defined. The ores 
are almost exclusively confined to the vein, but there is always a varying, 
and in some instances a considerable, amount of ore in the wall rock near 
the contact with the vein. In mining it is, therefore, always necessary to 
keep close watch of the walls in order to be certain that no values are left. 
The vein possesses many irregularities in the way of pinches and swells, 
and contracts and widens in both vertical and horizontal directions. 

Ore and gangue minerals are of contemporaneous development, and 
there is little or no supergene or secondary enrichment, at least none of 
importance from a commercial standpoint. While there is a tendency 



108 



GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 



toward segregation of the quartz and calcite in the vein, in no place has it 
been carried to completion, and each mineral is intermixed and intergrown 
with the other and with the ore. 

The following minerals, exclusive of included country rock, named in 
the approximate order of their abundance, make up the gangue minerals 
of the vein : Quartz, calcite, chlorite, epidote, and hematite. The ore min- 
erals in the order of their abundance are : Bornite, chalcocite, malachite, 
azurite, and argentite( ?). It is not definitely known how the silver occurs 
in the ore, but microscopic examination of polished sections offers some 
evidence that it is present in the form of argentite, and that it is intergrown 
with the other sulphides. Ore and gangue minerals are so intimately asso- 




Fig. 6. — Blue Wing vein, face of 100-foot level, north. On the right is schist with 
stringers of quartz. In the center is calcite with some quartz and a streak of 
ore. On the left is calcite and quartz, then schist. (After W. H. Weed.) 

ciated and intergrown with each other that there is little doubt that they 
are of contemporaneous development. There is a slight tendency on the 
part of the ore to be segregated in different portions of the veins, but in no 
place is it completely so, and in general a good part of the ore is found 
bunched here and there throughout the vein, while a smaller amount is 
scattered irregularly through it. There is also often an important develop- 
ment of ore in the schists at or near the contact with the vein. An im- 
portant feature of the deposit from both a commercial and scientific stand- 
point is the predominance of quartz as a gangue mineral. Many carefully 
made estimates and analyses 'show that the vein carries an excess of silica 
varying from 60 to 70 per cent, thus making it possible to use the ore as 



BLUE WING MINE. 109 

converter linings and as a siliceous component in smelting other heavy 
sulphide ores. In fact, this feature is common to all the ores of the district 
and forms a very important, consideration in its future development. The 
following partial analyses of selected samples of the ore, which were made 
for commercial purposes, show in a general way the composition of the ore. 

Partial Analyses of SeUcted Samples of Blue Wing Ore. a 

A B 

Per cent Per cent 

Cu 2.73 4.10 

Fe 6.10 6.50 

CaO 5.65 7.10 

S 0.91 1.46 

AL0 3 6.89 1.10 

MgO 0.79 0.56 

Si0 2 66.84 69.00 

Ag . 80 oz. per ton 1 . 30 ozs. per ton 



From the standpoint of genesis of the ores their highly siliceous char- 
acter indicates that they are probably derived, not from the basic green- 
stones in which they are found, but from some extraneous, highly siliceous 
rock, in all probability from the granitic intrusions which occur abundantly 
in certain parts of the district. This question is discussed in detail in the 
chapter on the origin and deposition of the ores. The general character 
of the vein and the relation of ore and gangue to walls and country rock 
are well illustrated in the following sketches by Weed. 5 Figure 6 repre- 
sents, natural size, a typical specimen of ore, showing banded structure 
caused by. the inclusion of layers of schist and illustrates the distribution 
of ore through the gangue. Of figures 6, 7, and 8, Weed says : "Fig. 6 
shows the face at the north end of the 100-foot level; Fig. 7 the roof 
above the stope, a short distance south of the face. Fig. 8, a sketch of the 
south face of the same level, shows quartz lenses holding ore and the slate- 
casing to the ore lenses. This south face shows on the hanging wall barren 
white quartz and calcite, and on the foot dark gray sulphide in slate with 
quartz streaks holding parallel threads or films of* what looks like slate 
dotted with ore. Ore (harder and darker in color) also occurs in the 
casing. The ore body often presents a streaked or ribboned appearance, 
due, not to crustification or to recent movement of the vein, but to partly 
replaced sheets of slate." 



° U. S. Metals Refining Company. 

6 Weed, Walter H. : Types of copper deposits in the Southern United States, Am. 
Inst. Min. Eng., Trans., Vol. 30, 1900, pp. 465-467. 



110 



GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 



The general tenor of the ore is well shown by the following tables of 
smelter returns on actual shipments of ore. These shipments were selected 
to represent the type of ore taken from the mine at different periods in its 
development. They represent the returns for ore taken out in 1899 to 
1900, which is selected and cobbed ore rather than the run-of-mine 7 and 
consequently shows a much higher percentage of copper than the average 
of the vein. The table showing the returns for 1907 represents the run-of- 
mine ore with only such waste material as was removed on a picking belt, 
and is believed to represent the average ore of the mine. 




Fig. 7. — Sketch of Blue Wing vein in roof over stope above the 100-foot level, 350 
feet south of shaft. On the left, calcite and a little white quartz, with dark 
streaks of slaty material and spots of ore. On the right, ore in dark quartz. 
(After Weed.) 

Assays of Blue Wing Ore, 1899-1900. 



Lbs. 


Date 


Cu. 


Ag. 


Au. 


Assayer 


Sampled 




Per cent 


Ozs. 


Ozs. 




42,885 


May 12, 1899 


11.91 


N. d. 


N. d. 


Ledoux and Co. 


43,341 


June 3, " \ 


11.31 


ft 


a 


a 


46.075 


" 19, " 


12.40 


a 


a 


a 


50,276 


July 14, " 


11.70 


a 


a 


tt 


43,907 


" 21, " 


12.38 


a 


tt 


a 


43,881 


Aug. 8, " 


13.85 


tt 


it 


te 


41,514 


Sept. 9, " 


12.69 


a 


a 


tt 


31,705 


Nov. 24, " 


7.35 


a 


a 


it 


41,193 


" 21, " 


11.04 


a 


it 


u 


49,823 


Dec. 30, " 


15.64 


5.55 


it 


tt 


5,289 


Sept. 12, " 


42.48 


N.d. 


tt 


tt 


54,879 


« 12, « 


3.76 


a 


it 


tt 


39,879 


" 11, « 


3.56 


a 


a 


tt 


66.772 


Oct. 7, " 


10.27 


it 


a 


tt 


3,063 


Dec. 30, " 


44.48 


13.80 


.01 


it 


36,340 


Jan. 20, 1900 


6.48 


N. d. 


N. d. 


it 


54,051 


Oct. 19, 1899 


8 . 33 


tt 


u 


tt 



BLUE WING MINE. 



Ill 



Assays of Blue Wing Ore, 1907. 



Lbs. 


Date 




Cu. 


Ag. 


Au. 


Assayer 


Sampled 






Per cent 


Ozs. 


Ozs. 
















Eustis Smelting 


44.160 


July 20, 


1907 


6.81 


2.65 


.0066 


Works 


327,250 


5, 


tt 


3.17 


1.18 


.005 


tt 


298,184 


9, 


a 


3.09 


1.16 


.005 


n 


354.917 


" 20, 


it 


2.69 


1.02 


.994 


tt 


337,548 


" 20, 


a 


2.69 


1.00 


.004 


tt 


369.685 


" 27, 


tt 


3.08 


1.17 


.005 


tc 


389,027 


" 29, 


a 


2.66 


1.00 


.004 


tt 


370,728 


" 31, 


a 


2.08 


.80 


.002 


it 


234,679 


Aug. 5, 


a 


2.46 


.96 


.005 


a 


198,230 


9, 


a 


2.47 


.97 


.004 


a 


373,814 


9, 


tt 


2.31 


.89 


.004 


tt 


345,465 


" 22, 


a 


2.39 


.89 


.004 


a 


217,191 


" 22. 


tt 


2.42 


.90 


.004 


it 


322,720 


" 22, 


a 


2.67 


.95 


.0045 


a 


363,699 


Sept. 1, 


a 


2.67 


.96 


.005 


it 


221,132 


3, 


tt 


2.96 


1.07 


.005 


it 


326,477 


3, 


tt 


2.75 


1.00 


.005 


tt 


312,586 


" 9, 


tt 


3.26 


1.14 


.005 


tt 


232,525 


" 4, 


tt 


4.21 


1.54 


.015 


is 


309,108 


Oct. 15, 


tt 


2.01 


1.06 


.005 


tt 


390,117 


" 15, 


tt 


2.70 


.99 


.005 


tt 


368,728 


" 15, 


tt 


3.31 


1.14 


.006 


tt 


178,713 


Nov. 6, 


tt 


5.89 


2.23 


.007 


te 



The Blue Wing vein is fairly persistent and can be traced by outcrop 
or by quartz debris on the surface with some interruptions for nearly half 
a mile. Just how much of it throughout this distance is mineralized is not 
known, but at least three openings at intervals of more than 1,000 feet 
show ore. These are the Blue Wing mine proper, the opening 1,000 feet 
to the south known as the Spring shaft, and an abandoned pit 25 or 30 
feet deep about one-fourth mile south of the Spring shaft. Some of the 
surface debris between the Spring shaft and this pit shows copper stains, 
and it is not improbable that more prospecting would develop other more 
promising ore shoots. Of the four ore shoots thus far known, the two at 
the main shaft are most promising. The one at the Spring shaft shows 
good ore as far as development, which consists only of a shaft about 100 
feet deep, has gone. While the average ore at this shaft does not contain as 
high a percentage of copper as that at the main shaft, all geological con- 
ditions, so far as could be determined, are similar, and it is not improbable 
that future work would develop an important body of ore at this place. 
This shaft was filled with water at the time of the field work and was, 



112 GEOLOGY AND OKE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

therefore, not accessible for study, and the statements in regard to it are, 
therefore, based on an examination of the material on the dump and on * 
reports of men who worked in the place. At the opening, about one-fourth 
mile south of this shaft, the conditions are somewhat different. So far as 
could be determined from the abandoned and caved pit, the vein is well 
denned but narrower, and, judging by material on the dump, contains very 
little calcite. The ore also differs from that at the Blue Wing and Spring 
shafts in that it contains specular hematite in excess of the copper-bearing 
sulphides. Bornite and chalcocite are present, but in all the material 
available for examination were found to be subordinate in amount to the 
hematite. Hematite occurs with the sulphides in all the mines of the 




Fig. 8. — Blue Wing vein at the south face of the 100-foot level. On the right is 
schist carrying streaks of quartz. In the middle are barren quartz and calcite 
with a band of ore in the center. On the left is schist containing quartz lenses 
and ore. (After W. H. Weed.) 

district, but only in this one prospect is it present in great abundance. Its 
relation to ore and gangue minerals, so far as noted, is the same in all 
cases, that is, intergrown and contemporaneous with them. 

Only at the Blue Wing shaft has development work gone far enough 
to afford data on the pitch and other characteristics of the. ore shoots, and 
even in this instance it is not extensive enough to warrant much in the way 
of generalization. It can be stated, however, that the ore does occur in 
definite ore shoots in which it shows a tendency to be segregated largely in 
different places in the vein, but that this segregation is in no place com- 
plete, and that smaller but important amounts of ore are* distributed irregu- 
larly through the vein. It may also be stated that, so far as development 
has gone, the ore shoots have a pitch in the vein of about 65 degrees to 
the south, having, therefore, approximately the same pitch as the diabase 
dike which intersects the vein in this mine. 



BLUE WING MINE. 113 

Production. — jSTo record of the total amount of ore taken from this mine 
is available, but, judging from the amount of s.toping that has been done 
and from such records as could be found, it would certainly not be placed 
below fifty thousand tons. It is also believed, from an examination of 
such smelter returns as were accessible, that the ore taken out and shipped 
carried an average of about 4 per cent of copper. 

Future of the mine. — The part of the geologist's report on a mine 
which is probably of greatest interest to the owners of the mine and those 
interested in its development are his statements in regard to the possi- 
bilities and probabilities of the future development of ore in the mine. 
This, indeed, is the very part of his report that he would most gladly omit 
if he felt that he could do so without shirking his duty. 

It is believed that the studies of the Blue Wing mine will warrant a few 
surmises as to its future. It is commonly stated that the only way to judge 
the future is by the past, and this method will be used in making statements 
as to the future of this mine. The geological conditions are practically the 
same in the vein as it is opened by the deepest level and at the bottom of 
the shaft as they are on the first level. To be sure, there are irregularities 
and variations in the amount and distribution of the ore from place to 
place, but as regards the really important features, such as the size and 
persistence of the vein, the mineralization, and the continuation of the ore 
shoots, etc., the conditions are practically the same in the deepest workings 
as they are at the first level. The vein is clearly a fissure vein, and this 
type of vein is always counted upon to carry good values to great depths. 
The value of the ore thus far taken out was in all probability not much 
increased by processes of secondary enrichment, and it is believed to repre- 
sent values practically as they were originally deposited in the vein. Taking 
all these data into consideration it is assumed that one. is justified in be- 
lieving that the ore which has been developed up to the present time may 
be regarded as an example of what future development may show. It is, 
therefore, believed that development work should be continued with the 
expectation that the ore shoots will hold their value in depth, and that 
further ore, comparable with that already developed and taken out, will be 
found. 

In regard to the future of this mine, Mr. J. Parke Channing, in a 
commercial report, stated : 

"The Blue Wing mine has not been tested north and south with drifts, 
and it is quite probable that further development in these directions would 






114 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

show other ore bodies. From the results of the various samples I am of the 
opinion that this mine will produce ore carrying 2 per cent copper and 
8 ounces of silver with a silica excess of about 60 per cent. I assume that 
the mine can produce 20,000 tons of ore per annum and I am of the 
opinion- that the cost of development will be about 65 cents per ton and 
that the total cost of mining, including development, will be two dollars 
per ton." 

HOLLOWAY MINE. 

General statement. — The Holloway mine is located about 3 miles south 
and 1 mile west of the town of Virgilina, and a short distance east of the 
county road leading south from the town. The wagon roads connecting 
the mine with Virgilina are in only fair condition, but they are so located 
that a small amount of work would improve them greatly. The mine is 
connected with the Southern Eailway at Virgilina by a branch line which 
runs from the mine to the junction about 1 mile east of the town, thus 
giving good shipping facilities. 

There is not a sufficient supply of water immediately at hand for carry- 
ing on extensive operations in ore dressing if such should ever be desirable. 
However, about 1 mile west of the mine is Crooked Creek, and approxi- 
mately 2 miles east is Aaron's Creek, and, by impounding either stream at 
the nearest point to the mine, ample water can be obtained and supplied 
to the mine by pumping. The timber conditions surrounding the Holloway 
mine are similar in all respects to those at the Blue Wing mine. Thus 
there is available an ample supply of both oak and pine timber for all 
mining purposes. 

The land on which the Holloway mine is located formerly belonged to 
William S. Holloway, who used it for»farming purposes, and who, in 1880, 
while plowing, discovered the first indications of copper which consisted 
of the green and the blue carbonates. Mr. Holloway was somewhat inter- 
ested in the copper stains and sunk a test pit to a depth of 15 or 20 feet, 
exposing promising rock. In 1884 the prospect was purchased by Judge 
A. W. Graham, of Oxford, N". C, who had a small amount of development 
work done and sold it in 1885 to parties by the name of 'McPherson and 
Heitman. These men started work on the quartz vein about 100 feet west 
of the present main Holloway shaft. They apparently did not have suffi- 
cient funds to carry on the development of the property and it was soon 
sold to satisfy debts incurred in the prospecting, and was purchased by 
W. H. Eagan, of Mocksville, N". C, and E. L. Gaither, of High Point, 1ST. C. 
They did little or nothing to develop the property, and in the latter part of 



HOLLO WAY MINE. 115 

1887 sold it to William M. Pannebaker, of Lewistown, Pa. Mr. Pannebaker 
did a small amount of prospecting, but nothing in the way of important 
development, and in the early part of the year 189? sold one-half interest 
in the property to W. E. C. Eustis, of Boston, and leased the other half to 
him on a royalty basis. With this transaction the actual development of 
the mine began. The work was carried on actively, and it is reported that 
during 1899 and 1900 about 120 men were employed in and around the 
mine, and that the work was carried on in two shifts of 10 hours each. 

In May, 1901, mining had reached to a depth of 440 feet. During 
October, 1901, work on these lower levels had ceased, but work was con- 
tinued on the upper levels and ore was shipped until March, 1903. 

In 1903 Mr. Eustis made a proposition for individual ownership of the 
mine to Mr. Pannebaker, by which Mr. Pannebaker finally obtained control, 
and in November, 1916, the mine was in possession of Mr. Pannebaker's 
estate, he having died in 1914. In 1905 Philadelphia parties, backed by 
Harrisburg politicians, became interested in the property and partially 
reopened the mine, retimbering shaft No. 1 to a depth of 115 feet. At this 
point the famous Harrisburg Capital troubles arose, the backing failed, and 
the work was discontinued, it is said, much against the recommendation 
and wishes of the persons actually in charge of the work. As a result of 
cutting the walls to accommodate the new timbers about 6 tons of ore assay- 
ing 8.64 per cent copper were obtained and shipped. No further work on 
the property has been attempted and the mine has remained closed and 
filled with water to the present date. 

The dump of low-grade ore that accumulated during mining began to 
be worked over just as soon as the Eustis smelter at Norfolk, Va., was 
completed; and as early as December, 1899, material was shipped from 
these dumps to the smelter, as it was needed as a flux. Later, in 1909 and 
1910, the remainder of the dump was purchased by K. G-. Lassiter and 
shipped for use as macadam and railroad ballast. 

Development. — Judging from the general appearance of the mine during 
the time of the field work for this report, nothing was done in the way of 
surface development or improvement that was not absolutely necessary in 
order to get out the ore and ship it. In fact, it appears that in all the work 
only the cheapest and poorest grade of material was used, and that this was 
put together in the cheapest way possible. The shaft was not housed nor 
properly timbered, and it is reported that not even the absolutely necessary 
timbering was done in the mine. At present, all that remains of such 



116 



GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 



surface plant as was put up is the railroad track, a rickety old boiler house, 
and a dilapidated boiler. 

Taking into consideration all available data, the surface development 
seems to have been characteristic of the underground work. Judging from 
such observations as could be made and from reports of many men who 
worked in the mine, the object sought by the management seems to have 
been to take out the ore in sight just as cheaply as possible. Apparently 
no development work was done looking toward extending the mine, or 



South 




Shaft No. 1 i J 
Plan 385%evel| 




^M 



u 





Kast 



■ ■ ■"-"!.. . U'l | » ' J" """ 



I "i $b\'}^k\ " .„,„"3 

Longitudinal Section 



Cross Section 



Scale 
40 SO 120 1GO 200 Feet 



Cross Section 



Fig. 9. — Vertical sections and plans of Holloway mine. From map made from notes 
by J. D. Battershill, 1903. 



toward developing a future supply of ore. A single large, lens of rich ore 
was in sight, and the object of the management appears to have been to 
get this out as quickly as possible. Five shafts were sunk on the property. 
Of these only No. 1, which is the main working shaft, was sunk to any 
important depth. The shaft is about 450 feet deep, and from it six levels 
have been broken off at 60, 140, 200, 290, 385, and 435 feet from the 
surface, respectively. It is an inclined shaft and follows approximately the 
dip of the schists, which is 70 to 80 degrees to the east. The total drifting, 



HOLLOWAY MINE. 117 

all of which, except a very small amount, was necessary in getting out the 
lens of ore, amounts to about 1,800 feet. Practically all of the drifting was 
done in the vein. The mine was under water at the time of the field work 
and was, therefore, not accessible for study. However, such data as were 
available were collected, and the vertical section given on page 116 was 
made from a sketch of the workings by J. D. Battershill, who was super- 
intendent of the mine throughout the whole period of its operation, and is 
reasonably correct. These data show that there was an irregular ore body 
about 300 feet long and varying from 3 to more than 100 feet in width, 
which has been stoped out for a width varying from 3 to 33 feet. This 
stoping extends from within about 30 feet of the surface to the 290-foot 
level. Weed a reports in 1900 that the mine was hoisting from 30 to 40 tons 
of ore per day, and states that this ore was cobbed and picked by hand and 
that from it 16 to 20 tons of ore were selected per day for shipment. 

Geologic relations. — The rock in the Holloway mine is the typical 
Yirgilina greenstone, both the tuffaceous and the porphyritic phases being 
represented. N"o rock is exposed at the surface in the immediate vicinity 
of the mine, but judging from the rock hoisted in mining the ore it is 
somewhat more massive and contains more epidote than the average green- 
stone. However, it has suffered intense dynamic metamorphism and is 
decidedly schistose but not to the extent of completely obliterating its 
original characteristics. The strike of the schistosity varies in the vicinity 
of the mine from 20 to 35 degrees east of north, and the dip is uniformly 
from 70 to 80 degrees toward the southeast. 

There are two veins or mineralized fissures on the property, one, the 
principal vein, has a trend of approximately 15 degrees west of north, 
while the other, apparently not so strongly mineralized as the first, has a 
trend of about 5 degrees east of north, thus crossing the first vein at an 
acute angle. The trend of the second vein is marked by considerable quartz 
debris, while the first has very little in the way of surface outcrop. Little 
is known as to the strength of mineralization in the second vein. One shaft 
has been put down on it to a depth of about 80 feet, and- it is reported that 
it produced shipping ore. This shaft was partially caved and filled with 
water at the time of the field work for this report and nothing as to the 
character of the vein could be learned from actual observation. 

The principal vein, as has just been stated, is not at all well marked at 
the surface ; in fact, there is little or no outcrop. It is clearly of the fissure 

a Loc. cit. 



118 



GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OE THE VIRG1LINA DISTRICT. 



type and was developed in a fracture or fissure which in trend cuts the 
schistosity of the country rock at an angle of about 45 degrees and which 
dips about 80 degrees toward the east. All the openings on this vein were 
filled with water at the time of the field work for this report and conse- 
quently were not accessible for study. The following account of the geology 
of the mine is taken from data which the writer believes to be reliable. 
It comes almost wholly from two sources, a report on the Virgilina district 
by Weed, a and notes and other data on the mine compiled by Miss 
M. Florence Pannebaker from records and reports of the mine while it was 
being operated under the Eustis lease, and by her kindly placed at the 
disposal of the writer. 




Fig. 10. — Sketch showing face of 300-foot level, south, in Holloway mine, January 
26, 1900. On the left, black quartzose ore; in the center, white quartz stringers 
(After Weed.) 



in black gangue. 



It appears from Miss Pannebaker's data that, in sinking shaft No. 1. 
the main shaft, at a depth of about 14 feet a thick mud seam was en- 
countered beneath which was rich chalcocite ore. At 18 feet the vein was 
13 feet wide with a pay streak of chalcocite ore between 2 and 4 feet wide 
and assaying as high as 44 per cent copper. It is also stated that, from 
the surface down to, and considerably below, this depth, the entire contents 
of the shaft averaged over 3 per cent copper, much of which occurred in 
the form of the green and the blue carbonates. Some shipments were made 
from material obtained in the sinking carrying as high as 33 per cent 
copper, with a number of carloads of 10 per cent average. At a depth of 
112 feet, while the full width of the vein was not known, the 6 feet included 
•in the width of the shaft averaged from 8 to 10 per cent copper. The 
records show that during the first year of work, spent' largely in sinking 



a Weed, Walter H. : Types of copper deposits in the Southern United States. 
Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng.', 1900, Vol. 30, pp. 449-504. 



118 



GEOLOGY AND OEE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRG1LINA DISTRICT. 



type and was developed in a fracture or fissure which in trend cuts the 
schistosity of the country rock at an angle of about 45 degrees and which 
dips about 80 degrees toward the east. All the openings on this vein were 
filled with water at the time of the field work for this report and conse- 
quently were not accessible for study. The following account of the geology 
of the mine is taken from data which the writer believes to be reliable. 
It comes almost wholly from two sources, a report on the Virgilina district 
by Weed, a and notes and other data on the mine compiled by Miss 
M. Florence Pannebaker from records and reports of the mine while it was 
being operated under the Eustis lease, and by her kindly placed at the 
disposal of the writer. 




Fig. 



10. — Sketch showing face of 300-foot level, south, in Holloway mine, January 
26, 1900. On the left, black quartzose ore; in the center, white quartz stringers 
in black gangue. (After Weed.) 



It appears from Miss Pannebaker's data that, in sinking shaft No. 1. 
the main shaft, at a depth of about 14 feet a thick mud seam was en- 
countered beneath which was rich chalcocite ore. At 18 feet the vein was 
13 feet wide with a pay streak of chalcocite ore between 2 and 4 feet wide 
and assaying as high as 44 per cent copper. It is also stated that, from 
the surface down to, and considerably below, this depth, the entire contents 
of the shaft averaged over 3 per cent copper, much of which occurred in 
the form of the green and the blue carbonates. Some shipments were made 
from material obtained in the sinking carrying as high as 33 per cent 
copper, with a number of carloads of 10 per cent average. At a depth of 
112 feet, while the full width of the vein was not known, the 6 feet included 
•in the width of the shaft averaged from 8 to 10 per cent copper. The 
records show that during the first year of work, spent* largely in sinking 



a Weed, Walter H. : Types of copper deposits in the Southern United States. 
Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng.', 1900, Vol. 30, pp. 449-504. 



Table of Settlement Returns on Ore Shipments from the Eolloway Mine, 1897-190$. 



i*eab 


Januaby 


Febbuaby 


Maech 


APBIL 


May 


June 


July 


August 


Septembeb 


OCTOBEB 


NOVEMBEB 


Decembeb 


1807 










1 Car 
1 Car 


10.07% 
10.03% 


5 Cars 
4 Cars 
4 Cars 
1 Car 
1 Car 
1 Car 
1 Car 
1 Car 


0.07% 

0.83% 

11.19% 

23.91% 
33.64% 
10.82% 

10.55% 

10.30% 


1 Car , ... 
1 Car 


9.83% 
10.20% 
37.47% 


5 Cars 8.70% 


5 Cars 7.40% 

1 Car 38 . 78% 


5 Cars S . 29%, 

1 Car , 10.08% 
4 Cars 10.15% 


1 Car 
1 Car ... 
1 Car ... 
1 Car ... 
4 Cars . . . 
1 Car ... 


6.17% 
6.30% 
0.84%. 

10.15%, 
9.74% 

33.50% 


1 Car ... 

1 Car ... 

2 Cars ... 


... 7.72% 
9.74% 
10.92% 


1808 


4 Curs 


10.02% 


4 Cars . . . 


10 . 08% 


5 Cars 
1 Car 
1 Car 


8.00%, 

7.76% 
6.86%, 


1 Car 
4 Cars 
1 Car 
1 Car 


34.79%. 

7.76% 

0.11% 

. 64% 


3 Cars 
1 Car 
1 Car 


0.64% 
4.84% 
34.70%, 


3 Cars 


7.88% 


1 Car 

2 Cars 

1 Car 


7.40% 
7.88% 
33.60% 


1 Car 6.80% 

5 Cars 0.08% 

4 Cars 7.43% 
1 Car 32.50%, 


4 Cars 6.80% 


4 Cars 8.92% 


1 Car 

5 Cars . . . 

1 Car 


8.92% 
9.72%, 
31.21% 


4 Cars ... 


8.61% 


1890 


4 Cars 


0.44%. 


1 Car 
1 Car 


10.10% 
9.44% 


4 Cars 
1 Car 

5 Cars 


10.10%, 

10.35% 

. .... 12.00% 


4 Cars 
1 Car 


10.35% 
0.57% 


4 Cars 
1 Car 


0.57% 

39.07% 


Cars 


10.72% 


Records 


lost. 


Records lost. 


Records lost. 


Records lost. 


Can . . . 

1 Car ... 


0.41% 
40.00% 


6 Cars . . . 
6 Cars . . . 
1 Car ... 
1 Car ... 


6.39% 

11.55% 

... 28.42% 

32.20% 


1000 


6 Cars 
6 Cars 


n.4i%o 

10.44% 


6 Cars 


7.02% 


6 Cars 


6.06%, 


Cars 
6 Cars 


80% 
5.13% 


Cars 
Cars 


7.35% 
5.47% 


6 Cars 
Cars 
6 Cars 


4.71% 

6.25% 
4.04% 


Cars 
Cars 


4.02%, 
4.66%, 


6 Cars . 5.77% 


Cars 5.70% 
6 Cars 5.05% 


6 Cars 4.85% 

Cars 6.87% 


Cars . . . 
4 Cars . . . 


6.29% 
4.11% 


2 Cars . . . 
4 Cars . . . 


4.11% 
4.74% 


1001 


2 Cars 
2 Cars 


4.74% 

3.22% 


4 Cars . . . 
2 Cars ... 


3.22% 
.. 2.64% 


1 Car 
4 Cars 


3.53% 

2.64% 


3 Cars 


3.53%« 


2 Cars 


3.63% 


3 Cars 


9.11% 


3 Cara 


9.11% 


2 Cars , 6.47% 


2 Cars 5.47% 


2 Cars 5.47% 
1 Car 2.81% 


3 Cars . . . 


2.81% 


2 Cars . . . 
2 Cars . . . 


2.00% 
... 2.81% 


1002 


1 Car 


2.90% 


3 Cars . . . 


2.00% 


3 Cars 


2.80% 


2 Cars 

3 Cars 


3 . 60% 
2.80% 


3 Cars 

4 Cars 


4.71% 
3.00%, 


4 Cars 
3 Cars 


5.31% 
4.71% 




4 Cars 6.35% 
2 Cars . 6.31% 


Cars 6.38% 

2 Cars 6.35% 

1 Car 5.06% 

2 Cars 4.38% 


5 Cars 5.90% 

2 Cars , , 4.11% 


3 Cars . . . 

4 Cars . . . 


4.23%, 
4.11% 


4 Cars . . . 
3 Cars ... 


5 . 24% 
4.23% 


1903 


4 Cars 
2 Cars 


6.82% 
5.24% 


2 Cars 
2 Cars 


5.82% 
3.06% 


2 Cars 
5 Cars 


4 38% 

3.95% 


2 Cars 
6 Cars 


4.38% 
3.78% 



















HOLLOWAY MINE. 119 

and drifting, there were shipped, in all, 89 cars of ore which averaged 
11 per cent copper with some shipments running as high as 40 per cent. 

Miss Pannebaker's records furthermore show that, so far as removed 
from the mine, the richest ore occurred roughly in two shoots, one a short 
distance south and the other about 120 feet north of the main shaft, near 
shaft No. 2, and that both shoots had a pitch in the vein approximating 
70 degrees toward the south. The ore in both shoots was of uniformly 
high grade and in both the vein was very wide. According to Weed the 
south shoot was 33 feet wide on the first level, 75 feet below the surface 
south of the shaft. Other records show that this shoot farther down was 
stoped to widths varying from 15 to 30 feet or more. The north shoot was 
also of high grade ore, but was probably not stoped quite so wide as that in 
the south shoot where the reports mention stopes up to 30 feet in width. 
Between these two large shoots the vein was narrower, from 3 to 10 feet, 
but well mineralized. Nothing in the way of stoping was done below the 
fourth level although the vein was well mineralized and material removed 
in sinking and drifting was shipped to the smelter. The records also show 
that in the shaft at a depth of about 440 feet a body of very rich ore was 
encountered. Eecords of shipments made at the time this sinking and 
drifting were in progress and presumably from this work show an average 
of 9.11 per cent copper. It was reported that the drift and cross-cut on 
the fifth level, north, were mineralized for a width of about 60 feet and that 
in the drift on the sixth level, both north and south, shipping ore was 
obtained. 

Eecords which might show the character of the ore produced by this 
mine are scarce and difficult of access, and there were no geological exami- 
nations of the ore body while the characteristic high-grade ore was being 
taken out. At the time of Mr. Weed's report the greater part of such ore 
of this type as had been developed had been removed, and much of the 
mine was not accessible for examination. There are also many conflicting 
reports regarding the mine which are generously poured into the ears of 
any one who, for any reason, manifests interest in the possibility of the 
mine again becoming a producer, oftentimes much to the injury of the mine 
and of the district as a whole. Because of all this and in order to render 
accessible such reliable information on the subject as exists, it was decided 
to include the following table of settlement returns on representative ship- 
ments of ore from the mine during the years 1897 to 1903. The table by 
no means includes all the shipments made during the period covered, but 
it is believed that such as are included are representative and that they 



120 GEOLOGY AND OEE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

furnish a reliable basis on which may be formed an estimate of the grade 
and character of ore produced by the mine. The table was compiled by 
Miss Pannebaker from actual smelter returns in her possession and by her 
placed at the writer's disposal. 

The vein has been prospected and more or less developed for a distance 
of about 800 feet, and it is reported that each of the prospect shafts showed 
more or less ore, and that shipping ore was taken out of both the northern- 
most and the southernmost developments. 

The following is Weed's* account of this mine which, in the main, 
corroborates the data furnished by Miss Pannebaker : 

"The vein varies greatly in width, showing the lenticular structure 
noticed on a small scale in the railroad cut, and, in fact, repeated in the 
ore-body itself. It varies from 3 feet to 75 feet, or more, in width. In 
general, there is a fairly defined foot-wall, showing a dip of 75 degrees. The 
hanging-wall is less defined; and both foot and hanging show irregu- 
larities, due doubtless to the crossing of the schists by the vein at a slight 
angle, and the presence of projections where the rocks are slightly harder 
than the usual schists. It should be remarked also that the course of the 
Holloway vein, north 15 to 20 degrees east, is not that of most of the 
veins of the district. 6 

"In the lower or third level of the mine, the vein is 12 feet wide at the 
south face, and shows white and gray quartz, with epidote and gray chal- 
cocite 2.5 feet wide. Fig. 10 represents a sketch made in the mine at this 
level. Here the hanging-wall is rolling, and there is no defined foot-wall. 
It is also noticed that the quartz sends little droppers or feeders into 
the schists, in stringers parallel to the schistosity. This is illustrated in 
Fig. 11. 

"On the third level, south of the shaft, the vein was lost in following 
the foot-wall, so that there is a short cross-cut into the country-rock. Fig. 
12 shows the cross-section of the ore body on this level, to the south. In 
general, it is noticed that the vein south of the shaft is well-defined, and 
has good walls up to the first level. The quartz is cased in a soft, micaceous 
slate, which is not a gouge or selvage in the ordinary sense, and may be a 
schist forming part of the country rock. . . . On the third level, 
the vein pinches toward the shaft to about 3 feet, and continues with 
this width to the shaft and northward for a short distance, beyond which it 
widens to 6 or 8 feet in width. North of the shaft, the vein is broken by an 
inclined fault-plane, marked by a mud containing sharp angular fragments 
of ore and quartz, and dipping east about 30 degrees. It does not throw the 
vein, though it shatters the walls. 



a Loc. cit., pp. 458-461. 

6 The author states the course of the vein is north 15 to 20 degrees east which, 
since by actual survey the trend is north 15 to 20 degrees west, must he a typo- 
graphical error. 



HOLLOWAY MINE. 



121 



"The ore-body in the third level is altered along cracks showing films 
of green carbonates in both the ore and the white quartz. In the bottom 
of the shaft, however, no decomposition was observed. A prospect-drift, 
which has been started about 25 feet above the face of the third level, shows 
a black jaspery rock, with crossings of white quartz. There is no ore 
exposed except on the north wall, where there is a slight green stain. 

"On the second level south no timbering exists, so that it was not 
carloads [of ore] have been shipped from this mine, which varied from 
shows hard, finely laminated micaceous schists, the schistosity of which 
makes an angle of about 30 degrees with the vein. At the north end of 
this level the vein shows a slaty hanging-wall, with quartz feeders running 
off into it. These feeders wedge off in a few feet, and usually carry ore. 
The quartz ore-body does not show any marked breccia; but in this, as in 
all the mines of the district, there are the usual thin, plated masses of 
decomposed schist. In general, the richer ore is found near the foot-wall. 
No definite association was observed between the occurrence of ore and the 
character of the various schists cut by the vein. 

"On the first level, 75 feet below the surface, south of the shaft, the 
vein is 133 a feet wide, but converges rapidly in both directions." 




Fig. 11. — Ideal horizontal cross-section of the Holloway vein, showing quartz spurs 
following the foliation of the country schist. (After Weed.) 

Mineralogy. — The gangue minerals, exclusive of fragments and bands of 
country rock included in the vein, named in the order of their abundance, 
are : Quartz, epidote, chlorite, hematite, and a little pink feldspar, probably 
orthoclase. The ore minerals in the order of their abundance are: Chal- 
cocite, bornite, malachite, azurite, and argentite ( ?), cuprite, native copper, 
and native silver. All the minerals of the vein, except the oxidization 
products and a part of the chalcocite in the upper portion of the vein, which 
is clearly secondary, are intimately and complexly intergrown and are 
believed to be of contemporaneous development. Epidote occurs in this 
mine in greater abundance as a gangue mineral than in any other mine or 
prospect in the district, and calcite is probably a little less abundant than 



a This should read 33 feet, ttee Weed, Copper Hand Book. 1916, p. 591. 



122 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

in the other mines. Chlorite is plentifully present, and was probably 
derived 'from the country rock and perhaps represents altered fragments 
of the greenstone. Feldspar, both orthoclase and plagioclase, is sparingly 
present and was found in a few specimens of gangue matter on the dump. 
So far as was determined, the ore minerals are associated very intimately 
with the gangue minerals and are pretty well distributed throughout the 
vein. However, there is a decided tendency toward a segregation of the 
ore at different irregular places throughout the vein. Chalcocite is by far 
the most abundant ore mineral and probably represents a greater percentage 
of the ore than in any other mine in the district. Excepting that portion 
of this mineral in the upper workings of the mine, it is probably all, or 
practically all, hypogene or primary deposition and is believed to be con- 
temporaneous with the bornite. Bornite and chalcocite are intergrown in 
the ore of this mine in much the same mariner as was noted in the Blue 
Wing mine. However, no well-defined graphic intergrowths, such as those 
in the ore from the Wall mine, were noted. The general appearance of the 
polished section under the microscope suggests an intricately branching 
mass of bornite merged with a similar mass of chalcocite, the latter mineral 
predominating. Malachite is the more abundant of the two carbonates. 
En fact, azurite occurs only sparingly. They are confined to the upper 
portion of the vein, extending, however, in one instance near the fault 
plain mentioned by Weed, to a depth of 300 feet. Hematite, while widely 
distributed, is by no means an abundant mineral. It is not known 
in what form the silver occurs, but it is believed to be present as argentite. 
Cuprite occurs sparingly in the oxidized portions of the vein. Native 
copper and native silver are said to have been found as films in fractures 
in the oxidized portion of the vein. 

Two connected shoots were partially proven, but the work in them was 
not sufficient to afford data for much in the way of generalization. As 
opened up by the workings, the ore shoots taken together are about 300 
feet long in their greatest linear extension, from 5 or 6 to about 100 feet 
in width, and extend to a depth of at least 450 feet from the -surface. Like 
the other ore shoots of the district, they appear to have a slight pitch to the 
south. The ore, while largely segregated in various portions of the vein, 
is also irregularly disseminated through it so that very little of the vein 
in the ore shoot is wholly barren. It is believed, however, from such data 
as were available, that segregation of the values was more nearly complete 
in this than in the other ore deposits of the district, and thus it was that 



HOLLOWAY MINE. 



123 



the operators were enabled to select a relatively greater amount of high- 
grade ore than was possible in the other mines that have been worked. 

Whether or not there are other ore shoots in the Holloway vein is 
not known, since no development work of any importance has been done 
except in the two ore shoots already mentioned. It is, however, unlikely 
that there should have been only one ore shoot developed in such a strong 
vein and further prospecting along its strike would certainly be justified. 

Production. — There were no means of ascertaining the total output of 
ore from the Holloway mine, but it is reported that in value, the ore taken 
out was worth considerably over $500,000. Weed says that at the time of 
his visit, in 1899, the mine was shipping from 18 to 20 tons of ore per day. 
Assuming that this production was maintained for 200 days during each 




Fig. 12. — Sketch showing cross-section of the Holloway vein as seen in the 300-foot 
level, south. (After Weed.) 



of the five years the mine was in operation, the total production would then 
be 180,000 tons, which figure, however, is probably in excess of the actual 
production. There were but little data available as to the distribution of the 
values in the ore shoot, but it is believed that, taking it as a whole, it ran 
considerably higher in copper than the other ore shoots of the district. Judg- 
ing from such smelter returns as were accessible, it appears that the silver 
and gold content were slightly higher than in the majority of the mines and 
prospects of the district. In some portions of the ore shoot the ore con- 
sisted of nearly pure sulphides and carried a very high copper content, it be- 
ing known from smelter returns that hand-picked ore running as high as 
40 per cent copper was shipped in carloads. Weed states that in 1899 the 
mine yielded about 61 tons of ore of two grades, the first averaging 30 
per cent or more of copper and the second over 12 per cent. It is quite 



124 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

evident that these statements do not take into account the lower grade of 

ore and the fines all of which were discarded at that time. These, however, 

were shipped later and smelter returns for more than 50 carloads of them 

show a copper content of a little less than 3 per cent. The following table 

showing the production of the mine, which by no means is complete, was 

compiled by Miss Pannebaker from actual settlement records in her 

possession. 

240 cars shipped prior to January 27, 1900, which 

averaged over 10% copper. 

16,157 tons shipped which averaged over 6% copper. 

10,000 tons shipped which averaged over 8% copper. 

6,000 tons shipped which averaged over 3% copper. 

3,185 tons shipped which averaged under 2% copper. 

Future of the mine. — Taking into consideration the character of the 
work done at this mine and the size and importance of the ore body, it is 
believed that further and extensive exploratory work should by all means 
be undertaken. The shaft should be sunk until it passes out of the ore 
shoot, and further development drifts should be driven both north and 
south in the vein. It also should be borne in mind that the vein crosses the 
schistosity of the country rock ; that it shows a tendency to send off feeders 
or stringers of ore parallel with the schistosity; that it has an irregular 
contour; and that its walls are "billowy" and in some instances not well 
defined, and a system of regular cross-cutting should be carried on in 
connection with the drifting. If the study of this mine has made a single 
point clear, it is that the ore deposit has certainly not been prospected to 
the extent that its size and importance would warrant. It is, therefore, 
believed that further development can be undertaken with a reasonable hope 
of finding valuable ore. As the Holloway mine stands to-day, the author 
regards it as one of the most promising prospects in the Virgilina district. 

HIGH HILL MINE. 

General statement. — The High Hill mine is located about 9 miles north 
of Virgilina from which it is reached by a fair wagon road. There are no 
railroad facilities and Virgilina is the nearest shipping point. The loca- 
tion of the mine is such that in case it should ever be developed to an extent 
that would justify it, a branch could be extended from the first siding on 
the Southern Eailway west of Virgilina, along a ridge to High Hill at a 
minimum expense, which would pass the Wall and Seaboard mines and a 
number of favorable prospects including the Littlejohn and the Elliot. 

The timber lands surrounding the mine have been closely cut over, but 
there is yet a supply of both oak and pine ample for all needs in operating 



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124 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

evident that these statements do not take into account the lower grade of 
ore and the fines all of which were discarded at that time. These, however, 
were shipped later and smelter returns for more than 50 carloads of them 
show a copper content of a little less than 3 per cent. The following table 
showing the production of the mine, which by no means is complete, was 
compiled by Miss Pannebaker from actual settlement records in her 

possession. 

240 cars shipped prior to January 27, 1900, which 

averaged over 10% copper. 

16,157 tons shipped which averaged over 6% copper. 

10,000 tons shipped which averaged over 8% copper. 

6,000 tons shipped which averaged over 3% copper. 

3,185 tons shipped which averaged under 2% copper. 

Future of the mine. — Taking into consideration the character of the 
work done at this mine and the size and importance of the ore body, it is 
believed that further and extensive exploratory work should by all means 
be undertaken. The shaft should be sunk until it passes out of the ore 
shoot, and further development drifts should be driven both north and 
south in the vein. It also should be borne in mind that the vein crosses the 
schistosity of the country rock ; that it shows a tendency to send off feeders 
or stringers of ore parallel with the schistosity; that it has an irregular 
contour; and that its walls are "billowy" and in some instances not well 
defined, and a system of regular cross-cutting should be carried on in 
connection with the drifting. If the study of this mine has made a single 
point clear, it is that the ore deposit has certainly not been prospected to 
the extent that its size and importance would warrant. It is, therefore, 
believed that further development can be undertaken with a reasonable hope 
of finding valuable ore. As the Holloway mine stands to-day, the author 
regards it as one of the most promising prospects in the Virgilina district. 

HIGH HILL MINE. 

General statement. — The High Hill mine is located about 9 miles north 
of Virgilina from which it is reached by a fair wagon road. There are no 
railroad facilities and Virgilina is the nearest shipping point. The loca- 
tion of the mine is such that in case it should ever be developed to an extent 
that would justify it, a branch could be extended from the first siding on 
the Southern Eailway west of Virgilina, along a ridge to High Hill at a 
minimum expense, which would pass the Wall and Seaboard mines and a 
number of favorable prospects including the Littlejohn and the Elliot. 

The timber lands surrounding the mine have been closely cut over, but 
there is yet a supply of both oak and pine ample for all needs in operating 









e^ 






T777777777777777777777777L 







77 ^^^ 






V7T7 7 7 7 7777777777777. 



Fig. 13.— Vertical section of High Hill mine. From a survey by J. Parke Channing, 1005. 



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HIGH HILL MINE. 125 

the mine. At the time of the field work an abundance of cord wood could 
be obtained for fuel, delivered at the mine for one dollar per cord. 

Unfortunately, the mine has no immediate water supply. The water 
used for mining and milling purposes in excess of that made by the mine, 
which is very little, is obtained by pumping from Hyco Eiver, about one- 
half mile northwest of the mine, When the mine and mill were in opera- 
tion a pumping station consisting of boiler, 50 h. p. engine, and 18 by 9 
by 12 duplex pump, and a 6-inch pipe line to the mine, were installed at a 
point on the river about 2,800 feet from the mine. This supplied all the 
water necessary in the operations. 

The mine is located near the north end of a prominent ridge which 
extends southward toward Virgilina and attains its maximum elevation 
at the mine of about 200 feet above the river level. 

Actual development of this mine began in 1899 and was brought about 
largely through the activities of Judge A. W. Graham, of Oxford, N. C, 
and W. T. Harris, of Virgilina, Va., who interested, Boston, Mass., 
capitalists in the property. Prospecting proceeded rather rapidly and in 
December, 1899, 14 pits and shafts varying in depth from 25 to 125 feet 
had been sunk in the vein. These were numbered from 1 to 14, consecu- 
tively, beginning at the north, and were so spaced as to prospect nearly 
1 mile of the vein. 

None of this early work except the upper part of some of the pits was 
accessible at the time of the field work. Taking into consideration the lack 
of system in the later development of the mine and the fact that none of 
the work is accessible at the present time it is thought best to include a few 
paragraphs from a commercial report by H. F. Wild, a mining engineer, 
who examined the property in December, 1899. In describing this develop- 
ment work Mr. Wild says : 

'"Shaft No. 4 is 125 feet deep and Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 8 are more 
than 50 feet deep, No. 2 being 93 feet. At the bottom of No. 1 shaft there 
is a drift on the vein 180 feet to the north and 130 feet to the south con- 
necting with and extending beyond shaft ISTo. 2. At the 60-foot level in 
shaft No. 4 there is a drift 100 feet long and a stope 31 feet long and 
16 feet high. To the south of the shaft is a drift 15 feet long and at the 
96-foot level a drift 15 feet long. At the bottom of shaft No. 8 are two 
rl rifts on the vein each 9 feet long. This shaft is 72 feet deep. None of 
the various shafts has been sunk at the points which at the surface show 
the largest croppings of quartz, and as depth is attained the ore has in- 
creased in width and value. Surface leaching has depleted the values for 
some 15 or 20 feet beneath. Then the percentage of copper increases. In 



126 GEOLOGY AND OEE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

drifts from No. 1 shaft the ground to the north has been stoped out and at 
the extreme north the drift is within a few feet of the surface (owing to 
the contour of the hill). The ore shows for the entire length of the drifts 
(in the bottom where stoped above and in roof, bottom, and elsewhere), 
varying from 2 to 5 feet in width, averaging about 3 feet. In shafts 
Nos. 1 and 2 the vein shows about the same as in the drifts down to their 
level and in No. 2 below the drift the vein is very wide, but as the shaft 
has been sunk in the foot-wall side of the vein the streak of rich ore has 
not been exposed. The No. 4 shaft and the drifts from it are in the foot- 
wall side of the vein and are all in ore, the wall on the hanging side not 
having been reached except at one point in the shaft where a cross-cut 
shows the vein to be 14 feet wide. The shaft itself is 9 feet wide and a 
drill hole at the bottom shows the quartz to be at least 11 feet wide. In the 
drifts from this shaft the ore averages over 6 feet as exposed and since 
the hanging wall has not been reached the real width is greater. At the 
bottom of No. 8 shaft the vein has pinched to about 1 foot in width, but 
in the drifts from the bottom, although they are only 9 feet long, it has 
widened out to two and one-half feet. The streak of rich ore in the quartz 
vein varies in extent, not always corresponding with the variations of the 
vein itself and occasionally it occurs in kidneys through the quartz, but I 
estimate from my measurement and from the proportion it forms of the 
ore already extracted, that the rich ore forms about one-sixth of the entire 
contents of the vein." 

Shortly after Mr. Wild's report was made the mine was taken over by 
its present owners, a stock company known as the Virginia Copper Com- 
pany, Ltd. This company was organized under the laws of Great Britain, 
but maintained, during the operation of the mine, an office in New York 
City. Development work was continued largely, however, at shafts Nos. 
3 and 4, which were chosen as the main working shafts. These were sunk 
to depths of about 250 and 350 feet, respectively. Two levels were broken 
off from shaft No. 3, and 3 levels from No. 4. From these levels stoping 
was done as shown in the vertical section of this mine on page 124. This 
stoping was evidently very carelessly done and the shattered ground was 
not properly timbered, and, as a result, nearly 300 feet of ground above 
the first level south of the shaft caved. 

Good buildings, such as shaft house, boiler and power house, office, shop, 
a residence for the manager, and some houses for laborers, were erected. 
The shaft was equipped with good machinery including hoisting engine 
and a 20-drill air compressor. Later, in 1901, a mill was erected and an 
attempt was made to concentrate the ores. So far as could be learned the 
equipment was very inadequate and not suited to the ore. At any rate 
the work was a significant failure. The equipment consisted of a rock 



>>~ 



HIGH HILL MINE. 12 

breaker, some screens, a picking belt, and a set of Harz jigs. The rock 
breaker was the only crushing machinery employed and all material too 
coarse for the jigs was screened out and discarded. As a result there is 
now at the mine a large clump of this discarded material, which, according 
to assays, will run nearly 2 per cent in copper. The work continued in a 
somewhat desultory way until the price of copper reached a very low figure 
when the mine, was closed. In 1907 the mine was reopened and another 
attempt was made to treat the ores. This time the process consisted in 
giving the ore a sulpha ting roast in a specially designed furnace. This 
was followed by an acid leach and it, in turn, by electrolytic precipitation 
of the copper. An expensive plant was erected and operated only long 
enough to demonstrate that the method as installed was a failure. The 
mine was immediately closed and has not been reopened since. 

Geologic relations. — The rock of the High Hill mine is the normal 
schistose Virgilina greenstone. The greater part of it is decidedly schistose, 
but here and there are areas which show the original tuffaceous character 
of the rock. Some of the rock is of a dark green color and is fairly massive, 
while a smaller amount has a decided purplish color. 

The High Hill vein is one of the strongest in the Virgilina district and 
is clearly traceable either by a well-defined quartz reef or abundant quartz 
debris on the surface for a distance of nearly two miles. The outcrops rise 
from a few inches to 3 or 4 feet above the surface, and where there is no 
definite outcrop the surface is literally covered with quartz debris. So far 
as could be determined throughout this distance the vein varies from 2 or 3 
to 12 or 15 feet in width. It is remarkably regular in trend, showing 
throughout its whole length very slight variations from 6 degrees west of 
north. The strike of the schistosity is toward the northeast and cuts the 
trend of the vein at angles varying from 20 to 30 degrees. These facts 
make it clear that this is a true fissure vein developed in a fracture formed 
subsequent to the metamorphism of the country rock. In this respect it is 
similar to the other veins of the district. Like the other veins it also 
presents both vertical and longitudinal pinches and swells. It appears to 
contain a larger percentage of quartz, and is, therefore, more highly siliceous 
than any other vein in the district, with the possible exception of the Durgy 
vein which carries an approximately equal percentage. It carries less 
epidote than the Seaboard and Holloway veins and less calcite than the 
Blue Wing. So far as could be determined both foot and hanging walls 
are well defined and the vein parts easily from them. In this as in all other 



128 



GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 



veins of the district there are numerous inclusions of plates or layers of 
country rock which, in places, give it a laminated or banded appearance. 

The gangue minerals, exclusive of fragments of country rock, included 
within the vein, named in the order of their abundance, are : Quartz, 
epidote, chlorite, calcite, and hematite. The ore minerals in the order of 
their abundance are : Bornite, chalcocite, malachite, azurite, covellite, and 
argentite( ?). Ore and gangue minerals are intimately intergrown and 
there is little doubt that they were deposited contemporaneously. In this, 
as in the other mines of the district, there is a decided tendency on the 
part of the ore to occur as segregated areas or masses throughout the vein. 





B 

Fig. 14.— (A) High Hill vein at Shaft No. 4. North face of 60-foot level. Vein eight 
to nine feet wide. Ore is shown in solid black. (After W. H. Weed.) 
(B) High Hill vein, north face at bottom of Shaft No. 4, as it appeared 
January 28, 1900. Vein from eight to nine feet wide. Ore is shown in solid 
black. (After W. H. Weed.) 



This tendency, however, has not been carried out completely, so that no 
part of the ore shoot is wholly barren. The bunching of the ore is not 
confined regularly to any portion of the vein, but occurs in some instances 
near the foot-wall, in others near the hanging wall, and in still others near 
the center of the vein. From such data as were available at the time of the 
field work the run-of-mine ore from the mine will carry an excess of silica 
varying from 70 to 75 per cent. 

As far as could be determined from the development work accessible 
and from such data as were available, the values occur in definite ore shoots 
which are believed to have a slight southerly pitch in the vein. At least 
three such ore shoots have been developed to a greater or less extent at 
shafts Nos. 2, 3, 4, and 8, respectively, but the development has not been 



HIGH HILL MINE. 



129 



sufficient to furnish data for accurate statements as to their respective size. 
Dealing with this subject in a commercial report on this mine, made after 
a detailed examination of the property, J. Parke Channing says : 

"It is extremely difficult to determine the length of the shoots developed, 
but I should say that shafts 3 and 4 would probably produce 1,000 feet of 
pay ground, shaft No. 8, 150 feet, and shaft No. 2, 200 feet, or a total of 
1,350 feet." 

In addition to this amount of pay ground which is already partially 
developed, the prospect pits and copper stainings in the outcroppings of 
the vein indicate that further development of the property will probably 
disclose other valuable ore shoots. But few data on the copper and silver 
content of the ore were available, but such as could be found indicate that 
a considerable quantity of high-grade ore was taken out and shipped. H. F. 
Wild states, in his report above referred to, that as a result of the earlier 
work at the mine ore as follows was taken out and shipped : 



Lbs. 


Cu. 


Ag. 


Au. 


Sampled 


Per cent 


Ozs. 


Ozs. 


46365 


27.83 


6.00 


0.02 


46,310 


7.60 


0.40 


0.01 


51,977 


8.40 


1.90 


0.01 


40,273 


15.11 


n. d. 


n. d. 


40,092 


17.30 


n. d. 


n. d. 


42,493 


13.95 


n. d. 


n. d. 


50,023 


33.76 


8.46 


0.22 


145,052 


16.40 


4.37 


0.03 


2,000,000 


1.72 


1.22 


0.02 


(estimate) 








400,000 


2.85 


0.90 


Trace 


(estimate) 









Production. — After considering the figures just given, H. A. Keller, 
in a commercial report on this property made in September, 1905, says : 

"The total shipments of ore from this property amounted to approxi- 
mately 1,414 tons (ore and concentrates), which contained an average of 
approximately 12.2 per cent copper with corresponding silver values. There 
are now on the dumps, mill tailings, and low-grade ore thrown out from 
the mill 8,600 tons (estimated) divided about evenly between the two. The 
latter goes about 2 per cent copper and the former a little over 1 per cent 
(according to numerous samplings and assays). Therefore there have been 
taken from the mine 10,014 tons of ore, which shows an average (by ap- 
proximation) of a small fraction over 3 per cent copper with correspond- 
ing silver values." 



130 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

Future of the mine. — -The development of this vein certainly has not 
been extensive enough to either prove or disprove its value. So far as it 
has gone it shows favorable conditions. The vein is large, very persistent. - 
and, so far as explored, reasonably well mineralized. Taking into consider- 
ation the geologic conditions of this vein, it is believed that further develop- 
ment work ought to be done, and that it may be undertaken with reasonable 
hope of success. 

DURGY (PERSON CONSOLIDATED) MINE. 

General statement. — The Durgy mine is located about 7 miles south- 
west of Virgilina. The wagon road connecting the mine with the town is 
kept in good condition. The nearest railroad point is the Holloway mine, 
which is reached by a branch track from the Southern Eailway at Virgilina. 
This station is about 4 miles from the mine, but the wagon road is in good 
condition. The last hauling from the mine (in 1910) was done by a steam 
traction engine and heavy trucks. Well-built modern motor trucks could, 
at reasonable expense, easily take care of all hauling to and from the mine. 
There is no immediate water supply and the water needed in the operation 
of the mine and mill is obtained by pumping from an impounded stream 
about one-half mile west of the mine. Except during the driest seasons 
this supply is ample. 

Timber has been pretty well cut off from the territory adjoining the 
mine, but the surrounding country is still well timbered with both oak and 
pine, so that there is an ample supply of timber and lumber for all mining 
purposes. 

The land on which the Durgy mine is located was, at the time copper 
was discovered, the property of Theron Yancey, and the first exploratory 
work was done by him and under his directions. This was one of the early 
mines of the district and was in active operation in 1892. The vein at the 
places where the first shafts were sunk did not outcrop, but its presence 
was made known by an abundance of quartz debris on the surface. It is 
said that the stains of malachite in some of this material turned up in 
plowing were responsible for the prospecting which led to the discovery 
of the rich ore, consisting largely of chalcocite, and to the opening of the 
mine. During this early work one shaft was sunk to a depth of 150 feet 
and another to 88 feet. The work showed good values in the vein and it is 
reported that considerable ore was taken out. The mine at this time was 
fairly well equipped and the shaft was well timbered. A concentrating 
plant was erected on a small stream about five-eighths of a mile west of 



DURGY (PERSON CONSOLIDATED) MINE. 181 

the mine, and cabins and houses were built for the miners. With things in 
this condition the company failed, due, it is said, not to lack of ore, but to 
mismanagement. At the time it was known as the Yancey mine. The mine 
was allowed to fill with water and remained idle until 1899 or 1900, when it 
was purchased by a company of New Haven, Conn., men who organized the 
Person Consolidated Copper and Gold Mines Company. The organizers and 
promoters of the company, and, at the time of its organization, the owners 
of the property, were Fordyce Durgy and E. B. Beecher, both of New 
Haven. 

With the organization of this company the active development of the 
mine began. Considerable prospecting was done on the different veins on 
the property and a new shaft — the present working shaft of the mine — was 
sunk on the main vein, and another on the so-called "Durgy vein" about 
1,500 feet northeast of the main shaft was sunk to a depth of about 100 
feet. A one-hunclred-ton concentrating plant, described fully under the 
subject of "Concentration," was erected, and the mine was equipped with 
modern machinery, air compressor, air drills, good hoisting engine, etc. 
Work was continued, actively at first, but later on in a desultory way, 
until 1908, when the mine was closed, but not allowed to fill with water. 
During this work little attempt was made to keep development work ahead 
of actual stoping, and, as a result, when hoisting was stopped, little or no 
developed ore remained in the mine, although vein conditions were favor- 
able. Just before closing the mine the company apparently saw the folly 
of this policy and sunk the shaft 90 feet deeper and started some drifts at 
a depth of 407 feet from the surface. This work showed up favorable 
conditions, the vein at this depth was strong and fairly well mineralized. 
The mine remained idle until 1910 when an agreement was made between 
the owners and the Tennessee Copper Company under which this company 
began work. The drifts were driven in the vein for about 350 feet in each 
direction. A considerable amount of ore was opened up in this work and 
about 100 feet of stoping was done on each side of the shaft. The ore 
taken out was shipped to the smelter at Copperhill, Tenn., where, because 
of its high silica content, it was used for converter linings and as siliceous 
material with the heavy sulphide ores from the Ducktown mines. This 
work was stopped in 1911 and the mine was allowed to fill with water. 

The surface equipment consists of shaft house, power house, machine 
shop, mill, dwelling house for manager, and small houses for miners. The 
houses are in good repair, but the mining and milling equipment has been 
allowed to deteriorate. 



]0 



132 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIKGILINA DISTRICT. 

If reports as to savings can be believed, the mill as installed and operated 
at the Durgy mine was not a success. These estimates, some of them based 
on assays of the ore as fed to mill, and tailings, indicate that, on the average, 
the mill did not save over 60 to 65 per cent of the values. Just wherein 
the cause for losses lay can not be said, but it is believed to have been partly 
in the cumbersome installation, partly in the care and oversight of the 
machinery, and partly in the inefficient methods of saving the slimes. The 
tailings show values in two forms : ore not freed from gangue, and ore 
as very fine particles or slimes ; the greater part, however, being in the fine 
particles. 

This mine has been more extensively developed underground than any 
other mine in the district. The two shafts, one 410 and the other 160 feet 
deep, make a total of 570 feet of shafting. From these shafts a total of 
more than 4,000 feet of drifts has been driven in the vein, and in addition 
a small amount of cross-cutting has been done at different places in the 
drifts. Practically everything accessible in the main ore shoot above the 
335-foot level has been stoped out. A small amount of sloping has also 
been done on the 407-foot level, the deepest level in this ore shoot. A 
second ore shoot is indicated in the 155- and the 335-foot levels, respec- 
tively, beginning about 500 feet south of the shaft. A small amount of 
stoping has also been done on these levels in this ore shoot. Immediately 
south of the shaft the stoped ground is caved from the surface down to 
the 260-foot level, and much of the area north of the shaft, while not caved, 
is inaccessible. Timbering was not as well done as it should have been and 
consisted almost wholly of stulls and lagging. 

Air drills and modern equipment were used in driving and stoping, and 
both overhead and underhand stopes were worked. The ore was in some 
instances roughly sorted underground and as much waste as possible 
eliminated before hoisting. The ore after sorting was trammed to the 
shaft and hoisted in a small skip. From the shaft it was trammed to bins 
at the mill from which it was drawn as needed. 

Geologic relations.- — The rock at the Durgy mine is the tuifaceous phase 
of the Virgilina greenstone with very large fragments, and shows more 
clearly its volcano-sedimentary character than at any other opening in the 
region. A great part of it shows the usual and normal green color, but here 
and there are areas that have a dark purplish color, and in a few instances 
fairly massive, somewhat porphyritic rock was found. In fact, some of 
the fragments are decidedly porphyritic in texture. The clastic nature of 



/ 















132 GEOLOGY AND OEE DEPOSITS OF THE VIKGiLINA DISTRICT. 

If reports as to savings can be believed, the mill as installed and operated 
at the Durgy mine was not a success. These estimates, some of them based 
on assays of the ore as fed to mill, and tailings, indicate that, on the average, 
the mill did not save over 60 to 65 per cent of the values. Just wherein 
the cause for losses lay can not be said, but it is believed to have been partly 
in the cumbersome installation, partly in the care and oversight of the 
machinery, and partly in the inefficient methods of saving the slimes. The 
tailings show values in two forms : ore not freed from gangue, and ore 
as very fine particles or slimes ; the greater part, however, being in the fine 
particles. 

This mine has been more extensively developed underground than any 
other mine in the district. The two shafts, one 410 and the other 160 -feet 
deep, make a total of 570 feet of shafting. From these shafts a total of 
more than 4,000 feet of drifts has been driven in the vein, and in addition 
a small amount of cross-cutting has been done at different places in the 
drifts. Practically everything accessible in the main ore shoot above the 
335-foot level has been stoped out. A small amount of stoping has also 
been done on the 407-foot level, the deepest level in this ore shoot. A 
second ore shoot is indicated in the 155- and the 335-foot levels, respec- 
tively, beginning about 500 feet south of the shaft. A small amount of 
stoping has also been done on these levels in this ore shoot. Immediately 
south of the shaft the stoped ground is caved from the surface down to 
the 260-foot level, and much of the area north of the shaft, while not caved, 
is inaccessible. Timbering was not as well done as it should have been and 
consisted almost wholly of stulls and lagging. 

Air drills and modern equipment were used in driving and stoping, and 
both overhead and underhand stopes were worked. The ore was in some 
instances roughly sorted underground and as much Avaste as possible 
eliminated before hoisting. The ore after sorting was trammed to the 
shaft and hoisted in a small skip. From the shaft it was trammed to bins 
at the mill from which it was drawn as needed. 

Geologic relations. — The rock at the Durgy mine is the tuffaceous phase 
of the Virgilina greenstone with very large fragments, and shows more 
clearly its volcano-sedimentary character than at any other opening in the 
region. A great part of it shows the usual and normal green color, but here 
and there are areas that have a dark purplish color, and in a few instances 
fairly massive, somewhat porphyritic rock was found. In fact, some of 
the fragments are decidedly porphyritic in texture. The clastic nature of 



Sc 

1000 



675 f-t-t 



925 ft-Q 



J 6 35 ft. 




Fig. 15 — Vertical section of tlte Durgy {Person Consolidated) mine, showing develnpment to the beginning of 1017. The first set of figures shows the width of the 
vein as sampled in feet, and the second set shows the percentage of copper. '1 his map was kindly furnished by Mr, A. W. Tucker, Salisbury, N. C. 



DUKGY (PERSON CONSOLIDATED) MINK. 133 

this rock is well shown by its general brecciated appearance. The frag- 
ments are of different colors, many of them green, and a smaller number 
show well the purple color above referred to. As a rule all fragments have 
been mashed until they are decidedly lenticular in shape and somewhat 
like the "augen" in a gneiss. The rock for the most part is highly schistose 
with here and there areas somewhat massive. The schistosity strikes about 
30 degrees east of north and invariably dips toward the east at angles 
varying from 70 to 80 degrees. Much of the rock as it lies on the mine 
dump slacks down to a kind of soft bluish micaceous or chloritic material. 
The fragments in the brecciated or tuffaceous rock are made up of all the 
different types and colors of the country rock, and in size vary from less 
than an inch to more than a foot in diameter. In some instances the large 
fragments are much epidotized, in others they are porphyritic, and almost 
invariably have withstood the forces of deformation better than the fine- 
grained matrix, which probably was originally volcanic ash. 

There is in this mine, as in the Blue Wing mine, a prominent diabase 
dike, but it does not cut the vein as in the other mine. The dike, the 
width of which is not known and which is not exposed on the surface, 
forms, in some parts of the mine south of the shaft, a foot- wall of the vein. 
The dike is clearly younger than the formation of the vein and ore, and, so 
far as could be determined, has had no influence on them. The dike-rock 
is solid, hard, tough, and massive, and is intersected by many closely spaced 
joints which break the mass up into numerous polygonal blocks. When it 
is exposed to the air there is also a decided tendency to slack or break up 
into small particles. The dike appears to follow the vein for a short 
distance and then to pass off into the wall rock. 

There are at least four, and probably more, veins on the property of 
this company which show the presence of copper. These are the so-called 
main vein on which the only work of importance has been done, the Durgy 
vein lying a short distance east of the main vein, the "Cross-cut" vein, 
about one mile southwest of the mine opening, and a small unopened vein 
a few hundred feet west of the main vein. They are all true fissure veins 
and in all important respects similar to the veins already described. One 
of the characteristic features of these veins, also true of the other veins of 
the district, is the regularity of strike and dip. Whether the vein parallels 
the strike of the schistosity of the country rock or not it is almost invariably 
regular and persistent in its trend. The predominant vein material is 
massive white quartz with which are minor amounts of epidote, calcite, 
chlorite, and fragments and plates of included schist. The veins are also 



134 GEOLOGY AND OEE DEPOSITS OP THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

notably persistent, and it is not at all uncommon for one to be traceable, 
either by actual outcrop or by well-defined quartz debris, on the surface 
for a distance of a mile or more. Thus the main vein of this property has 
been traced, largely by surface debris, for nearly, if not quite, a mile. It 
is one of the largest and strongest veins in the district, varying in width 
from 6 to 18 feet or more, and, as opened in the mine, fairly well min- 
eralized. Its strike is 5 degrees west of north, and, while in places parallel 
with the schistosity, taken as a whole its trend is a few degrees more 
northerly than that of the schists, thus showing clearly that it was developed 
in a fracture — possibly a fault plane, since there is no means of telling 
whether or not there was displacement along the line of fracture. However, 
like the other veins of the district, this one contains in places as inclusions 
many plates or lamina? of the schists which give it a kind of banded appear- 
ance. It also shows the usual vertical and longitudinal pinches and swells. 

The gangue minerals of this vein listed in the order of their abundance 
are : Quartz, epidote, chlorite, calcite, and hematite. The ore minerals 
in the same order are : Bornite, chalcocite, malachite, azurite, cuprite, 
argentite( ?), a very little chalcopyrite, klaprothite, and a small amount of 
gold. The hypogene ore minerals are intimately intergrown with the 
gangue minerals and are probably of contemporaneous development. The 
ore occurs in definite ore shoots and in these shows a tendency toward segre- 
gation at various places in the vein. In no place, however, is this segre- 
gation complete, so that in the ore shoot very little or none of the vein is 
wholly barren. The location of the bunches or areas of ore is irregular and 
not confined to any one part or portion of it. In some places the rich ore 
was found to lie near the foot-wall, in others near the hanging wall, and in 
still others it occurred at different places within the vein. The tendency 
toward segregation is well shown by the way the ore came from the mine. 
Three grades were produced: First, that which formed a shipping ore as 
it was hoisted; second, that which by hand picking or cobbing, thus con- 
centrating from 5 to 10 into 1, could be made into a shipping ore; and, 
third, a straight milling ore, this last grade constituting by far the greater 
part of the ore, probably 75 per cent of the total. In a commercial report 
on this mine, made by Joseph Hyde Pratt, in 1904, the following state- 
ments are made in regard to the character of the ore : 

"There is considerable variation in the value of the ore as it is mined, 
there being three distinct ores: (1) That which makes a shipping ore just 
as mined; (2) that which by hand cobbing will make a shipping ore; and 
(3) that which is a milling ore and runs from one to two and one-half 



DURGY (PERSON CONSOLIDATED) MINE. 135 

per cent copper, but so scattered through the gangue that there is no 
possibility of hand cobbing it into a shipping ore. A small amount of the 
ore of class 1 runs from 8 to 15 per cent copper, from 4 to 11 ounces silver, 
and from a trace to 0.03 ounces gold per ton. Hand-cobbed ore, which is 
obtained by concentrating from 4 to 8 into 1, gives a shipping ore con- 
taining from 13 to 25 per cent copper, 7 to 11 ounces silver, and 0.03 to 0.05 
ounce gold per ton. The milling ore which contains from 1 to 2 and one- 
half per cent copper is concentrated to a product that runs 20 to 56 per cent 
copper. 8.7 to 22 ounces silver, and 0.03 to 0.17 ounce gold per ton. 
. . . There is but a small percentage of shipping ore and it is the mill- 
ing ore that will determine the value of the mine." 

From inspection and carefuly study of all available data, for the most 
part, actual smelter returns on carload shipments of ore and concentrates, 
on the average copper content of the run-of-mine ore, it appears that these 
statements of Pratt are essentially correct, and that the average copper 
content of all ore hoisted has been between two and three per cent. 

In this mine as in all others in the district a certain amount of min- 
eralization has taken place in the walls adjoining the vein. In mining it 
is, therefore, necessary always to keep close watch on the walls at the 
contact with the veins or values may be left. 

The relation of the copper minerals of this mine is similar,, in all 
respects to that of the same minerals in the other mines of the district. 
Excepting a certain amount of supergene or secondary chalcocite in the 
upper portion of the vein, the sulphides are all believed to be primary vein 
minerals and of contemporaneous deposition. Bornite, which is the most 
abundant ore mineral, is intimately intergrown with the chalcocite and 
similar in all respects to the intergrowths described from the Blue Wing, 
High Hill, and Seaboard mines. Chalcopyrite is very rarely found, and 
not only is there no indication whatever that it formed the original copper 
mineral and that the richer sulphides were derived from it, but there is 
abundant evidence to show that the bornite and chalcocite are hypogene 
minerals, and in no way related genetically to the chalcopyrite or any 
other copper-bearing mineral. 

The form in which the silver occurs is not definitely known, but micro- 
scopic study of polished sections of the ore indicate pretty clearly that it is 
present as argentite. The silver value is variable, but is usually from 0.8 
to 1 ounce of silver to 2 per cent of copper. It is intimately associated 
with the copper-bearing sulphides and always concentrates with them. The 
gold content is so low that there is no way of determining definitely the 



136 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIEGILINA DISTRICT. 

manner of its occurrence. It is known to occur in the native state in cer- 
tain mines in the district and is assumed to occur in that form in this mine. 

To give a correct statement of the tenor of the shipping ore and con- 
centrates, so far as is known to the writer, the following table, in which is 
shown the amount of ore sampled and the assay value in copper, silver, and 
gold, is inserted., The figures are the actual smelter returns and formed 
the basis on which the smelters made payment for the ore. Some of the 
assays were made by Ledoux and Company, New York City, and others 
by the Eustis Smelting Works, Norfolk, Va. The table covers shipments 
ranging from 1902 to 1905, and thus shows the character of the ores as 
they occurred throughout a good portion of the ore shoot. 



. i 



DURGY (PERSON CONSOLIDATED) MINE. 



137 



Assays of Ore and Concentrates from Durgy Mine — Smelter Returns. 



Date 


Ore 

Pounds 


Cu. 
Per cent 


Ag. A 

Ozs. Oz 


u. 

v ,s. 


1902 

Auo-. 23 


59,774 
73,081 
12,433 
16,096 
13,757 
60,299 
42,029 
54.799 
37,765 

46,727 
53,836 
51,100 
49,918 
56,992 
45,400 
54,277 
53,757 
52,662 
31,353 
27,151 
56,241 
55,778 
21,936 
32,012 
52.597 
54,985 
59,125 
46,524 
58,144 

49,401 
44,011 
39,806 
43,712 

24,616 
31,406 
49,945 
32,850 
22,770 
51.804 
29,969 
23,932 
60,625 
77,166 
43,723 


25.56 
13.85 
13.41 
17.66 
32.60 
27.82 
44.91 
39.55 
35.63 

32.25 
9.56 
24.52 
24.12 
31.64 
15.22 
29.82 
27 . 20 
26.49 
23.74 
27 . 52 
25.73 
23.67 
24.79 
24.19 
20.37 
21.19 
21.25 
20.33 
24.04 

10.82 

10.21 

12.09 

9.07 

19.98 
41.19 
38.16 
18.44 
37 . 03 
39.27 
13.02 
38.9 

9.45 
35.49 
11.14 


11.99 

7.49 

5.9 

7.79 

13.83 

11.55 

20. 

17.37 

15.20 

14.61 
4.49 


01 


" 23 


01 


Sept. 12. 


02 


12 


13 


" 12. . . 

Oct. 21 


04 
01 


24. 


05 


Nov. 15 


065 


Dec. 1 


07 


1903 

Jan. 8 


075 


28 


01 


Feb. 9 




17 


9.68 
13.23 

6.34 
11.97 
12.06 
11.81 
10.21 
12.11 
11.30 
10.44 
11.25 
11.03 

9.69 
10. 

9.55 

9.33 
10.92 

4.17 
4.14 
n. d. n 


02 


Mar. 4 

• 19 

" 26 

Apr. 24 


075 

055 
07 


Mav 9 


08 


9 


03 


" 23 


07 


June 4 


055 


" 20 

July 13 


105 
05 


13 


05 


" 24 


045 


Aug. 17 


045 


Sept. 12 


05 


" 22 


07 


Oct. 8 


045 


190k 

Mav 5 


015 


18 


02 


June 27 


d 


Julv 20 


i 


1905 

Apr. 11 








17 




May 8 




" 27 




" 27 




June 24 




July 28 




" 28 




Aug. 2 




Sept. 14 




" 14 













138 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIKGIL1NA DISTRICT. 

In this mine as in all other mines of the district the values are not 
evenly distributed linearly throughout the vein, but occur in certain places 
in it as definite ore shoots. Thus far there have been three such shoots 
discovered in this vein, two at the main workings, and one at a small pit 
near where the wagon road crosses the vein about 1,000 feet south of the 
main shaft. Only one ore shoot, that at the main shaft, has been developed 
to any important extent. It is nearly 500 feet in length and extends from 
the surface to the deepest workings of the mine. The work thus far done 
will not warrant any statement as to its pitch. The small stopes on the 
155- and 335-foot levels, respectively, seem to indicate a second and 
probably smaller ore shoot, but the work done will not justify any very 
definite conclusions and this may be part of the main ore shoot. Such 
data as are available indicate an ore shoot at the pit near the roadside 
about 1,000 feet south of the main shaft. The quartz and other vein 
matter in the dump at this pit contain good showings of the green car- 
bonate, and a few specimens contain more or less of the sulphides, largely 
chalcocite. Supporting this surmise is the fact that in the heading of the 
335-foot level south, carefully collected samples across the entire vein show 
a little over 2 per cent copper and 1.62 ounces of silver per ton. The 
vein is strong in this territory and all indications point to the probability 
of another ore shoot. 

Production.- — There were no means of ascertaining the total production 
of the Durgy mine. It has, however, been one of the largest producers 
of the district. It is stated in an article by L. NT. White* that in 1901 
there were on the dump and blocked out in the mine ready for stoping 
about 20,000 tons of ore. The mine was in operation the greater part of 
the time between 1901 and 1904, when J. Parke Channing made a com- 
mercial report on it. It is believed that the greater part of this ore was 
stoped out during the interval between these dates. In his report Mr. 
Channing said : 

"1 estimate that there is contained in the mine ready for stoping about 
48,000 tons of ore containing 2 per cent copper and 0.9 ounce silver per ton." 

Between the date of Channing's report, 1905 and 1911, all the ore 
that was blocked out ready for stoping at the time of the examination was 
broken and hoisted, and a considerable amount of new work including 
stoping was done. 



a Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 24, 1901, pp. 635-639. 



DURGY (PERSON CONSOLIDATED) MINE. 139 

Future of the mine. — As the Durgy mine stands to-day it is little 
better than a partially developed prospect. It is true that large bodies of 
good ore have been taken out, but development was not kept ahead of 
mining and as a result there is at present very little ore actually in sight. 
The future of the mine, therefore, depends upon the amount and grade 
of ore that further development will open up. Taking all things into 
consideration — the amount and grade of ore produced, the strong and 
persistent vein, the well-mineralized ore shoot which has been worked 
from the surface to the 335-foot level, and the two other probable ore 
shoots which have not been developed — it is believed that further pros- 
pecting and development work would certainly be advisable, and that it 
can be undertaken with a basis for a hope of rehabilitating the mine by 
locating valuable ore bodies. 

In regard to future production from the Durgy mine Channing says : 

''From a series of calculations and from an inspection of the maps, I 
am of the opinion that the average grade of ore to be expected from the 
Durgy mine will contain 2 per cent of copper and .09 ounce of silver per 
ton, and will contain TO per cent excess silica. I figure that the cost of 
mining, including development, which I have estimated at 35 cents, will 
amount to one dollar and seventy-five cents per ton of ore mined and 
shipped. 

"I am of the opinion that, from its present development, the mine can 
easily produce 30,000 tons of ore per annum. The vein is well defined and 
persistent and I believe will hold out in depth. In fact, in veins of this 
character I think that the better measure of their value is their capacity 
for production rather than the exact number of tons of ore which may be 
developed and in sight in the mine, this latter being entirely due to the 
caprice of the particular owner or manager." 

There are a few items that ought to be borne in mind when considering 
the question of future profitable operation of this mine. They are, that 
the ore occurs in definite ore shoots, and that while certain portions of the 
shoot may contain high-grade ore, by far the greater part of the ore is low 
grade, probably carrying little over 2 per cent, of copper, and that upon 
the ability to handle this milling ore satisfactorily depends the success of 
the operations. It will, therefore, be necessary to handle large quantities 
of ore and to make a high saving of the values in the mill. Further sug- 
gestions and data on this subject are given in the chapter on concentration 
of the ores. 



140 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

DUKE MINE. 

General statement. — The southernmost mine in the district is about 15 
miles southwest of Virgilina and is known as the Duke mine (formerly 
the Tingen mine). These prospects were opened and actively worked at 
the time of the copper excitement in the district during the late nineties. 
The rock is the normal greenstone schist of the district, possibly a little 
more "slaty" in appearance than the usual rock. There is much epidotiza- 
tion and some of the rock shows the purplish color so characteristic of 
these schists. 

Geologic relations. — There are a number of veins on this property, all 
of which show traces of copper. The greater number of the veins appear 
to follow the schists in dip and strike, but some of them clearly have a 
more northerly trend than the schistosity of the country rock. There 
appear to be the normal irregularities as to width, and pinches and swells 
both horizontally and vertically. 

Two shafts have been sunk beyond the pit stage. These are the main 
or Hicks shaft, which is about 280 feet deep, and shaft No. 3, about 225 
feet deep. From the Hicks shaft two levels, one at 100 feet the other at 
267 feet, have been broken off. The 100-foot level has been driven in the 
vein about 200 feet to the northeast and about 50 feet to the southwest 
from the shaft. The 267-foot level has been driven in the vein about 60 
feet to the northeast. No stoping of any consequence has been done. From 
the 267-foot level cross-cuts have been driven each way at right angles to 
the vein, the northwest being 240 feet long and the southeast about 120 
feet. It is reported that the northwest cross-cut intersected at a distance 
of about 85 feet from the shaft a narrow vein carrying high values in 
both copper and silver, and some gold, and at a distance of about 235 feet 
another similar vein was found. No development work was done on either 
vein. Only one vein was intersected by the southeast cross-cut, this was 
about 80 feet from the shaft. The main vein is the typical quartz vein of 
the district, about 4 feet wide, but only slightly mineralized. It is said that 
the shaft showed good values for the first 80 feet, but that' below this point 
the vein became lean with rich spots here and there. In its widest part 
this vein is about 8 feet. 

Shaft No. 3 is in a narrow but well-mineralized vein, said to varv from 
18 inches to 4 feet. Only one level, the 100-foot level, has been driven from 
this shaft. This has been driven in the vein 120 feet to the northeast and 
about 60 feet to the southwest. Below this level the shaft has been sunk 



NOETHEAST SHAFT. 141 

125 feet. From the northeast drift a stope about 70 by 80 feet has been 
worked out, and from the southeast drift the ore from a similar stope 
about 20 by 40 feet has been broken out and hoisted. The workings were 
not accessible for study at the time of the examination but from reports, 
and judging from the character, of the ore and other material on the 
dump, the shaft must have been sunk in a small but well-mineralized ore 
shoot. The gangue minerals are similar in both shafts and consist of 
quartz, epidote, calcite, chlorite, and a small amount of hematite. The 
ore minerals are also similar and are bornite, chalcocite, malachite, azurite, 
and a little cuprite, with a few specks of chalcopyrite here and there. The 
bornite and chalcocite show the microscopic intergrowths typical of the 
ores of the Virgilina district, and are believed to be hypogene or primary 
minerals and contemporaneous in development. 

Future of the mine. — It is believed, that, while the development work 
has not been very extensive, enough has been done to justify a statement 
in regard to the future of the mine. At least two ore shoots have been 
proven to a greater or less extent, one at the Hicks shaft and the other 
at shaft No. 3. These may be expected to continue with depth allowing, 
of course, for variations in value. It may be expected that the veins inter- 
sected in cross-cutting from the Hicks shaft will develop values, but more 
work must be done in order to prove them. The mine appears to be in 
fairly good condition, and, taking everything into consideration, would 
certainly be regarded as a favorable prospect in which more development 
work ought to be done. The property is said to belong to Mr. Brodie Duke, 
of Durham, 1ST. C. 



PROSPECTS AND PARTIALLY DEVELOPED MINES. 

NORTHEAST SHAFT. 

The opening on the so-called "Durgy" vein, known as the northeast 
shaft, is located about 1,500 feet northeast of the main shaft of the Durgy 
vein. The shaft was filled with water and, therefore, not accessible at the 
time of the field investigations, but there was, however, a considerable 
quantity of high-grade ore, consisting almost wholly of chalcocite, in a pile 
near the shaft. Judging from a small outcrop near the shaft and from such 
data as were available, this vein is narrow, probably not more than 3 feet 
in width, but well defined, and can be traced for over one-half mile by 
quartz debris on the surface. It is parallel to the main vein in strike, thus 







142 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VTRGILINA DISTRICT. 

cutting the schistosity of the country rock at angles varying from 15 to 20 
degrees. The shaft is said to have been sunk to a depth of 100 feet, and 
from the bottom a drift has been broken off, but very little stoping has 
been done. 

The ore is nearly pure chalcocite, only a very little bornite having been 
noticed, in a gangue predominantly of quartz with small amounts of 
calcite, epidote, chlorite, and inclusions of the country rock. There is 
here considerable evidence that some of the included schist fragments have 
been in part replaced by quartz. The indications are that the chalcocite 
is largely supergene and secondary, having replaced bornite, and it is 
probable that with depth the ore will become similar to that of the main 
shaft. But little can be said as to the value of the ore or the extent of the 
ore shoot. However, it is certain that the shaft is located in an ore shoot 
of considerable promise. 

THOMAS MINE. 

The Thomas mine was opened about the time the first development 
work was done on the Holloway mine. It was thought at that time that 
the two openings were on the same vein, but, so far as the writer could 
determine, they are on separate and distinct veins. The Holloway vein 
has a trend of approximately north 15 degrees west, while, so far as could 
be determined, the Thomas vein has a northeast trend. Furthermore the 
location of the Thomas mine with respect to the Holloway renders it all 
but impossible for the two to be on the same vein. 

The early work in the place was done by W. T. Harris and Henry 
Hyde. Later the property was sold to Whitney and Stevenson, a Pitts- 
burgh firm. At the time of the field work the shaft had partially caved 
and was filled with water. Very little could be learned as to richness and 
general conditions of the vein, except what could be surmised from a study 
of the dump. It appears that the vein where opened was not strongly 
mineralized and that very little ore was produced. Careful search of the 
dump was made for ore, but not a single specimen could be found, due, 
perhaps, to the care with which the operators separated the ore from the 
waste material. It is stated that a few tons of ore were produced and 
shipped. 

Two interesting items were noted in regard to the material from this 
prospect : The decidedly porphyritic character of the rock, and the numerous 
inclusions of fragments and plates of country rock within the white quartz 
of the vein. The country rock at this place appears to be the most nearly 



CROSS-CUT MINE. 



143 



typical porphyritic andesite found in the district. Indeed, it was from a 
study of material from this place that the true nature of the rock was first 
recognized by Watson and Weed. The inclusion of plates and irregular 
fragments of country rock give certain portions of the vein the appearance 
of having been developed in the torn-apart or rifted schists. Some of the 
fragments are fairly fresh rock, others are largely changed into chlorite, 
while still others show evidence of partial replacement by quartz. Figure 
16, taken from Weed's a "Types of Copper Deposits in the Southern United 
States," illustrates these inclusions. 




Fig. 16. — Sketch of a specimen from the Thomas vein, showing areas of schist en- 
closed in the white quartz. Specimen contains no ore. Three-fourths of natural 
size. (After W. H. Weed.) 






CROSS-CUT MINE. 

This so-called mine is only a shallow prospect shaft, probably 70 or 80 
feet deep in a vein which outcrops rather strongly about one mile south- 
west of the main Durgy shaft, and which has a trend of north 30 degrees 
west. The schistosity of the country rock is about 30 degrees east of 
north, hence the name "Cross-cut" vein or mine. But little could be seen 



• Loc. cit., p. 463. 



144 ' GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

in the way of ore or vein matter, but there were very prominent stains of 
malachite in some of the material on what remained of the dump. The 
opening is in the bed of a small stream, dry during most of the year, 
but running freely during the rainy season, and nearly all the material 
taken out of the prospect has been washed away. It is reported that so far 
as the work went conditions were favorable. However, the vein is small, 
and about all that can be said in favor of the place is that by further work 
there is a possibility of finding a pay ore shoot. 

A short distance southwest of the Cross-cut prospect are a number of 
quartz veins, usually small, which show copper stainings, and prospect 
pits bave been made in a few places, but no development work has been 
done. One of these veins is parallel with the Cross-cut vein. On this vein, 
which is crossed by the public road and the small branch at the same place, 
a prospect shaft has been sunk, and a small amount of country rock and 
vein matter has been taken out. The material carries a small amount of 
ore, but nothing of much promise was seen. 

Between the main shaft of the Durgy mine and a small stream about 
one-fourth mile northwest the public road crosses two prominent and 
well-defined quartz veins, each of which shows copper stainings. No 
development work, however, has been done. 

BARNES MINE. 

The Barnes mine, which in reality is only a prospect showing a small 
deposit of copper ore, is located on the east bank of Eoanoke Kiver, in 
Charlotte County, Virginia, about 8 miles from the junction of this river 
with Dan Kiver, and about one mile south of Mass' Ferry. 

It is not known when or by whom the prospect was first opened. There 
are rumors and traditions that the place was opened and that ore was 
extracted and reduced at the mine between 1700 and 1750. There is some 
evidence to support the statements that the place was worked years ago, 
but as to the date of the working nothing is known. The statements in 
regard to the early work as made to the writer by John K. Taylor, of 
Becloak, Va., who was present when the first work known' to the present 
inhabitants of the region was done, are as follows: In 1880 or 1881, when 
some men were prospecting the quartz vein on which the mine is located, 
they opened up an old and unknown shaft, the opening of which had been 
walled in and covered with soil. This shaft was 57 feet deep, and from the 
bottom a drift 28 feet long led into a chamber or room 84 feet long and 
16 feet wide and 18 feet high or deep, the floor of which was 35 feet below 



MC NENY MINE. 145 

the drift. In each end of this chamber there was a well or pit, one of 
which was 35 and the other 24 feet deep. In this chamber were found the 
remains of tools snch as pick axes and shovels which had been nsed in 
the work. No dump nor any other surface indications of this work were 
visible, except a small amount of clinkers, cinders, or slag, many specimens 
of which show copper stainings. 

A small amount of prospect work was done in 1881, but the place was 
soon abandoned. In 1898 the workings were again cleaned out and a little 
more prospecting done. The property is owned by James A. Barnes, of 
Redqak, Va. 

The rock is the normal greenstone schist of the region, similar in all 
respects to that at the other mines. The strike and dip of the schistosity 
are north 30 degrees and 70 to 80 degrees to the southeast, respectively. 
The vein is predominantly of quartz, with epidote and calcite, varies from a 
few inches to 4 or 5 feet or more in width, and in strike and dip appears 
to follow the schistosity of the country rock. The ore consists of bornite 
and chalcocite, carries small values in silver and gold, and is apparently 
similar to the ore from the other mines in the district. 

A short distance north of the Barnes shaft is another prospect shaft on 
the same vein known as the MacLean shaft. The vein is narrow, and at 
the shaft not strongly mineralized. 

McNENY MINE. 

In the extreme northeastern part of the Virgilina district, a short 
distance southwest of Keysville, Va., there are a number of copper pros- 
pects which show rock, veins, ores, and general geologic conditions similar 
in all respects to those in the central and southern portions of the district. 
The most important and the best developed of these prospects, at the time 
the field work on this report was done, is known as the McNeny mine. 

The McNeny mine is located on the Eeese Fork of Twitty Creek about 
six miles southwest of Keysville and four miles east of the town of Drakes 
Branch. The openings, two in number, were made in a narrow quartz 
vein in the normal greenstone schists — altered basic volcanic tuff — similar 
in all respects to the rock at the High Hill, Holloway, Blue Wing, and 
other mines in the central portion of the district. The mine is on land 
belonging to a Mr. McNeny. 

At the time of the field examinations for this report the mine was not 
in operation, the shaft was filled with water and consequently not accessible 



146 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

for study. The statements here made are, therefore, based upon such data 
as could be obtained from an examination of the ore pile and dump, and 
from people who worked in the mine when it was in operation. The 
principal shaft is said to be about 150 feet deep, and to have been sunk in 
the vein. Little or no outcroppings of the vein were visible at or near 
the shaft, which was located in low ground near the creek. The vein is 
indicated on the surface both north and south of the shaft for a con- 
siderable distance by quartz debris. It appears to be narrow — from a few 
inches to four feet in width — and to present the usual irregularities such 
as pinches and swells and to follow the country rock in strike and dip. 

The predominant gangue mineral is a hard, vitreous, white quartz, 
with a small amount of calcite, epidote, chlorite, and a little hematite. The 
ore minerals are bornite and chalcocite, similar to that from the other 
mines in relation and position in the vein, and in their relations to each 
other. The vein, while apparently pretty well mineralized — estimated to 
carry between 2 and 3 per cent copper — is so narrow that the mine from 
present development can not be regarded as anything more than a favorable 

prospect. 

DANIEL'S MINE. 

About one and one-half miles northeast of the McNeny mine, and 
probably on the same vein, are two prospect pits or shallow shafts known 
as the Daniel's mine. The vein is a well-defined quartz vein which shows 
considerable copper staining and in some of the material from the pits the 
sulphides still remain. The country rock, vein, ores, and their relation to 
the gangue, are similar in all respects to those of the largest mines in the 
district. The vein, however, is rather narrow, 2 to 4 feet, and with the 
present development the place can not be regarded as anything more than 
a prospect. 

GILLIAM MINE. 

The so-called Gilliam mine consists of a few prospect pits on a narrow 
but well-defined quartz vein parallel to and about one-fourth mile east of 
the Daniel vein. The conditions of vein, rock, and ores are similar to 
those at the Daniel's mine. There has not been sufficient development 
work to warrant any statement as to the permanent value of this prospect. 

WILSON MINE. 

A prospect pit in a quartz vein about three-fourths of a mile northeast 
of the Gilliam prospect is known as the Wilson mine. The vein is narrow, 



CRENSHAW AND GROVE MINES. 147 

and shows considerable copper staining, but from the small amount of work 
done nothing can be said as to what future work may develop. This pros- 
pect appears to be on the same vein as the Gilliam prospect, although it 
was not possible to trace it through from one to the other. 

CRENSHAW MINE. 

On Eeese Fork of Twitty Creek, about a mile above the McNeny mine, 
are a few prospect pits known as the Crenshaw mine. These were sunk on 
a narrow, but fairly well-defined quartz vein, which follows the strike of 
the schists and which can be traced on the surface by quartz debris for 
about one-fourth mile. There is considerable copper staining at the pros- 
pect, which also shows some of the typical Yirgilina sulphides, bornite 
and chalcocite. The small amount of work clone will not justify any state- 
ments as to the permanent value of the place. 

GROVE MINE. 

About one-half mile northeast of the Wilson prospects are two or three 
prospect pits known as the Grove mine. The vein is narrow, but well 
defined and traceable on the surface for about one-fourth mile. The 
material taken out shows the usual type of ore of the district. Only a little 
work has been done and consequently nothing can be said as to its 
permanent valued 



a Since the field work on this report was completed the Grove mine has been 
developed to the stage where it is now the largest mine and the only producer in 
the northern portion of the Virgilina district. It has been developed by three 
shafts having depths of 60, 85, and 160 feet, respectively, distributed within a 
distance of 300 feet along the vein. The working or 85-foot shaft, which is an 
incline, has a total of 650 feet of drifts turned off from the shaft at the 60- and 
85-foot levels. The 60-foot shaft, also an incline, located 160 feet north of the 
85-foot shaft, is c:nnected with the latter by the drift on the 60-foot level. The 
160-foot shaft, a vertical shaft sunk in the hanging wall, is being sunk to catch 
the vein at a depth of 200 feet. 

The vein is traced on the surface for a distance of about a quarter of a mile, 
strikes N. 35° E. and dips 75° S. E., and varies from 4.5 to 5.5 feet in width. So 
far as developments have extended the vein appears to increase in width with depth. 
In compositicn and structure the vein is of the normal Virgilina type. Bornite and 
chalcocite are the principal ore minerals. A little chalcopyrite and the oxidized or 
carbonate ores, malachite and azurite, occur. 

The ore is hand picked, hauled by team a distance of 1,800 feet to a spur track 
from the Southern Railway, and shipped to the smelter at West Norfolk. Since 
Octrber 1, 1916, the total shipment of ore will probably not exceed 2,500 tons net 
dry weight. (From notes taken by S. Philip Holt of the Virginia Geological Sur 
vey in a recent examination of the Grove mine.) 



11 



148 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

KAY MINE. 

About one-fourth mile south of Dan River and about one mile below 
the mouth of Bannister River are three or four prospect pits and two 
shallow shafts which are know as the Kay mine. The place is owned by the 
Kay Mine Smelting Company, an organization incorporated under the laws 
of South Dakota, and having an office at Omega, Va. Only a small amount 
of work has been done and even this in an unsystematic manner. At the 
time of the field work, most of the openings were rilled with water and 
inaccessible, and there was thus little opportunity to study the veins and 
ores. 

The country rock is the mashed and altered "sandy tuff," or Aaron 
slate, that is, a rock made up of basic volcanic ash and tuff with which, at 
the time of its deposition, there was intermixed more or less terrigenous 
material consisting of grains and fragments of quartz, mud, and other land 
waste. This type of rock is fully described in the chapter on the detailed 
description of the rocks of the district. It is rare indeed in the Virgilina 
district that ore is found in this formation ; in fact, the Kay mine is the 
only prospect, so far as known, that is located in it. Quartz veins are about 
as numerous in this rock as in the Virgilina greenstone, but for some reason 
they do not appear to have been mineralized as they were in the greenstone. 

As far as could be determined the vein or veins at this mine are neither 
regular nor very well defined — certainly not like the typical veins of the 
district. It is true that there is a considerable amount of quartz and that 
the greater part of the ore occurs in it, but it appears to be somewhat 
irregularly developed and not to lie in the usual regular veins with well- 
marked walls. A considerable amount of mineralization has taken place in 
the country rock. In fact, it appears that a very important amount of the 
ore occurs outside of the quartz areas. 

The ore is of the typical Virgilina type — that is, it is a mixture of 
bornite and chalcocite. In addition to the sulphides there is a considerable 
development of malachite, a small amount of azurite, and here and there 
a little cuprite. Assays of selected ore run from about 4 to about 30 per 
cent copper, from 1 and 1.5 to 7 ounces of silver, and as high as .05 ounce 
of gold per ton. There has not been enough development work to warrant 
any statement as to the probabilities of there being a large deposit of ore 
at this place. All that can be safely said is that the work thus far done 
shows up a small and irregular body of ore which, unless more can be 
developed, will be worthless. The place must be regarded merely as a 
prospect until sufficient work is done to either prove or disprove the size 
and value of the deposit. 



CHAPPELL AND PONTIAC MINES. 149 



CHAPPELL MINE. 



The Chappell mine, or rather Chappell prospect, is located almost on 
the bank of Hyco Eiver about two miles west of the High Hill mine. The 
development consists of two shafts, 87 and 55 feet deep, respectively, and 
about 125 feet of drifting. Shaft No. 1, nearest the river, is 55 feet deep 
and from it about 25 feet of drifts have been driven. Shaft No. 2, about 
150 feet south of No. 1, is 87 feet deep and from it about 100 feet of 
drifts have been driven. They are located in a narrow, but fairly well- 
mineralized quartz vein, and are both probably on the same ore shoot. Both 
shafts were filled with water when the field investigations were made and 
hence inaccessible for study. There was, however, a considerable pile of 
fairly high-grade ore in a dump near the shafts, and it is reported that 
while the vein is narrow it is well mineralized. The country rock, vein, 
and ore are of the usual type of the district. There is also a prospect pit 
about 1,000 feet south of shaft No. 2. The material on the dump at this 
place shows more or less copper staining, but the work is not extensive 
enough to determine anything in regard to its value. This is also true of 
the deposit as a whole. The development work has not been extensive 
enough to either prove or disprove the property. The best that can be said 
for it is that it is a fairly favorable prospect. 

PONTIAC MINE. 

The Pontiac'mine, formerly known as the "Tuck property," is located 
about 6 miles northwest of Virgilina and one and one-half miles west of 
Moffett post-office. It is reached by fair wagon roads, and is as accessible 
as the High Hill or Seaboard mines. There is no immediate water supply, 
but there is a small stream about one-half mile northwest of the property 
that by impounding could be made to furnish sufficient water for mining 
purposes, but would have to be pumped to the mine. The timber conditions 
are similar to those at the High Hill or Seaboard mines. There is an ample 
supply of both oak and pine for all mining purposes. 

The veins of this mine were located sometime between 1895 and 1900. 
A little later the Pontiac Mining Company, the present owner, acquired 
the property and began active development work which continued until 
1903, when all work was stopped and the shafts allowed to fill with water. 
No work has been done since that date and the property has been dis- 
mantled. Two shafts were operated, one on the eastern vein which appears 
to have a trend of 4 or 5 degrees west of north, and known as the Glasscock 
shaft, and one on a smaller vein about 1,000 feet west of the Glasscock, 



150 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

known as the Tuck vein, which name was also given to the shaft. The 
two veins are very different in character and in the ore they produce. 
The Glasscock vein is irregular in width, strike, and dip, contains much 
epidote and in places only a moderate amount of quartz; in fact, it is 
reported that in places there was little vein matter of any kind unless the 
epidotized country rock in which the ores occurred could be regarded as 
the vein. The ore, too, is different from the usual ores of the district, in 
that chalcopyrite is present in considerable quantity, making up about 
one-third of the ore, the other two-thirds being bornite and chalcocite. 
The minerals of the gangue, named in order of their abundance, are : 
Epidote, quartz, chlorite, calcite, and hematite, which is present only in 
small amount. The ore minerals in the same order are : Chalcopyrite, 
bornite, chalcocite, malachite, azurite, covellite, and cuprite. Covellite, 
cuprite, the carbonates, and a part of the chalcocite in the upper portion 
of the vein are supergene minerals derived from the hypogene chalcopyrite, 
bornite, and chalcocite. The relations of chalcopyrite, bornite, and chal- 
cocite make it reasonably certain that the three are to be regarded as hypo- 
gene or primary minerals, at least in part primary, so far as bornite and 
chalcocite are concerned. Many specimens of chalcopyrite showing altera- 
tions to chalcocite and covellite, and, in a few instances, doubtfully, bornite 
was noted on the dump, but it is believed that much of the bornite and 
chalcocite is hypogene and primary, and contemporaneous with the chal- 
copyrite. Many irregularities such as broken ground, mud seams, varying 
values, and different kinds of vein matter were noted in sinking the shaft. 
So far as there are data on which to base possible explanations of these 
phenomena, it is believed that they represent breaks and joints formed at the 
time the fissure in which the ore occurs was formed. The vein was for the 
most part developed in the fissure which crosses the strike of the schists, but 
when the fissure was formed the schists were more or less disturbed and. 
torn apart, and, when the vein and ores were deposited, some of the deposi- 
tions and alterations took place in the broken and rifted schist in the 
immediate vicinity of the fissure. 

This shaft is 203 feet deep and one drift was broken off at 86 feet from 
the surface and driven about 50 feet to the south and 20 feet to the north. 
Conditions as regards ore are said to have been promising, but the vein, 
which varies from 2 to 6 feet in width, is reported not to have had well- 
defined walls and to have been difficult to follow. 

There was no way of ascertaining the total amount of ore produced by 
this prospect. A pile of good ore representing several thousand pounds 






PANDOKA MINE. 151 

was lying on a platform at the collar of the shaft, but how much more, if 
any, the mine produced is not known. It is not advisable to make any 
statements as to the future of this property until more exploratory work is 
done. As things now stand the place must be regarded simply as a fairly 
good prospect. 

The Tuck shaft is about one- fourth of a mile southwest of the Glasscock 
shaft and is on a separate and distinct vein. The country rock is the 
normal greenstone schist, but contains less epidote than that at the Glass- 
cock shaft. The vein is narrow, varies from a few inches to about 3 feet, 
and appears to follow the schists in dip and strike. The most abundant 
gangue mineral is quartz which makes up at least 80 per cent of the total 
vein. The ore and gangue minerals are similar to those at the Durgy 
mine and their relations to each other are typical of the district. The 
shaft was filled with water at the time of the examination, but, judging 
from the ore pile and the dump, the vein while narrow seems to have been 
well mineralized where opened by the shaft. Until more work is done this 
mine, like the Glasscock, must be regarded only as a fair prospect. 

PANDORA MINE. 

About 6 miles north of Virgilina and about 1 mile south of Moffett 
post-office is a shallow prospect shaft known as the Pandora mine. No 
work has been done at the place for a number of years. At the time the 
field work was being done the shaft was filled with water, and about all 
the data available as to the character of the vein and the ore were a few 
conflicting stories told by people in the vicinity and such inferences as 
could be drawn from examining a small amount of material on the surface 
at the shaft. The rock is the ordinary greenstone schist of the district 
somewhat more epidotized and not quite so highly schistose as usual. The 
ore, a small pile of which remained at the place, consisted of bornite and 
chalcocite with small amounts of the carbonates, and a little cuprite occur- 
ring in both epidotized country rock and quartz. A small amount of well- 
crystallized plagioclase feldspar, apparently albite, was noted in some speci- 
mens as a gangue mineral associated with the ore in quartz. So far as 
could be determined it appears that there is no regular and well-defined 
vein. The shafts seem to have been sunk in epidotized and somewhat 
mineralized area of the country rock. Until further development work is 
done the place must be regarded as a prospect of doubtful value. 



152 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

MORONG MINE. 

The so-called "Mother lode" mine of J. G. Morong is located about 
three and one-half miles due north of Virgilina. The shaft which is re- 
ported to be about 150 feet deep is located on a strong and well-defined 
quartz vein of the usual Virgilina type, which can be traced in the surface 
by actual outcrop and quartz debris for more than a mile. So far as could 
be determined from an examination of the material on the dump and from 
reports of men who were familiar with the place when the work was in 
progress, it is believed that no ore of commercial value was found. At least 
there is no evidence in the material now on the surface at the shaft of any 
such ore. The vein shows copper stainings in a number of places, and it 
may be that further development work would expose more favorable condi- 
tions, but, until such work is done, the place must be regarded as merely 
a prospect of very doubtful value. 

BAYNHAM MINE. 

The Baynham prospect or mine as it is called is located about 8 miles 
north and a short distance east of Virgilina. It consists of a dilapidated 
and partially caved shaft around the collar of which is a small dump 
consisting of schistose greenstone — the usual country rock — and a small 
amount of vein material, quartz, epidote, chlorite, etc., some specimens of 
which carry a little ore of the usual Virgilina type. The place has long 
since been abandoned and no data, other than that obtainable from the 
dump, were available as to the conditions of vein and ore. It is, therefore, 
regarded as a prospect of doubtful value. 

ANACONDA MINE. 

The Anaconda mine is located about one and one-half miles north of 
Virgilina on the east side of the public road, near the colored schoolhouse. 
It has not been operated for a number of years, and at the time of the field 
examination for this report was filled with water and not accessible for 
study. Very little authentic information in regard to it could be obtained 
from the people in the district, but the consensus of sucL data as could 
be obtained indicates that the shaft was sunk on a small but high-grade 
shoot of ore. The ore taken out was shipped and the greater part of the 
waste or barren rock hoisted has been hauled away for use in road building. 
However, such material as remained indicated that the mine had produced 
some good ore. Weed, 0, in his report on the Virgilina district, says of this 
mine : 



" Loc. cit., p. 464. 



THE CORNFIELD PROPERTY. 153 

"The ore is a mixture of glance and gray copper in quartz. The dump 
shows bright green schist largely impregnated with epidote. Some seven 
carloads [of ore] have been shipped from this mine, which varied from 
3 per cent of copper in the first carload to 12 per cent in the last five car- 
loads shipped. . . . The vein can not be said to have had a very 
extensive trial, and the ore thus far extracted has come from but one shoot/ 7 

THE CORNFIELD PROPERTY. 

Situated in the southeast part of the Virgilina town site are two or 
three prospect shafts belonging to the William M. Pannebaker estate and 
known as the Cornfield Property. They were opened a number of years 
ago when mining was at its height in the district, but for some reason 
were soon abandoned and were not reopened until in the late fall of 1915. 
The shafts are only a short distance apart and are in the typical Virgilina 
greenstone, but the ore in each shaft is decidedly different from that in 
the others. They are designated "Cornfield No. 1," "Cornfield No. 2," and 
"Native shaft." The ores from the respective openings are so different that 
each will be described separately. 

Cornfield No. 1 shaft when cleaned out was found to be about 55 feet 
deep and about 6 by 6 feet in the clear, and enlarged to about 9 feet at the 
bottom. The ore, consisting largely of chalcocite with only a small amount 
of bornite, occurs in a gangue of quartz, calcite, and a little epidote and 
chlorite, and in the country rock. There is, so far as the development has 
progressed, no well-defined vein, although there is a decided tendency for 
the ore to be segregated in different places in the mineralized portions of 
the rock. The writer did not have an opportunity of seeing the prospect 
after it was reopened, but, judging from data and specimen's of the ores 
and rock which were kindly furnished him by the owners, it appears that 
this is certainly one of the promising prospects of the district and that it 
ought by all means to be given the attention which it deserves. In the 
notes furnished by the owners of the property it is stated that the whole 
width of the shaft, 9 feet, is more or less mineralized — all good milling 
ore, with a streak of chalcocite and bornite nearly four inches wide in 
one place. 

The ores from this prospect are of more than ordinary interest in that 
they contain some of the finest examples of graphic or crystallographic 
intergrowths of bornite and chalcocite that were found in the district. 
These are described in detail and photomicrographs of them are shown in 
the chapter on the origin of the ores, and the descriptions need 
not be repeated here. The evidence afforded by these ores seems to the 



154 GEOLOCxY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

writer to indicate very clearly that there are two generations of chalcocite— 
one of hypogene origin and contemporaneous with the bornite, and one of 
supergene origin and younger than the hypogene sulphides in which it 
occurs. Only the normal and usual minerals were found in these ores. 

Cornfield No. 2 shaft is located about 400 feet east of No. 1 and in the 
same type of rock, but the ores are different in that they contain in addi- 
tion to the usual bornite and chalcocite a large amount of chalcopyrite and 
an appreciable amount of pyrite which in the Virgilina district is an ex- 
ceedingly rare mineral. This shaft was sunk entirely within a mineralized 
area of the country rock. While the ores thus far found in this prospect 
are not so promising as in the other shaft they are certainly worthy of 
further exploration. The ore minerals are chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, 
malachite, azurite, klaprothite( ?) , pyrite, argentite, native copper, and 
cuprite. There are apparently two generations of both chalcopyrite and 
chalcocite, one of hypogene origin and one of supergene origin, and there- 
fore younger than the hypogene mineralization. These relationships are dis- 
cussed and illustrated in the chapter on the origin of the ores, 
and the discussions need not be repeated here further than to state that 
fine examples of the alteration of bornite to chalcopyrite were found. 

The "Native shaft" is located in the southern part of the town site 
only a few hundred yards south of the Baptist church and a short distance 
east of the wagon road leading south from the town. This shaft is in the 
northern portion of an epidotized and mineralized belt of the Virgilina 
greenstone of varying width and extending southwestward along the strike 
of the rocks for about two miles, in which the ore, consisting of native 
copper, cuprite, and the carbonates, occurs for the most part in silicified 
and epidotized portions of the greenstone instead of in definite fissure 
veins as is usual in the Virgilina district. These deposits, if not exactly 
like Weed's* Catoctin type of copper deposits, are very much like them. 
In fact, Weed himself places them in the Catoctin class. This subject is 
discussed in detail in the chapter on the detailed description of the ores. 

The ore in the "Native shaft" consists of native copper, cuprite, and 
the carbonates in a gangue of epidote and quartz, the copper occurring for 
the most part in the quartz, but to a less extent in the country rock and 
in the epidote. There is no well-defined vein in the usual sense of the term, 
and the ore is found as granular and crystalline metallic copper in irregular 



a Weed, Walter H. : Types of copper deposits in the Southern United States, 
Trans., Am. Inst. Min. Eng., Vol. 30, 1900, pp. 498-504. 



PANNEBAKER PROSPECTS. 155 

silicified and epidotized areas of the country rock and in short narrow quartz 
veinlets. The cuprite and the carbonates which are regarded as alteration 
products from the copper are disseminated through the country rock in 
the vicinity of the deposits. It is also probable that a part of the metallic 
copper occurs in the same manner, but, if it does, it was not discovered 
during the field work upon which this report is based. At the time of the 
field work this shaft was filled with water and not accessible for study. 
Yery little of the ore which had been taken out was available for study, 
but such specimens as could be found consisted of native copper in quartz 
and epidote, together with cuprite and the carbonates as oxidation products. 
The shaft is reported to be about 60 feet deep and to have been sunk 
through ore. It is also said that a good part of the ore taken out in 
sinking was shipped to the smelter as high-grade ore. The shaft was 
cleaned out in the late fall of 1915, and the owners state that both quartz 
and epidote carry the ore which consists of the minerals just mentioned, 
and that there is no regular and well-defined vein, but that the quartz and 
epidote areas and veinlets which carry the ore are irregular in size and 
occurrence. This is one of the most promising of all the native copper 
deposits in the district, even though it has not been developed beyond the 
stage of a mere prospect. In the immediate vicinity of this shaft there 
are a number of silicified and epidotized areas of the greenstone which show 
more or less mineralization. On this account it would seem that this is as 
good a place as could be found in the whole district in which to try out. 
by well-directed development, the native copper deposits. 

PANNEBAKER PROSPECTS. 

About one-half mile south of old Blue Wing post-office, and a short 
distance west of the road and on the line between Person and Granville 
Counties, North Carolina, W. M. Pannebaker opened in the summer of 
1907 a number of prospect pits in some epidotized outcrops of country 
rock containing irregular areas and stringers of quartz, which showed 
copper staining. In some places native copper and cuprite occurred with 
the malachite within a few feet from the surface, and in some of the pits 
considerable areas of well-mineralized rock were found. ISTo sulphide min- 
erals were noted. The primary mineral appears to have been native copper 
which was disseminated through the country rock, largely as thin plates 
in the planes of schistosity and as irregular grains and elongated areas in 
the quartz and epidote. The cuprite and the carbonate were derived from 
the native copper by oxidation. So far as could be determined the native 



156 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OP THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

copper occurs in zones or areas in the country rock rather than in definite, 
well-defined quartz veins, and while the mineralization is extensive no 
deposits rich enough to mine have been opened. It is impossible to make, 
with any degree of certainty, any predictions as to the future of these 
deposits of native copper. It is certain that in many places the metal is 
widely disseminated through the rock, but, until further exploratory work 
is done, all such occurrences must necessarily be regarded as prospects of 
unproved value. 

Native copper occurs in two other prospect pits, one only a short distance 
southwest of those just described, and the other at the roadside about 
1 mile south of the Thomas mine. In both of these places the country 
rock is amygdaloidal and native copper and cuprite occur in the amygdules. 
Otherwise the conditions are similar to those at the Pannebaker prospects. 
Neither prospect developed a promising ore body. These deposits are also 
of the Catoctin type. 

ANNIE MATJD PROSPECT. 

About one-half mile south of Old Blue Wing post-office and a short 
distance east of the county road is a small prospect which is said to have 
produced some promising ore of the Holloway type, that is, the ore is 
largely chalcocite in a gangue in which quartz is subordinate to epidote. 
This shallow pit is known as .the Annie Maud mine and is owned by the 
Win. M. Pannebaker estate. So far as could be determined, the vein, as it 
is exposed in the prospect, is narrow, but it appears to be rather persistent 
and has been traced by quartz debris on the surface for considerable 
distances both northeast and southwest of the prospect. In fact, two other 
openings have been made in what, so far as could be determined, is the 
same vein. One of these, known as the Fourth of July mine, is located 
about one-fourth mile northeast of, and the other, an unnamed prospect 
pit, is about the same distance southwest of, the Annie Maud opening. The 
work thus far done is not sufficient to either prove or disprove the value of 
the prospect. 

ENGLE PROSPECT. 

V 

The shallow pits and shafts about 1 mile northeast of the Gillis mine 
are known as the Engle mine. The work was done in a small but fairly 
well defined and narrow quartz vein which appears to be an extension of 
the Gillis vein. Considerable copper-stained quartz was exposed and a 
small amount of the usual sulphides, chalcocite and bornite, was found, 
but nothing of commercial value was developed. 



GILLIS AND COPPER KING MINES. 157 

GILLIS MINE. 

The copper ores at the Gillis mine were discovered and the mine opened 
in 1852 or 1853. It is, therefore, one of the earliest worked copper deposits 
in the United States. It was examined by Ebenezer Emmons, State 
Geologist of North Carolina in 1854, and in his "Geology of the Midland 
Counties of North Carolina"® he described the mine and stated that two 
shafts had been sunk to a depth of 80 feet, the south one showing 5 feet 
of vein and the north one 18 inches. He also noted that the expected 
change of chalcocite to chalcopyrite with depth did not occur in this mine. 
The vein does not present a prominent outcrop and appears to be narrow — 
about 3 feet wide on the average. It is difficult to trace on the surface, but 
appears to trend 10 degrees east of north and to dip about 70 degrees to 
the southeast. The rock is the normal Virgilina greenstone. The vein is 
composed largely of quartz, but contains appreciable amounts of calcite, 
epidote, chlorite, and a little hematite. The ore minerals are bornite, chal- 
cocite, malachite, azurite, chrysocolla, tenorite(P), and cuprite. Emmons 
states that "vitreous copper" (chalcocite) occurred in a continuous belt 
2 to 4 inches wide nearly pure. The mine has been closed for years and 
no data further than those given were available. 

COPPER KING MINE. 

A prospect shaft about 100 feet deep, known as the Copper King mine, 
is located about three and one-half miles southwest of Virgilina. There is 
apparently ho well-defined vein, and the ore occurs in an epidotized portion 
of- the country rock in which more or less quartz has been deposited in 
irregular areas or masses and in lenses and stringers. Aside from the 
excessive epidotization, the rock is the normal Virgilina greenstone. The 
gangue minerals are epidote, quartz, calcite, chlorite, plagioclase (probably 
albite), and a little hematite. The ore minerals are bornite, chalcocite, 
klaprothite, malachite, azurite, and cuprite, which in some instances occurs 
in the form of the so-called "plush copper ore" or chalcotrichite. The 
sulphides are intimately associated with all the gangue minerals. One 
specimen was found in which well-terminated albite crystals nearly an inch 
long and more than one-fourth inch in thickness were embedded in massive 
sulphides. The sulphide masses are always composed of an intimate inter- 
growth of bornite and chalcocite. 



a Emmons, Ebenezer: Geology of the Midland counties of North Carolina, 1856, 
pp. 344-346. 






158 GEOLOGY AND OEE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

At the time of the field work there was a small body of good ore in a 

short drift which had been started from the bottom of the shaft, and there 

were a few thousand pounds of high-grade ore on a platform at the collar 

of the shaft. As conditions were at the time of the examination, there had 

not been enough development work done to warrant any surmise as to the 

future of the mine, and until such work is done the place must be regarded 

as a promising though unproved prospect. It belongs to J. H. Morong, 

of Virgilina, Va. 

COPPER WORLD MINE. 

The Copper World mine is about one and one-fourth miles southwest 
of the Gillis mine and apparently on the strike of the Gillis vein — at least 
if the strike of the Gillis vein be produced along its regular trend south- 
westward it would reach the Copper World shaft. The rock is the normal 
green and purplish schist of the district. The vein does not outcrop, but 
judging from material on the dump it is the normal type of vein of the 
district, that is, white quartz with epidote, calcite, and chlorite. The ore 
is an intimate mixture of bornite and chalcocite with oxidized minerals 
near the surface. The only reliable information available in regard to this 
mine is by Weed, a who says : 

"The Copper World was first opened in 1882. The present owner, 
Colonel Stiff, has sunk a shaft, 60 feet deep, with drifts at 30 and 60 feet. 
It is equipped with a small steam hoist and well timbered. The vein shows 
the usual white quartz with some epidote, encased in gray and purple schist. 
But one ore shoot has been crossed, from which 8 to 10 tons of high-grade 
glance ore has been stoped and shipped." 

FOURTH OF JULY MINE. 

A prospect shaft about two miles south of Virgilina is known as the 
Fourth of July mine. Just why it is called a mine or why the shaft was 
sunk was not made clear from an examination of the material on the dump, 
which consists of normal greenstone schist with a few bunches of quartz 
here and there which in places show a slight amount of copper staining. 
So far as it was possible to determine there is no vein at the place. 

ARRINGDALE MINE. 

A few prospect shafts and pits were sunk a number of years ago on 
some fairly well-defined quartz veins about two and one-half miles north- 
west of the Durgy mine. These are known as the Arringdale mine. The 
work was soon abandoned, and, judging from the material in the various 



a Loc. cit., p. 463. 



LITTLEJOHN, ESTHER MAY, AND WALL MINES. 159 

dumps, with most excellent reasons. It is true that some of the material 
shows a slight amount of copper staining, but certainly not sufficient to 
warrant one in sinking a shaft. 

LITTLEJOHN MINE. 

About one-fourth mile west of the Seaboard vein are a number of 
closely spaced veins, some of which show considerable copper staining in 
the outcrop. The property including these veins was recently purchased 
by the Little John Copper Company, of New York, and in one of the most 
promising of the veins three prospect shafts were started. These are all 
shallow, the deepest one being about 100 feet in depth, but they each show 
a narrow well-defined vein with considerable mineralization, the ore con- 
sisting largely of chalcocite with only a very little bornite. No assays of 
the material taken out were available, but from the general appearance 
of the vein it seems that further prospecting would certainly be justified. 
At least nine veins showing copper stainings, outcrop on the property 
owned by this company, and the most prominent of these veins are trace- 
able by quartz and epiclote debris as well as outcrops on the surface for 
considerable distances, in one instance at least two miles. They are, 
however, for the most part narrow and of doubtful value. As far as could 
be determined their strike appears to be parallel with that of the schistosity 
of the country rock. 

ESTHER MAY PROSPECT. 

In the Seaboard vein where it is crossed by the county road about one- 
fourth mile north of the Seaboard mine is a small prospect pit known as 
the Esther May mine. The pit is only a few feet deep, certainly not deep 
enough to either prove or disprove the property. The material on the 
dump shows a small amount of ore similar in all respects to the Seaboard 
ore and the prospect so far as could be determined is on the main Seaboard 
vein . 

WALL MINE. 

About three-fourths of a mile north of the Seaboard mine are two or 
three prospects known as the Wall mine. The country rock at these 
places is the turTaceous phase of the Virgilina greenstone similar to that 
at the Seaboard mine. The vein, so far as could be determined, has a con- 
siderably more northerly strike than the schistosity of the country rock. 
At the time of the field investigation for this report this mine was not in 
operation. The shaft was filled with water and there was, therefore, no 



160 GEOLOGY AND OEE DEPOSITS OP THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

opportunity for underground examinations. It is reported, however, that 
the vein is narrow, averaging not more than 2 feet in width, but that it is 
well mineralized. The material on the dump shows that the ore consists 
of bornite and chalcocite in a gangue composed dominantly of quartz, con- 
siderable epidote, and a small amount of calcite with a little chlorite. Only 
one opening of any importance was made in this vein. It is reported that 
the shaft was sunk through a depth of 135 feet and that a drift about 100 
feet long was driven from the bottom of the shaft. 

The ore from this mine when examined under the microscope proved 
to be the most interesting of the whole -district in that it presented the 
best examples of crystallographic intergrowths of bornite and chalcocite 
that have ever been found. 

A typical case of such intergrowth is illustrated in Plate XVII. At a 
magnification of 40 diameters these areas resemble very closely the inter- 
growths of quartz and feldspar in a micropegmatite, or the intergrowths 
of the constituents in certain alloys. At the highest magnification used, 
that of 575 diameters, this resemblance is even more pronounced. When 
an area of such intergrowth is etched deeply enough to bring out the 
cleavages distinctly the chalcocite is seen to be composed of numerous 
medium-sized individual grains, the cleavage lines of which could be seen 
to extend from one side of the grain to the other, interrupted here and 
there by the filaments of bornite. This type of texture is regarded as strong 
evidence that the two minerals crystallized at the same time. This subject 
is discussed in greater detail in the chapter on the genesis of the ores. 

GOLD MINES AND PEOSPECTS. 

General statement. — All the copper ores of the Virgilina district carry 
small but variable values in gold. The usual values of the concentrates and 
ores in gold as shipped to the smelters vary from a mere trace up to 1.30 
ounces per ton. It is also reported that "colors" of gold may be found in 
many stream beds and other places in the district. However, so far as was 
determined during the field investigations for this report, there is only 
one area included within the district as shown by the accompanying map 
(PI. I) which shows the presence of gold in sufficient quantity to warrant 
prospecting for it. This is an area about 2 miles wide extending from 
about 2 miles to 6 miles northeast of Virgilina. The southern half of this 
area, which contains many irregular quartz veins and stringers, stands a 
little higher than the surrounding country and is known as Grill's Mountain. 



POOLE AND HARRIS PROSPECT, AND RED BANK MINE. 161 

It is said that nearly any stream in this area, by panning, will show from 
one to many colors of gold, some of which is fairly coarse. A nnmber of 
prospect pits have been sunk and many cross-cuts made in the area, with 
the hope of locating valuable deposits. Many of these show gold, but it is 
nearly always present in too small amount to be of any commercial value. 
While many of these veins and stringers show pyrite and gold it is very 
seldom, indeed, that they show any of the copper-bearing sulphides. Of 
all the pits and cross-cuts in this territory only three show indications that 
might possibly warrant further prospecting. It also seems probable that 
these three are all on the same vein, at least in the same mineralized zone. 
These, beginning with the one farthest south, are : The Poole and Harris 
Prospect, the Eed Bank Mine, and the Luce and Howard Mine. 

POOLE AND HARRIS PROSPECT. 

About one and one-half miles south of the Eed Bank mine are a number 
of shallow pits and cross-cuts in a quartz vein which in places shows rather 
favorable pannings. Only very little surface work has been done and no 
assays • are available nor other data that would afford any quantitative 
information. As conditions are, the place can not be regarded as more 
than an undeveloped prospect. 

RED BANK MINE. 

The Eed Bank mine is located about four and one-half miles northeast 
of Virgilina, and about one-fourth of a mile north of the wagon road lead- 
ing from Eed Bank store to Hitesburg. It was the only gold mine in 
active operation at the time of the field work. In fact, it is the only gold 
mine thus far developed to any important extent in the whole region. The 
veins were discovered and active development was begun in 1903 by H. C. 
Crowell. Yery soon after the discovery, W. T. Harris became associated 
with Mr. Crowell in the development work. These men carried on the 
work until 1905, when they sold the property to its present owners, the 
Virgilina Mining Company, with headquarters in Buffalo, N. Y. The 
surface plant consists of a small stamp mill, ore bins, crusher, air com- 
pressor, boiler, and engine all well housed. All the ore thus far taken out 
was handled by the stamp mill and amalgamating plates. Much of the 
gold has been proven to be very fine and consequently the slime loss has 
always been considerable. To avoid this the company purchased a cyanid- 
ing outfit, but for some reason did not install it. 



162 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRG1LINA DISTRICT. 

The underground development consists of two shafts, one about 50 
and the other about 200 feet deep, and about 650 feet of drifts. The first 
level at a depth of about 70 feet extends 370 feet south and 120 feet north 
of the shaft. The second level extends about 90 feet south and 100 feet 
north of the shaft. Considerable sloping has been done, but little or none 
of it extends below the 70-foot level. All drifting and development work 
has been confined to the one vein. 

The country rock is the usual greenstone schist of the district. The 
green- and purplish-colored types of the rock are both present and its 
turlaceous nature is plainly visible upon close examination. It appears 
that the rock is probably more highly schistose than at the other mines. The 
vein is of the fissure type and appears to follow the dip and strike of the 
schistosity of the rock in which it occurs. It varies in width from a few 
inches to 6 feet, averaging perhaps three and one-half feet. The walls are 
well defined and the vein is easily followed. Much silicified country rock 
is included in the vein, and much of it has a decided reddish color 
resembling jasper, due probably to the development of hematite in the 
siliceous material. 

It is said that the richest values were found in the reddish portions of 
the vein. The upper portion of the vein seems to carry only two metallic 
minerals, gold and hematite, but with depth a small amount of pyrite began 
to come in. The values are not evenly distributed throughout the vein, 
but they occur in a well-defined ore shoot, only one of which has been 
developed, although others of more or less promise are known %) exist. 
Even in the ore shoot the values are "spotty" and in places the vein carries 
very little or no value. No properly made assays were available, and it is 
therefore not possible to make any statement in regard to average value of 
the ore per ton. However, it is reported that up to date (1912) the mine 
had produced a total of $22,000 worth of gold. 

It is not known why the mine has been allowed to lie idle so much — 
whether due to lack of suitable ore or to the management. H. C. Crowell, 
who is familiar with the workings, says that there is a good body of average 
grade ore in sight, but that much of the gold is too fine to be saved on 
amalgamating plates and that this fact is responsible for the idleness. 

Not much can be said with any degree of certainty as to the future of 
the mine. Certainly some high-grade ore was taken out, but it is not known 
how much remains unbroken. Until more development work is done the 
place must be regarded as a favorable, but unproven, prospect. 



UTILIZATION OF THE ORES. 163 

LUCE AND HOWARD MINE. 

A prospect on a hill about one-fourth of a mile northeast of the Keel 
Bank mine and apparently on the same vein is known as the Luce and 
Howard mine. The metal sought was gold which occurred in small 
quantity in quartz veins and stringers in the schists. The place was not in 
operation at the time of the field examinations for this report and the 
workings were not accessible. So far as could be determined from exami- 
nations of material on the dump, conditions are somewhat similar to those 
at the Eed Bank mine. Three shafts have been sunk to depths varying from 
75 to 100 feet, but little or no stoping is said to have been done. A small 
stamp mill and concentrating machinery have been installed, but no data 
were available as to the success of the mill. It is reported that much of 
the gold is very fine and as a consequence very difficult to save by 
amalgamation. 



v-" 



UTILIZATION OF THE ORES. 

GENERAL STATEMENT. 

There are three ways of utilizing the Yirgilina ores: (1) Ship the 
run-of-mine ore, less such waste material as can be eliminated from a 
picking belt, direct to the smelter for use as converter linings or as a 
siliceous material for fluxing heavy sulphide ores or concentrates. (2) 
Concentrate the ores and ship the concentrates. (3) Extract the metals 
from the ores in a plant erected in the district for the purpose f such 
plant might consist of a smelter or be equipped for roasting the ores and 
concentrates and leaching the valuable metals from the roasted material. 

SHIPMENT OF ORE WITHOUT MILLING. 

The location of the district and the type of ore produced are favorable 
to the first-mentioned way of utilizing the ores, that is, ship the roughly 
picked ore direct to the smelter for use as siliceous material. The district 
is not far removed from a number of smelters, and, if reasonable freight 
rates can be obtained, the hand-picked ore, carrying from 4 to 8 per cent 
of copper and TO per cent excess silica, could undoubtedly be shipped at a 
profit.. The nearest smelter is the Virginia Smelting Company, at West 
Norfolk, Va., only 147 miles distant. This smelter at the time of the field 
work was treating large amounts of roasted pyritic copper ore, "spent 
pyrites," from Canadian points, and the management was more than 
anxious to have siliceous ores to serve as flux with the heavy iron ores. 



12 



164 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS 'OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

Very reasonable freight rates were in force between Virgilina and Norfolk 
and if proper contracts could have been made which would have assured 
the smelter a steady and regular supply of siliceous ore, and, at the same 
time had assured the miner a steady and fair market for his ore, it is 
reasonably certain that the whole output of the district could have been 
disposed of to this smelter. In fact, the greater part of the output was 
handled by this smelter. 

In case the Norfolk smelter could not handle the ores, the smelters in 
New Jersey and the Tennessee Copper Company's smelter at Copper Hill, 
Tenn., are within reach. They are farther away and the success of ship- 
ping to these markets would depend upon the kind of freight rates that 
could be obtained. All these smelters are buying silica for use as flux, and 
it is believed that by assuring the railroad of regular and large shipments 
of ore, the price for the excess silica in the ores would almost, if not 
quite, meet the transportation charges and thus enable the operator to 
deliver the actual copper ore to the smelter free of, or for a very small, 
freight charge. These smelters, especially the one at Copperhill, Tenn., 
have used many shipments of ore from the Virgilina district. Indeed, in 
1909 and 1910, the Tennessee Copper Company did considerable exploratory 
work in the district for the purpose of ascertaining whether or not a suffi- 
cient supply of siliceous ores could be obtained for their smelter. The 
project failed, but it is said not from a lack of ore, but because of exorbitant 
prices demanded for property. 

In order to sell Virgilina ores in this way to the best advantage it will 
be absolutely necessary for the district to be able to deliver steadily and 
regularly a reasonably large tonnage of fairly uniform ore. There is 
probably not a mine in the district, when operated as a single unit, that 
can meet such conditions, but if a number of the most promising mines 
and prospects would combine in marketing their ores the conditions could 
be met very easily. It seems perfectly evident that the only way to operate 
the mines on the basis of greatest profit to the individual owners is to 
consolidate them, at least so far as selling and shipping the ore is concerned. 

MILLING THE ORES AND SHIPMENT OF CONCENTRATES 

Sufficient experimental work, and actual milling of the Virgilina ores 
on a commercial basis, have been done to demonstrate beyond any question 
that they are readily amenable to concentration. This statement is made 
with full knowledge of the failure of both the High Hill and Person 
Consolidated mills to give satisfactory results. It is perfectly clear to any 



MILLING THE ORES AND SHIPMENT OF CONCENTRATES. 165 

one familiar with the construction, equipment, arrangement, and manage- 
ment of these mills, that the causes for failure lay within the mill and its 
management and not within the ores. Every mining engineer of any 
standing who has examined properties in the district has either strongly 
recommended concentration or remarked that the ores are favorable for 
concentration. The important minerals of ore and gangue together with 
the specific gravity of each are given in the following list: 

Ore Minerals Specific Gravity 

Bornite 4 . 90 to 5 . 40 

Chalcocite 5 . 50 to 5 . 80 

Argentite" 7 . 20 to 7 . 36 

Chalcopyrite 6 4 . 10 to 4 . 30 

Gangue Minerals Specific Gravity 

Quartz 2 . 65 to 2 . 66 

Calcite 2.71 

Epidote 3.25 to 3.50 

Chlorite Under 3 . 00 

Average rock About 3 . 00 



*r~ v 



It is seen that there is a difference in specific gravity of 1.7 between 
the average bornite, the lowest important ore mineral, and the average 
of epidote, the highest important gangue mineral. In good milling practice 
it is possible to separate without great difficulty minerals having a difference 
of little more than .5 in specific gravity. It is, therefore, clear that so far 
as the relative specific gravities of the gangue and ore minerals are con- 
cerned there is nothing to interfere with successful concentration. 

There is, however, one feature that complicates the problem and one 
which must be seriously considered in any attempts to concentrate these 
ores. This is the brittleness of bornite and chalcocite, the principal ore 
minerals, and the toughness and hardness of epidote and the hardness of 
quartz, the principal gangue minerals. Consequently, there will be a strong 
tendency for the ore minerals to crush very finely and form a great deal 
of slime, which will be lost in the milling process unless careful measures 
are taken to save it. The best way to save slimes in ore dressing by gravity 
methods is not to make them; therefore in treating these ores every pre- 
caution must be taken to prevent the formation of slimes. In planning a 
method of treatment for these ores, this question must be given first and 
foremost consideration. Then, in spite of every precaution, a certain 



It is assumed that the silver in the ores occurs in the form of argentite. 

6 Chalcopyrite occurs in appreciable quantities in only two mines or prospects in 
the district — the Glasscock shaft of the Pontiac mine, and the Cornfield No. 2 
prospect. 



166 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

amount of slimes will be formed, so that no process could be considered 
adequate which did not include apparatus for collecting and saving slimes. 
One of the fundamental principles of ore dressing is never to crush the 
ores any finer than is absolutely necessary to free the valuable minerals 
from the deleterious or worthless material. In applying this principle to 
the Virgilina ores there is both a fortunate and an unfortunate feature. 
The fortunate one is the fact that in most of the deposits the ores are pretty 
well bunched or segregated in fair-sized areas, and can be saved without 
exceedingly fine crushing. The unfortunate feature is the fact that this 
segregation was not carried to completion and as a consequence there is a 
great deal of vein through which the ore is finely disseminated and which 
therefore must be crushed very finely. Therefore, in devising a system of 
treatment means must be provided for taking out as much ore as possible 
without crushing and to crush only what is absolutely necessary and then 
not any finer than is absolutely necessary to free the values from the gangue. 
This makes it necessary, in order to treat any of these ores to the best 
advantage, to provide a picking belt which takes the ore from a rock breaker 
in which it is broken to about 2-inch size but no finer. From this belt 
three products will be obtained — a shipping ore, a milling ore, and much 
barren quartz and country rock. A picking belt is regarded as essential 
to any equipment for dressing these ores. 

The mill equipment of the High Hill, Person Consolidated, and Sea- 
board mines has been described in the paragraphs relating to these mines 
and will not be repeated here. Of these mills only the Seaboard was a 
success. Before erecting this mill, A. W. Tucker, at that time manager of 
the Seaboard mine, carried out a great deal of experimental work on the 
ores, with the object of determining the best type of treatment for them. 
This is the only work of its kind thus far attempted with the ores from the 
district, and it seems best to quote briefly from Mr. Tucker's report of his 
work. 

"The tests were made on ore from the Seaboard mine in the ore dressing 
laboratories of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston. The 
total amount of ore used was a trifle under two tons. It had been crushed 
at the mine to 2-inch size and all high-grade ore taken out. By high-grade 
ore is meant all ore running 10 per cent copper or over. This was done to 
take the place of a picking belt which is essential to any mill in the district. 
Much work was done on the ore for two purposes : First, to determine the 
fineness to which the ore must be crushed in order to produce the greatest 
percentage of saving in the simplest manner ; and, second, to determine the 
adaptability of various machines to the concentration of this particular 
ore. Under such conditions it is readily seen that a negative result would 






MILLING THE ORES AND SHIPMENT OF CONCENTRATES. 167 

be nearly as valuable as a positive one. From the results obtained the 
proper mill to install can be determined easily, but the individual test or 
run has little value by itself. Three complete runs or tests were made. 
They are as follows : 

"In the first test the ore was crushed and then reduced to 5-mesh by 
putting it through one set of rolls. This 5-mesh product was fed direct to 
a 3-compartment Harz jig, containing 12-mesh bottom screens and allowed 
to make its own bed. The hutch product was run in a one-spigot classifier 
which gave two products, heads and tails. The jig tails, jig middlings, 
and the classifier tails were mixed and run through a gravity stamp mill 
having a 14-mesh screen. The stamp mill pulp was classified and the 
various sizes run on Wilfley tables. The mud from the jig was added to 
that from the Wilfley tables and run on a Wilfley slime table. This test 
showed a total saving of 81.09 per cent of the total copper in the ore, 
distributed as follows : Jig, 48 per cent; Wilfley table, 27 per cent; Wilfley 
slime table, 6 per cent. The original ore assayed 2.78 per cent copper, 
hence the ratio of concentration was 14 to 1. 

"The second test was one of graded crushing with rolls through 8 mesh. 
The material was classified in a 4-spigot classifier, Spigot No-. 1 went to 
the jig, the middlings being run on gravity stamps having a 20-mesh 
screen. Spigots Nos. 2, 3, and 4 were treated in the usual manner on 
Wilfley tables, the overflow going to a Wilfley slime table. This test was 
made on ore assaying 3 per cent copper. The saving was 88.22 per cent of 
the copper and was distributed as follows : Jig, 52.61 per cent from treat- 
ment of material from spigots Nos. 2, 3, and 4: and overflow, 15.10 per 
cent; treatment of jig middlings, 20.51 per cent. In this test, however, 
all products assaying 10 per cent or over were called heads without further 
concentration and the ratio of concentration would therefore be low. 

"In the third test the two-inch material as received from the mine was 
fed directly to gravity stamps having a 14-mesh screen. The pulp was 
classified and run on Wilfley tables ; 79.30 per cent of the total copper 
content of the ore was saved as follows: Wilfley tables, heads, 60.54 per 
cent; round table, heads, 6.43 per cent; and Wilfley slime table, 12.33 
per cent. The original ore assayed 2.80 per cent copper. The test showed 
the round table to be almost worthless as a machine to follow Wilfley tables. 
If these tables had been followed by a Wilfley slime table as in the other 
tests the extraction would probably have been higher. 

"It was also found that the gold and silver values concentrate with the 
copper." 

The mill at the Seaboard mine, which was built and operated by Mr. 
Tucker after he had completed the experimental work on the ores, was, so 
far as can be determined, very successful, but did not make as high a 
saving as was made in the experimental runs. The flow sheet on page 100 
shows the equipment of this mill. 



168 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGIL1NA DISTRICT. 

CONCENTRATION BY FLOTATION. 

While flotation has not been tried on the Virgilina ores, it has been 
practised with such great success throughout the world upon many ores 
far more difficult to treat than these that there is absolutely no doubt that, 
if given a fair trial, it will prove to be as successful here as elsewhere. 
In fact from the writer's knowledge of the subject he is certain that it is 
the most promising of all available methods of concentrating the Virgilina 
ores. Its advantages over other methods of concentration for these ores 
are so evident that it really seems unnecessary to discuss them except in a 
general way. The most patent advantage is in the handling of slimes. The 
worst feature of all other methods of concentration is the difficulty of saving 
the slimes. The condition of the ore is such that in order to free the values 
from the gangue, it is necessary to crush it very finely and this can not be 
done without making a large amount of slimes. Because of this it is 
necessary in considering any method of concentration to include a method 
of treating the slimes. Flotation thus far is the only really successful 
method known of treating such material. 

Another very important fact in regard to flotation is the flexibility of 
the process. It can be used alone or in combination with table concen- 
tration with equal facility. Thus, if it is desired to use ordinary gravity 
concentration for everything except slimes and to treat them by flotation, 
it can be done easily and economically. A flotation machine large enough 
to treat the slimes from a 50-ton mill will cost but little more than a slime 
table for the same purpose, and it will not require a great deal more 
operating power. It is also just as practicable and certainly more eco- 
nomical to arrange to do all the concentration by flotation as by ordinary 
methods, or by a combination of the two. 

Finally the item of cost of installation and operation of a suitable 
concentrating plant is believed to be greatly in favor of flotation. The 
greatest expense is that of crushing machine^, and this has to be met in 
either case regardless of the method of concentration used. 

It is not the intention of the writer to go into the question of flotation 
in detail. In fact, such a discussion would be out of place in a geological 
report. All he desires to do is to call the attention of the operator in the 
district to the importance of the subject and to suggest that it be given 
careful consideration. 






SMELTING ORE IN THE DISTRICT. , 169 



SMELTING ORE IN THE DISTRICT. 



The last of the three ways of treating the ores, smelting or extracting 
the metals from them in the district, is considered the least feasible of all. 
There are many reasons for this conclusion, among which may be mentioned 
the following : There is not only no readily accessible fuel supply but no 
supply of material suitable for flux. It would, in all probability, be less 
expensive to ship the ore or concentrates to a smelter than to pay trans- 
portation charges on fuel, material for flux, and general supplies. It does 
not appear probable that the district will ever produce large quantities of 
ore — probably not enough to supply a large metallurgical plant. Small 
copper smelters are usually not very satisfactory and they generally are 
more expensive to operate than large plants in proportion to the amount of 
metal produced. 

It is realized that there is a possibility of treating these ores by hydro- 
metallurgical processes, and that such processes might eliminate certain of 
the obstacles in the way of smelting operations. 

It is even true that a process for extracting the copper from the ore by 
acid leaching and recovering it by electrolytic precipitation was installed 
and operated a short time in 1907 at the High Hill mine. The process 
and results were kept secret, but it is well known that from a commercial 
standpoint the plant was a failure. The process so far as it could be learned 
consisted in giving the crushed ore a sulphating roast in a specially con- 
structed reverberatory furnace, leaching the roasted ore with dilute sul- 
phuric acid, and finally precipitating the copper electrolytically. 

In considering any method of treating as well as mining the Virgilina 
ores the prime factor must be to keep expenses clown to the minimum. 
The two methods just considered are of necessity expensive and on this 
account, if for no other reasons, are not considered feasible. 

The first two ways mentioned of utilizing the ores, shipping the hand- 
picked ores to smelter or of milling the run-of-mine ore, less such waste as 
can be easily eliminated from a picking belt, are both considered feasible, 
and it is recommended that they be given careful consideration by any one 
contemplating operations in the Virgilina district. 



SUMMARY. 



Of the three methods of handling the Virgilina ores that have just 
been discussed, namely, shipping the hand-picked ore, concentrating the 
ore and shipping the concentrates, and reducing the ore to metal in the 



170 GEOLOGY AND ORE DEPOSITS OF THE VIRGILINA DISTRICT. 

district, the second one appears to the writer to be the most feasible. 
This is also the conclusion reached by most of the men who have at 
different times operated mines in the district, as well as it is the opinion 
of the best mining engineers who have written commercial reports on the 
district. Unless straight flotation be adopted a fairly complicated equip- 
ment will be required in the treatment of these ores, and in order to secure 
the greatest efficiency it will be necessary to handle as large quantities of 
ore as possible. A large mill will, therefore, be necessary. Taking into 
account the small size of the individual deposits, it appears that it would 
be little short of actual folly for each individual mine to erect a concen- 
trating plant. The cost of erecting and operating the mill would be 
almost, if not quite, prohibitive. The writer believes that the most satis- 
factory as well as the most economical plan would be some scheme of 
cooperation between the different operators in the district whereby there 
could be erected a centrally located mill large enough to handle all the 
milling ores from all the mines. Such a mill could be located on Aaron's 
Creek near the railroad. Each mine could install and operate a picking 
belt so that it would be necessary to haul only the concentrating ore to 
the mill. 

As regards transportation it seems probable since motor trucks have 
been developed to such a high degree of efficiency that they could be satis- 
factorily employed for the purpose. 

It seems desirable before discontinuing this subject to quote a sum- 
marized statement of the recommendations given by Mr. H. A. Keller in 
a commercial report on the district a few years ago. This was written 
before flotation had been developed to such a high degree of efficiency, but 
it is still worthy of the most careful consideration by any one contemplating 
mining in the Yirgilina district. 

"(1) The ore should be crushed at the shaft and the high-grade 
smelting ore saved and the waste eliminated from a picking belt before the 
ore goes to the mill. 

"(2) The ore should be jigged as coarse as possible in order to avoid 
crushing or pulverizing the small bunches of pure minerals — thereby avoid- 
ing as much slime loss as possible. 

"(3) The jig tailings must be recrushed and concentrated further. 

"(4) Some satisfactory treatment must be provided for slimes." 



__j 



INDEX 



Aaron slate, 24-27. 
Chemical analysis, 26. 
Macroscopic description, 24-25. 
Microscopic description, 25-26. 
Occurrence, 24. 
Weathering and soil, 27. 
Abbyville gabbro, 37-38. 
General statement, 37. 
Macroscopic description, 37. 
Microscopic description, 37. 
Unaltered gabbro, 38. 
Albite, 72. 

Anaconda mine, 152-153. 
Analyses, quartz porphyry, 22. 

selected samples of Blue Wing 

ore, 109. 
Virgilina greenstone, 33. 
Analysis, Aaron slate, 26. 
Annie Maud prospect, 156. 
Argentite, 79-80. 
Arringdale mine, 158-159. 
Assays, Blue Wing ore, 1899-1900, 110; 
1907, 111. 
ore and concentrates from 
Durgy mine, 137. 
Azurite, 81. 
Barnes mine, 144-145. 
Bavnham mine, 152. 
Blue Wing mine, 102-114. 
Future of the mine, 113-114. 
General statement, 102-104. 
Geologic relations, 105-112. 
Production, 113. 
Underground development, 105. 
Bornite, 74-75. 

and chalcocite, relations of, 

83-87. 
and chalcopyrite, relations of 
87-89. 
Buffalo granite, 36. 

General description, 36. 
Calcite, 70. 
Chalcocite, 75-77. 
Chalcopyrite, 77-78. 
Chappell mine, 149. 

Chemical composition, Hyco quartz 

porphyry, 22. 
Virgilina green- 
stone, 32-33. 
Chlorite, 71. 
Chrysocolla, 82. 

Classification, Virgilina greenstone, 33. 
Climate, 3-4. 
Concentrating plant, Seaboard mine, 

101-102. 
Concentration by flotation, 168. 
Consolidation, 57. 



Continuation of the ore deposits with 
depth, 93-94. 

Copper deposits, native, 67-68. 
Copper King mine, 157-158. 
Copper, native, 78-79. 
Copper World mine, 158. 
Cornfield property, 153-155. 
Crenshaw mine, 147. 
Cross-cut mine. 143-144. 
Cuprite, 81-82. 
Daniel's mine, 146. 
Deposition of the ore minerals, 91-93. 
Deposition of the ores, 58. 
Descriptive geology of the mines and 
prospects, 95-141. 

Blue Wing mine, 102-114. 
Duke mine, 140-141. 
Durgy (Person Consolidated) mine, 
130-139. 

High Hill mine, 124-130. 
Holloway mine, 114-124. 
Seaboard mine, 95-102. 

Description of the rocks, 14-41. 
Dike rocks, 39-41. 
Diabase, 40-41. 

General statement, 40-41. 
Macroscopic description, 41. 
Microscopic description, 41. 
Gabbro, 40. 
General statement, 39. 
Granite, 39-40. 

General description, 39-40. 
Syenite, 40. 

General description, 40. 
Gneissoid rocks, 17-18. 
Hornblende gneiss, 18. 
Mica gneiss, 17-18. 
Introduction, 14-16. 
Intrusive rocks, 35-38. 
Abbyville gabbro, 37-38. 
General statement, 37. 
Macroscopic description, 37. 
Microscopic description, 37-38. 
Unaltered gabbro, 38. 
Buffalo granite, 36. 

General description, 36. 
Redoak granite, 35-36. 

General description, 35-36. 
Normal sedimentary rocks, 38-39. 
Triassic (Newark) sandstone, 38-39. 
General description, 38-39. 

Volcano-sedimentary rocks, 18-34. 
Aaron slate, 24-27. 

Chemical analysis, 26. 

Analysis of tvpical Aaron slate. 
26. 



172 



INDEX. 



Macroscopic description, 24-25. 
Microscopic description, 25-26. 
Occurrence, 24. 
Weathering and soil, 27. 
Goshen schist, 23-24. 

General description, 23-24. 
Hyco quartz porphyry, 20-23. 
Chemical composition, 22. 

Analyses of quartz porphyry, 
22. 
Macroscopic description, 20-21. 
Microscopic description, 21. 
Occurrence, 20. 
Weathering and soil, 23. 
Introduction, 18-19. 
Virgilina greenstone, 27-34. 
Chemical composition, 32-33. 
Classification, 33-34. 

Analyses of Virgilina green- 
stone, 33-34. 
Distribution, 27-28. 
Introductory statement, 27. 
Macroscopic description, 28-29. 
Microscopic description, 29-32. 
Tuffaceous phase, 32. 
Weathering, 34. 
Description of vein, Seaboard mine, 

95-98. 
Detailed description of gangue minerals, 
69-73. 
Albite, 72. 
Calcite, 70. 
Chlorite, 71. 
Epidote, 70. 
Hematite, 71. 
Quartz, 69-70. 
Orthoclase, 72-73. 
Sericite, 71-72. 
Detailed description of ore minerals, 
73-82. 
Argentite, 79-80. 
Azurite, 81. 
Bornite, 73-75. 
Chalcocite, 75-77. 
Chalcopyrite, 77-78. 
Chrysocolla, 82. 
Copper, native, 78-79. 
Cuprite, 81-82. 
General statement, 73-74. 
Gold, 80-81. 

Klaprothite or Klaprotholite, 79. 
Malachite, 81. 
Melaconite, 82. 
Pyrite, 79. 
Silver, native, 82. 
Detailed description of the veins and 
ores, 63-94. 
Continuation of the ore deposits with 
depth, 93-94. 



Detailed description of gangue miner- 
als, 69-73. 
Detailed description of ore minerals, 

73-82. 
Mineralogy of the veins, 68-69. 

General statement, 68-69. 
Native copper deposits, 67-68. 
Origin and deposition of the ores, 
89-93. 
Deposition of the ore minerals, 

91-93. 
General statement, 89. 
Origin of the veins, 89-91. 
Relation of the copper-bearing sul- 
phides to each other, 82-89. 
General statement, 82-83. 
Relations of bornite and chalcocite, 

83-87. 
Relations of bornite and chalcopy- 
rite, 87-89. 
Veins, 63-67. 

General statement, ,63-67. 
Development, Holloway mine, 115-117. 
Development, Seaboard mine, 99-101. 
Development of the veins and deposition 

of the ores, 58. 
Diabase, 40-41. 

General statement, 40-41. 
Macroscopic description, 41. 
Microscopic description, 41. 
Diabase dikes, 59. 
Dike rocks, 39-41. 
Diabase, 40-41. 
Gabbro, 40. 

General statement, 39. 
Granite, 39-40. 
Syenite, 40. 
Distribution, Virgilina greenstone, 27-28. 
Drainage, 3, 61-62. 
Duke mine, 140-141. 

Future of the mine, 141. 
General statement, 140. 
Geologic relations, 140-141. 
Durgy (Person Consolidated) mine, 
130-139. 
Future of the mine, 139. 
General statement, 130-132. 
Geologic relations, 132-138. 
Production, 138. 
Engle prospect, 156. 
Epidote, 70. 
Erosion, 59. 

Erosion and weathering, 59. 
Esther May prospect, 159. 
Faulting, 48-50. 
Folding, 42-46. 

and development of schistos- 
ity, 57. 
Fourth of July mine, 158. 






INDEX. 



173 



Future of Blue Wing mine, 113-114. 
Duke mine. 141. 
Durgy (Person Consolidated) 

mine, 139. 
High Hill mine. 130. 
Holloway mine. 124. 
Gabbro, Abbyville, 37-3S. 

general statement, 37. 
unaltered, 38. 
Gangue minerals, detailed description of, 

69-73. 
General description, Buffalo granite, 36. 

Goshen schist, 23- 

24. 
Granite, 39-40. 
Bedoak o-ranite. 35- 

36. 
Syenite, 40. 
Triassic (Newark) 
sandstone, 38-39. 
General statement, Abbyville gabbro, 37. 

Blue Wing mine, 

102-104. 
detailed description 
of the ore min- 
erals, 73-74. 
diabase, 40-41. 
dike rocks, 39. 
Duke mine, 140. 
Durgy (Person Con- 
solidated) mine, 
130-132. 
gabbro, 40. 
geologic history, 54. 
>gold mines and pros- 
pects, 160-161. 
High Hill mine, 124- 

127. 
Hollowav mine, 114- 

115. 
metamorphism, 50. 
mineralogy of the 

veins, 68-69. 
origin and deposition 

of the ores, 89. 
relation of the cop- 
per-bearing sul- 
phides to each 
other, 82-83. 
Seaboard mine, 95. 
structure and meta- 
morphism, 41-42. 
utilization of the 

ores, 163. 
veins. 63-67. 
Geographical sketch, 1-4. 
Climate, 3-4. 
Drainage, 3. 
Location, 1. 



Soil, 3. 

Topography, 1-2. 
Geography and history, 1-14. 
Geographical sketch, 1-4. 
Climate, 3-4. 
Drainage, 3. 
Location, 1. 
Soil, 3. 

Topography, 1-2. 
Previous geologic work, 4-14. 
Geologic history, structure and meta- 
morphism, 54-59. 
Consolidation, 57. 

Development of the veins and deposi- 
tion of the ores, 58. 
Erosion and weathering, 59. 
Folding and development of schistos- 

ity, 57. 
General statement, 54. 
Igneous activity, 55-56. 
Igneous intrusions, 57-58. 
Mica and hornblende gneiss, 54. 
Triassic sandstone and diabase dikes, 
59. 
Geologic relations, Blue Wing mine, 

105-112. 
Duke mine, 140-141. 
Durgy ( Person Con- 
solidated) mine, 
132-138. 
High Hill mine, 127- 

129. 
Holloway mine, 117- 
121. 
Gilliam mine, 146. 
Gillis mine, 157. 
Gneiss, hornblende, 18. 

mica, 17-18. 
Gneissoid rocks, 17-18. 
Hornblende gneiss, 18. 
Mica gneiss, 17-18. 
Gold, 80-81. 

Gold mines and prospects, 160-163. 
General statement, 160-161. 
Luce and Howard mine, 163. 
Poole and Harris prospect, 161. 
Bed Bank mine, 161-162. 
Goshen schist, 23-24. 

General description, 23-24. 
Granite, Buffalo, 36. 

Redoak, 35-36. 
general description. 39-40. 
Greenstone, Virgilina, 27-34. 
Grove mine, 147. 
Hematite, 71. 
High Hill mine, 124-130. 
Future of the mine, 130. 
General statement, 124-127. 
Geologic relations, 127-129. 



174 



INDEX. 



Production, 129. 
Holloway mine, 114-124. 
Development, 115-117. 
Future of the mine, 124. 
General statement, 114-115. 
Geologic relations, 117-121. 
Mineralogy, 121-123. 
Production, 123-124. 
Hornblende gneiss, 18. 
Hyco quartz porphyry, 20-23. 
Chemical composition, 22. 
Macroscopic description, 20-21. 
Microscopic description, 21. 
Occurrence, 20. 
Weathering and soil, 23. 
Igneous activity, 55-56. 

intrusions, 57-58. 
rocks, intrusion of, 50. 
Introduction, 14-16. 

Virgilina greenstone, 27. 
volcano-sedimentary rocks, 
18-19. 
Intrusion of igneous rocks, 50. 
Intrusions, igneous, 57-58. 
Intrusive rocks, 35-38. 
Abbyville gabbro, 37-38. 
Buffalo granite, 36. 
Redoak granite, 35-36. 
Jointing, 47-48. 
Kay mine, 148. 

Klaprothite or Klaprotholite, 79. 
Littlejohn mine, 159. 
Location, Virgilina district, 1. 
Luce and Howard mine, 163. 
McNeny mine, 145-146. 
Macroscopic description, Aaron slate, 24- 

25. 
Abbyville gab- 
bro, 37. 
diabase, 41. 
Hyco quartz 
porphyrv, 20 
21. 
Virgilina green- 
stone, 28-29. 
Malachite, 81. 
Melanconite, 82. 
Metamorphism, 50-53. 
General statement, 50. 
Mineralization, 51-52. 
Mineralogical changes, 51. 
Textural changes, 50-51. 
Weathering, 52-53. 
Mica and hornblende gneiss, 54. 
Mica gneiss, 17-18. 

Microscopic description, Aaron slate, 25- 

26. 
Abbyville gab- 
bro, 37. 



diabase, 41. 

Hyco quartz 
porphyry, 21. 

Virgilina green- 
stone, 29-32. 

Milling the ores and shipment of con- 
centrates, 164-167. 
Mineralization, 51-52. 
Mineralogical changes, 51. 
Mineralogy, Holloway mine, 121-123. 
Mineralogy of the veins, 68-69. 

General statement. 68-69. 
Mines and ores of the Virgilina district, 
95-170. 
Descriptive geology of the mines and 
prospects, 95-141. 
Blue Wing mine, 102-114. 

Future of the mine, 113-114. 
General statement, 102-104. 
Geologic relations, 105-112. 

Analyses (partial) of selected 
samples of Blue Wing ore, 
109. 
Assays of Blue Wing ore, 1899- 

1900, 110. 
Assays of Blue Wing ore, 1907, 
111. 
Production, 113. 
Underground development, 105. 
Duke mine, 140-141. 

Future of the mine, 141. 
General statement, 140. 
Geologic relations, 140-141. 
Durgy (Person Consolidated) mine, 
130-139. 
Future of the mine, 139. 
General statement, 130-132. 
Geologic relations, 132-138. 

Assays of ore and concentrates 
from Durgy mine — Smelter 
returns, 137. 
Production, 138. 

High Hill mine, 124-130. 
Future of the mine, 130. 
General statement, 124-127. 
Geologic relations, 127-129. 
Production, 129. 

Holloway mine, 114-124. 
Development. 115-117. 
Future of the mine, 124. 
General statement, 114-115. 
Geologic relations, 117-121. 

Table of settlement returns on 
ore shipments from the Hollo- 
way mine, 1897-1903, between 
118 and 119. 

Mineralogy, 121-123. 
Production, 123-124. 



INDEX. 



175 



Seaboard mine, 95-102. 

Concentrating plant, 101-102. 
Description of vein, 95-98. 
Development, 99-101. 
General statement, 95. 
Ore and gangue minerals, 98-99. 
Gold mines and prospects, 160-163. 
General statement. 160-161. 
Luce and Howard mine, 163. 
Poole and Harris prospect, 161. 
Red Bank mine, 161-162. 
Prospects and partially developed 
mines, 141-160. 
Anaconda mine, 152-153. 
Annie Maud prospect, 156. 
Arringdale mine, 158-159. 
Barnes mine, 144-145. 
Baynham mine, 152. 
Chappell mine, 149. 
Copper King mine, 157-158. 
Copper World mine, 158. 
Cornfield property, 153-155. 
Crenshaw mine, 147. 
Cross-cut mine, 143-144. 
Daniel's mine, 146. 
Engle prospect, 156. 
Esther May prospect, 159. 
Fourth of July mine, 158. 
Gilliam mine, 146. 
Gillis mine, 157. 
Grove mine, 147. 
Kay mine, 148. 
Littlejohn mine, 159. 
McNeny mine, 145-146. 
Morong mine, 152. 
Northeast shaft, 141-142. 
Pandora mine. 151. 
Pannebaker prospects, 155-156. 
Pontiac mine, 149-151. 
Thomas mine, 142-143. 
Wall mine, 159-160. 
Wilson mine, 146-147. 
Utilization of the ores, 163-170. 
Concentration by notation, 168. 
General statement, 163. 
Milling the ores and shipment of 

concentrates, 164-167. 
Shipment of ore without milling, 

163-164. 
Smelting ore in the district, 169. 
Summary, 169-170. 
Morong mine, 152. 
Normal sedimentary rocks, 38-39. 

Triassic (Newark) sandstone, 38-39. 
Northeast shaft, 141-142. 
Occurrence, Aaron slate, 24. 

Hyco quartz, porphyry, 20. 
Ore and gangue minerals, Seaboard mine, 
98-99. 



Origin and deposition of the ores, 89-93. 
Deposition of the ore minerals, 91-93. 
General statement, 89. 

Origin of the veins, 89-91. 
Orthoclase, 72-73. 
Pandora mine, 151. 
Pannebaker prospects, 155-156. 
Physiographic history, 62-63. 
Physiography, 59-63. 

Drainage, 61-62. 

Physiographic history, 62-63. 

Relief, 60-61. 

Pontiac mine, 149-151. 
Poole and Harris prospect, 161. 
Porphyry, Hyco quartz, 20-23. 
Previous geologic work, 4-14. 
Production, Blue Wing mine, 113. 

Durgy ( Person Consoli- 
dated) mine, 138. 

High Hill mine, 129. 

Holloway mine, 123-124. 

Prospects and partially developed mines, 
141-160. 
Anaconda mine, 152-153. 
Annie Maud prospect, 156. 
Arringdale mine, 158-159. 
Barnes mine, 144-145. 
Baynham mine, 152. 
Chappell mine, 149. 
Copper King mine, 157-158. 
Copper World mine, 158. 
Cornfield property, 153-155. 
Crenshaw mine, 147. 
Cross-cut mine, 143-144. 
Daniel's mine, 146. 
Engle prospect, 156. 
Esther May prospect, 159. 
Fourth of July mine, 158. 
Gilliam mine, 146. 
Gillis mine, 157. 
Grove mine, 147. 
Kay mine, 148. 
McNeny mine, 145-146. 
Morong mine, 152. 
Northeast shaft, 141-142. 
Pandora mine, 151. 
Pannebaker prospects, 155-156. 
Pontiac mine, 149-151. 
Thomas mine, 142-143. 
Wall mine, 159-160. 
Wilson mine, 146-147. 

Pyrite, 79. 

Quartz, 69-70. 

Red Bank mine, 161-162. 

Redoak granite, 35-36. 

General description, 35-36. 
Relation of the copper bearing sulphides 
to each other, 82-89. 



■ i 
i 






j ) > 



■ , . > 



j > > i p j •> 



176 



INDEX. 



General statement, 82-83. 

Relations of bornite and chalcocite, 

83-87. 
Relations of bornite and chalcopyrite, 
87-89. 
Relations of bornite and chalcocite, 

83-87. 
and chalcopy- 
rite, 87-89. 
Relief. 60-61. 

Sandstone, Triassic, 38-39, 59. 
Schist, Goshen, 23-24. 
Schistosity, 46-47. 

development of, 57. 
Seaboard mine, 95-102. 

Concentrating plant, 101-102. 
Description of vein, 95-98. 
Development, 99-101. 
General statement, 95. 
Ore and gangue minerals, 98-99. 
Sedimentary rocks, normal, 38-39. 
Sericite, 71-72. 
Shipment of ore without milling, 163- 

164. 
Silver, native, 82. 
Slate, Aaron, 24-27. 
Smelting ore in the district, 169. 
Soil, 3. 

Structural features, 42-50. 
Faulting, 48-50. 
Folding, 42-46. 

Intrusion of igneous rocks, 50. 
Jointing, 47-48. 
Schistosity. 46-47. . 
Structure and metamorphism, 41-63. 
General statement, 41-42. 
Geologic history, 54-59. 
Consolidation, 57. 

Development of the veins and de- 
position of the ores, 58. 
Erosion and weathering, 59. 
Folding and development of schistos- 
ity, 57. 
General statement, 54. 
Igneous activity, 55-56. 
Igneous intrusions, 57-58. 
Mica and hornblende gneiss, 54. 
Triassic sandstone and diabase dikes, 
59. 
Metamorphism, 50-53. 
General statement, 50. 
Mineralization, 51-52. 
Miner alogical changes, 51. 
Textural changes, 50-51. 
Weathering, 52-53. 
Physiography, 59-63. 
Drainage, 61-62. 



Physiographic history, 62-63. 
Relief, 60-61. 
Structural features, 42-50. 
Faulting, 48-50. 
Folding, 42-46. 

Intrusion of igneous rocks, 50. 
Jointing, 47-48. 
Schistosity, 46-47. 
Summary, 169-170. 
Syenite, 40. 

General description, 40. 
Table of settlement returns on ore ship- 
ments from the Holloway 
mine, 1897-1903, between pp. 
118-119. 
Textural changes, 50-51. 
Thomas mine, 142-143. 
Topography, 1-2. 

Triassic (Newark) sandstone, 38-39. 
Triassic sandstone and diabase dikes, 59. 
Tuffaceous phase, Virgilina greenstone, 

32. 
Underground development, Blue Wing 

mine. 105. 
Utilization of the ores, 163-170. 
Concentration by flotation, 168. 
General statement, 163. 
Milling the ores and shipment of con- 
centrates, 164-167. 
Shipment of ore without milling, 163- 

164. 
Smelting ore in the district, 169. 
Summary, 169-170. 
Veins, general statement, 63-67. 

origin of, 89-91. 
Virgilina greenstone, 27-34. 
Chemical composition, 32-33. 
Classification, 33-34. 
Distribution, 27-28. 
Introductory statement. 27. 
Macroscopic description, 28-29. 
Microscopic description, 29-32. 
Tuffaceous phase, 32. 
Weathering, 34. 
Volcano-sedimentary rocks, 18-34. 
Aaron slate, 24-27. 
Goshen schist, 23-24. 
Hyco quartz porphyry, v 20-23. 
Introduction, 18-19. 
Virgilina greenstone, 27-34. 
Wall mine, 159-160. 
Weathering, 34, 52-53, 59. 

and soil, Aaron slate, 27. 

Hyco quartz por- 
phyry, 23. 
Wilson mine, 146-147. 



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VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 
THOMAS L. WATSON, STATE GEOLOGIST 






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NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 



JOSEPH HYDE PRATT, State Geologist 






BULLETIN No. 27 



ALTITUDES IN NORTH CAROLINA 



COMPILED BY 

THE NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 



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State Printers 

1917 



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GEOLOGICAL BOARD 



Governor T. W. Bickett, ex-officio Chairman Raleigh 

Prank R. Hewitt Asheville 

Hugh MacRae Wilmington 

John Sprunt Hill Durham 

C. C. Smoot, III North Wilkesboro 

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Joseph Hy£3 c c P&aH, State Geologist.. . . . . . . '. : . -t r '. . ;. .: Chapel Hill 



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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Chapel Hill, K C, October 1, 1917. 

To His Excellency, Hon. T. W. Bickett, 

Governor of North Carolina. 

Sir : — I have the honor to transmit herewith for publication a re- 
port on "The Altitudes of North Carolina" as Bulletin 27 of the 
publications of the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey. 
The compilation of this report was begun a number of years ago, as 
the need for having such data in available form has long been felt; 
and it is believed that this bulletin will serve a most useful purpose. 

Respectfully, 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, 

State Geologist. 



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€►■§- 



PREFACE 



It lias long been realized by those having charge of the Geological 
Survey that the assembling of a list of the elevations of North Caro- 
lina was very desirable, not only in connection with the work of the 
Survey, but for the use of officials connected with the Department of 
Agriculture, Experiment Station work, and Department of Health; 
as well as of individuals whose interests involved questions relating 
to climate, soils, etc. 

In this report, the compilation of which has extended over a num- 
ber of years, an effort has been made to include all available data from 
whatever source ; and the height given is in feet above sea level. 

The sources from which this information has been derived are as 
follows: Reports and topographic maps of the United States Geo- 
logical Survey; charts of the United States Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey; reports of the United States Signal Service; Weather Bureau 
reports ; Kerr's Map of North Carolina ; A Dictionary of Elevations 
and Climatic Register of the United States, by J. M. Toner, M.D. ; 
A Dictionary of Altitudes of the United States, compiled by Henry 
Gannett ; articles from the American Journal of Science, by Profes- 
sor Guyot; and lists compiled by Yeates and Montgomery. Eleva- 
tions determined by railroad levels are credited to the roads by which 
they were furnished, and below is a list of the roads and the abbrevia- 
tions used for them : 

A. & F. B. V. R. R Atlantic and French Broad Valley 

A. & N. C. R. R Atlantic and North Carolina 

A. & R. A. L. R. R Atlanta and Richmond Air Line 

A. C. L Atlantic Coast Line 

C. F. & Y. V. R. R Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley 

Car. C. R. R Carolina Central 

C. & L. N. G. R. R Chester and Lenoir Narrow Gauge 

C. & N. W. R. R Carolina and North Western 

E. T. & W. N. C. R. R East Tennessee and Western North Carolina 

N. & W Norfolk and Western 

N. S. R. R Norfolk Southern Railway 

N. Car. R. R North Carolina Railroad 

N. W. N. C. R. R North Western North Carolina 

P. A. L. R. R Piedmont Air Line 

R. & A. R. R Richmond and Alleghany 



6 Preface 

R. & A. A. L. R. R Raleigh and Augusta Air Line 

R. & D. R. R Richmond and Danville 

R. & G. R. R Raleigh and Gaston 

S. A. L Seaboard Air Line 

S. R. R Southern Railway 

W. N. C. R. R Western North Carolina Railroad 

Wil. & Weldon Wilmington and Weldon 

Wil., N. & N. R. R Wilmington, New Bern and Northern 

There are two lists, which are arranged as follows : 

1. In the first column the arrangement is made alphabetically, by 
places. Column two gives a description of the station, as city, town, 
village, postofnce, railroad station, crossroads, church, schoolhouse, 
mountain, mountain gap, railroad bridge, etc. In the third column 
is given the name of the county in which the station is located. In 
the fourth column is the authority for the altitude given. In the fifth 
column is the elevation of the station, in feet. 

Where there is a disagreement among the authorities as to the alti- 
tude of a place, or where there is some doubt as to its being exact, the 
letter "a" is placed to the right and a little above the figure, indicating 
that the altitude given is approximate. 

2. There is a second list divided by counties arranged alphabeti- 
cally, and under each county the arrangement is as follows : 

Column one gives the names of the stations, arranged alphabeti- 
cally; the second column is a description of the station; the third 
column gives the authority ; and in the fourth column is the elevation 
in feet. 

Because of the effect of elevation on health, on vegetation, and on 
the occupations of the people, »this report will be of distinct benefit not 
only to the scientists working out data in regard to the agricultural 
and other resources of the State, but also to the home-seeker, the 
health-seeker, and the tourist. 

It is realized that this list is incomplete, and that there may be 
discrepancies which further data will bring out. It is planned, how- 
ever, to add to this list from time to time and to make any corrections 
which may be brought to the attention of the Survey. 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, 

State Geologist. 



ALTITUDES IN NORTH CAROLINA 



Location of Station 



Abbottsburg 

Abbotts Creek 

Aberdeen 

Abe's Mount. 

Abshers- 

Academy Crossroads.. 

Acorn 

Acre 

Acton 

Addie 

Advance.. 

Aho. 

Ahoskie, near station. 

Albemarle 



Albert, Mount- 



Alexander 

Alexander 

Alexander, in front of sta.-. 

Alexander, near station 

Alexis 

Algood 

Allanstand 

Alleghany 

Allenton > 

All Healing Springs 

All Healing Springs.--* 

Alligoods, at road crossing. 

Alma 

Almond 

Alpha 

Alspaugh _. 

Alto. 

Alwood 

Amantha 

Amboy 

Ames 

Amherst College 

Amity 

Amity Church 

Ammons Knob... 

Amos Plotts Balsam 

Anderson 

Anderson 

Andrews 

Andrews Bald 

Angeline 

Annandale 

Anson-Union county line.. 

Antioch 

Antioch Church 



Apex 

Apple Grove- 



Description of 
■c Station 



Postoffice 

Creek at So. Ry..- 

Postoffice 

M ountain 

Postoffice 

Crossroads 

Village 

Station 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Postoffice 



Postoffice. 

Mountain. 

Mountain. 

Station 

Station 

Station 

Postoffice. 
Hamlet-.. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Postoffice. 

Village 

Village 

Station 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Village 

Village 

Village 

Postoffice. 

Village 

Station 

Hamlet 

Village 

Church 

Mountain- 
Mountain. 
Mountain- 
Bridge 

Town 

Mountain- 
Hamlet 

Station 



Church. 
Church. 



Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 



County 



Bladen 

Davidson-. 

Moore 

Cleveland- . 

Wilkes 

Wayne 

Gates 

Beaufort. .. 
Buncombe. 

Jackson 

Davie 

Watauga— . 
Hertford... 



Stanly. 



Macon. 



Buncombe. 
Buncombe. 
Buncombe. 
Buncombe. 

Gaston 

Yadkin 

Madison 

Madison 

Robeson 

Alexander.. 

Gaston 

Beaufort... 

Robeson 

Swain 

Rowan 

Forsyth 

Buncombe- 
Pitt 

Watauga.. . 
Chowan 



Burke— 

Iredell 

Mecklenburg- 
Macon. 

Jackson 

Catawba 

Franklin 

Cherokee 

Swain 

Henderson 

Pender 



Johnston- 
Gaston 



Wake. 
Ashe.. 



Authority 



Elevation 
in Feet 



S. A. L 

S. R. R 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S._ 

fToner 

is. R. R 

|U. S. G. S 

\Guyot 

Guyot . 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.. 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

S. R. R 



U. S. G. S. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

U.S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

Yeates. 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(S. A. L.._ 

\R.&A.A.L.R.R. 
U. S. G. S 



106 

649 

351 

950a 
1,420a 

146 

38 

34 

2,000a 

2,252 

787 
3,900a 
53 

850 

467 
5,207 
5,254 
6,447 
1,792 
1,791 
1,795 

886 
1,000a 
2,000a 
2,700a 

131 
1,225 

850a 
38 

182 
1,560a 

780a 

968 
2,400a. 

42 
2,820a 
33 

545. 
1,019 
1,000a 

765 
3,916a 
6,278 
1,547 

175a 
1,750 
5,795 
2,050a 
45 

456 

160 

849 

504 

508 
3,137 



a=Approximate. 



8 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Aquone 

Ararat 

Arba 

Archer 

Arden 

Argyle.. 

Arlington. ._. .. 

Armour 

Arneys Store 

Arthurs Mill 

Asbury Church 

Asbury Mountain 

Ashboro 

Asheville, in front of station 

Asheville, at square 

Asheville, near station 

Asheville, at postoffice 

Asheville, highway bridge 

over French Broad 

Asheville 

Asheville 

Askin 

Asylum, in front of station- 
Atkinson 

Atwocd 

Auburn, in front of station- 

Autry ville 

Avery 

Avery Creek 

Ayden 

Ayden, near station 

Ayr . 

Azalea ._. 

Azalea, at switch 



Description of 
Station 



Postoffice 
Postoffice 
Village._. 
Village.. . 
Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village.. . 
Postoffice. 
Hamlet... 

Mill 

Church.. . 
Mountain 

Town. 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

Postoffice 
Station... 
Postoffice. 
Station... 
Postoffice. 

Town 

Village—. 
Village-. _ 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Postoffice 
Postoffice 



County 



Macon 

Surry 

Greene 

Johnston... 
Buncombe- 
Hoke 



Mecklenburg- 
Columbus 

Burke 

Iredell 

Lincoln 

Alexander 

Randolph 

Buncombe 

Buncombe 

Buncombe 

Buncombe 



Buncombe.. 
Buncombe-. 
Buncombe.! 

Craven 

Wayne 

Pender 

Forsyth 

Wake 

Sampson 

Buncombe.. 
Buncombe.. 

Pitt 

Pitt 

Rutherford. 
Buncombe.. 
Buncombe.. 



Authority 



U. S. G. S 

C. F. &Y. V.R.R. 

U. S. G. S.'. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

Car. C. R. R 

U. S. G. S._- 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 

S. R. R. 

U. S. G. S._ 
N. C. G. S. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 



U. S. G. S 

Die. of Elev 

Weather Bur 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S. 

C. F. & Y. V. R.R. 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

C.F.&Y. V.R.R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S._„ 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



Elevation 
in Feet 



2,950a 

898 

116 

338 

2,250a 

175 

175 

642 

50 

1,111 

1,000 

968 

1,804 

860 

1,984 

2,340 

1,985 

2,208 

1,981 

2,250 

2,250 

18 

74 

64 

818 

336 

113 

2,175 

2,255 

63 

63 

950a 

2,053 

2,056 



B 



Back Creek 

Bagley - 

Bahama.. 

Bailey, in front of station.. 
Bailey, 1 mi. west of station 

Baker Bridge 

Baker Mountain 

Bakers ville 

Bakersville, at county 

courthouse 

Bald Creek, one-fourth mi. 

from postoffice 

Bald Knob 

Bald Knob 

Bald Knob 

Bald Mountain 

Bald of Rich Mountain 

Bald Rock 



Creek at Sou. Ry 
track level 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Station 

Station 

Hamlet 

Mountain 

Town 

Town 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 



Alamance 

Johnston 

Durham ■_. 

Madison 

Madison 

Cleveland 

Catawba 

Mitchell - 

Mitchell 

Yancey 

Alleghany 

Jackson-Transylvania 

Alexander 

Yancey. 

Wat auga 

Transylvania-Jackson 



U. S. G. S..._ 
N\ Car. R. R 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S.-_ 
N. & W.^...... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S.— . 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.— . 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S...... 



538 

504 

169 

170 

494 

1,727 

1,729 

814 

1,812 

2,550a 

2,470 

2,555 
3,653 
4,824 
1,887 
5,550 
5,369 
4,150 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



9 



Location of Station 



Bald Spot 

Baldwin 

Baldwin Gap 

Ballard 

Ballard Crossroads. 
Balsam 



Balsam Cone- 



Balsam Gap : 

Balsam Gap 

Balsam Grove 

Bamboo 

Bandana 

Bandy 

Banners Elk - 

Banton 

Barber 

Barium Springs 

Barkers Creek 

Barnard, in front of station 
Barnard, one-fifth mi. N.W. 

of station 

Barnardsville 

Barnes Store - 

Barnett 

Barrett Mountain 

Bartons ville 

Bat Cave, at postoffice 

Bath 

Baton 

Battlebor o 



Battle Ground. 



Baymead 

Beach Bald 

Beach Spring 

Beal? Knob 

Beaman Crossroads 

Beamans 

Beams Mill 

Bear Creek 

Bear Knob 

Bear Pen Gap 

Bear Poplar 

Bear Wallow Mountain 

Bear Wallow Mountain 

Beasley (Bentonville P.O.) 

Beasley Store 

Beatties Ford _. 

Beatties Ford 

Beau Catcher Mountain 

(Beaumont) 

Beaufort 

Beauty Spot Mountain 

Beaver Creek 

Beaverdam 

Beaver Dam Church 

Beaver Dam Bald _.. 

Beaver Dam Branch 

Beaver Dam Branch 



Description of 
Station 



Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain Gap_ 

Hamlet *_. 

Hamlet 

Postoffice 



Mountain. 



Mountain Gap 

Mountain Gap 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Postoffice 

Village 

Chapel 

Postoffice 

Postoffice... 

Postoffice 



Postoffice. 
Postoffice, 

Village 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 

Hamlet 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Hamlet... 
Town 



Postoffice. 



Village— 

M ountain 

Station 

Mountain 

Crossroad 

Station 

Hamlet 

Creek 

M ountain 

Mountain Gap 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Village 

Hamlet 

Station 

Ford 



Mountain- 
Town 

Mountain. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Church 

Mountain. 



Mountain Gap 



County 



Swain (?). 

Ashe 

Ashe 

Martin... 

Gates 

Jackson.. 



Yancey- 



Haywood- Jackson. 

Buncombe 

Transylvania 

Watauga 

Mitchell 

Catawba 

Avery 

Iredell 

Johnston 

Iredell 

Jackson 

Madison 



Madison 

Buncombe- 
Wilson 

Clay 

Alexander.. 
Hertford- .. 
Henderson. 

"Beaufort 

Burke 

Nash 



Guilford. 



New Hanover 

Macon 

Perquimans 

Clay.. 

Sampson 

Anson 

Cleveland 

Lenoir 

Swain 

Haywood 

Rowan 

Henderson 

Madison 

Johnston 

Johnston 

Lincoln 

Line oln-Mecklenburg _ 

Buncombe 

Carteret 

Mitchell 

Ashe 

Union 

Sampson 

Cherokee-Tenn. Line- 



Authority 



Gityot 

U. S. G. S.. 



S.. 

S.. 

s.. 



U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 

S. R. R 

fGuyot 

\U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. fi- 
ll. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 



U. S. G. S . 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

fC.F. & Y.V.R.R. 

\U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Geo. of N. C 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

A. & N. C. R. R. 



Mont.. 



Buncombe-Henderson 



U. S. C. &G. S... 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S..._ 
Weather Bur . 

Yeates. 

U. S. G. S— 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S.... 
U. S.G. S.„. 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S... - 



Elevation 
in Feet 



4,622 
3,250a 
3,500a 
50 
23 
3,338 
6,671 
6,645 
3,347 
5,000a 
2,900a 
3,300a 
2,650a 
1,033 
3,700a 
1,050a 
190 
955a 
2,050a 
1,532 

1,528 

2,185a 
196a 

5,028 

1,950 
35a 

1,472 
9 

1,230 

120 

863 

865 

51 

5,100a 
12 

4,516 
178 
407 

1,001 
77 

5,100a 

2,872 
800a 

4,245 

4,658 
163 
184 
710 
710 

3,200a 
12 

4,254 

2,990a 
543 
185 

4,280 
224 

3,500 






10 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Beaver Island 

Beckford Junction 

Beckwith 

Beech 

Beechcreek 

Beech Knob 

Beech Mountain 

Beech Mountain 

Bee Knob 

Bee Log 

Bee Tree 

Belcross 

Belew Creek 

Belhaven 

Belhaven, near station, 

Bellair 

Bell Coney Mountain.. 

Belle voir 

Bells Mill 

Belmont 

Belmont, near station.. 

Belo 

Belvidere. 

Benaja --- 

Benham 

Benn 

Bennehan 

Bennetts 



Benn Knob. 



Benson- 



Bent Knee Knob. 

Bentonville 

Bespage Church.. 



Bessemer City- 



Bessie 

Bests, in front of station- 
Beta 

Bethania 

Bethany 

Bethel, near station 

Bethel 

Bethel Church 

Bethel Church.. 

Bethesda Church 

Bethlehem.. 

Bethlehem Church 

Beulah Church 

Beulahtown 

Beverly 

Bible 

Big Bald 



Big Bald.._ 

Big Bald 

Big Bald Mountain- 
Big Branch...! 



Description of 
Station 



Station 

Junction on R. R. 

Village 

PostofBce 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

M ountain 

M ountain 

M ountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Hamlet 

M ountain 

School 



Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice..- 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

C. &G. S. Station. 

Station 

Station 



Mountain. 



Postoffice. 



M ountain _ 
Postoffice. 
Church 



Town. 



Postoffice. 

Station 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 

Church 

Postoffice. 

Village 

Church 

Church 

Church 

Village 

Church 

Church 

Hamlet 

Station 

Hamlet 

Mountain. 



Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

R. R. Crossing- 



County 



Rockingham. 

Gates 

Beaufort 

Buncombe 

Avery 

Mitchell 

Avery 

Wataviga 

Swain 

Yancey 

Buncombe 

Camden 

Forsyth 

Beaufort 

Beaufort 

Craven 

Jackson 

Sampson 

Alexander 

Gaston 

Gaston 

Surry 

Perquimans.. 
Rockingham. 

Wilkes 

Burke 

Durham 

Anson 



Burke-Cleveland. 



Johnston. 



Haywood. 
Johnston.. 
Rowan 



Gaston- 



Jackson 

Wayne 

Jackson 

Forsyth 

Davidson. . ., 

Pitt 

Perquimans 

Catawba 

Johnston 

Iredell 

Hertford 

Iredell 

Lenoir 

Johnston 

Anson 

Madison 

H ay wood-Transyl- 
vania 

Yancey 

Swain 

Buncombe-Henderson 
Johnston 



Authority 



N. &W..._. 
U. S. G. S.. 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. S. R. R 

C. F. &Y. V. R.R. 

N. S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Toner 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. &G. S.._ 

S. A. L 

A. C. L 

(N. C.G. S.,Kerr's 

Map 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R.R 

rj. s. G. s .... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S -.. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 



Elevation 
in Feet 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S._ 
A. C. L.._. 



554 

37 
185 
2,350a 
2 r 630a 
5,067 
5,522 
5,500 
3,700a 
2,400a 
5,500a 
7 
780 
4 
4 
23 
4,349 
171 
1,275a 
687 
677 
1,300a 
14 
678 
1,200a 
2,908 
264 
251 

2,908 

2,894 
244 
243 

4,000 
163 
800a 
908. 
900 

3,600a 
121 

2,158 

768 

870 

69 

15 

1,100a 
191 
800a 
48 

975a 

113 

169 

90 

2,100a 

5,340 
5,840 
5,400a 
5,540 
160 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



11 



Location of Station 



Big Butt. 
Big Butt. 



Big Craggy. 



Big Cataluchee. 



Big Laurel .-.. 

Big Laurel Gap 

Big Pine 

Big Pisgah 

Big Ridge 

Big Spring 

Big Tom Wilson's 

Big Yellow Mountain 

Bill's Mountain 

Biltmore, in front of station 
Biltmore, platform at sta... 
Biltmore, office of Bilt- 
more Estate 

Biltmore 

Birdtown 

Bishop Cross 

Bishop CroS3, near station- 
Black Bald- 



Black Brothers. 



Blackburn 

Black Cone 

Black Creek !_. 

Black Creek, at postoffice. 

Black Creek 

Black Dome 

Black Gap 

Blackjack 



Description of 

Station 



Mountain. 
Mountain. 

Mountain. 



Mountain. 



Postoffice 

Mountain Gap. 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Postoffice 



Black Knob. 



Blackman's Mills 

Blackmon's Crossroads 

Black Mountain, in front 

of station... _ 

Black Mountain 

Black Mountain 

Black Mountain 

Black Mountain 

Black Mountain 

Black Mountain...^ 

Black Mountain _' 

Black Mountain 

Black Rock 

Black Rock 

Black Rock 

Black Rock 



Black Rock. 



Hamlet 

Mountain- 
Mountain. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 



Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice- 

Station 

Station 

Mountain. 

Mountain. 



Blackstocks Knob- 



Village 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Railroad crossing. 

Mountain 

Mountain gap 

Village 



County 



Mountain. 



Village 

Crossroads. 



Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Mountain- 
Mountain. 
Mountain- 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain- 
Mountain . 

Station 

Village 

Mountain- 
Mountain. 



Haywood- 
Madison... 



Buncombe. 



Haywood. 



Madison 

McDowell-Yancey 

Madison 

Buncombe-Haywood 

Jackson 

Jackson.— 

Yancey 

Mitchell 

Rutherford 

Buncombe 

Buncombe.- 



Buncombe. 
Buncombe. 

Swain. 

Beaufort... 
Beaufort... 
Macon 



Yancey. 



Catawba. 



Mountain. 



Mountain. 



Wilson 

Wilson 

Johnston. 
Yancey... 

Macon 

Pitt 



Authority 



Buncombe-McDowelL 

Sampson 

Johnston 



Buncombe 

Henderson 

Macon 

Ashe. 

Rutherford 

Buncombe 

Transylvania. . . 
Jackson-Macon- 
Jackson 



Bertie 

Swain 

Jackson-Macon- 
Jackson 



U. S. G. S .-- 

U. S. G. S 

fU.S.C.&G.S... 

(Guyot 

[U. S. G. S 

N.C.G.S. Kerr's 

Map 

U. S. G. S... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S --.. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



Yancey-Buncombe. 



U. S. G. S 

Weather Bureau .. 

U. S. G. S 

N. S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

{Guyot 
U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Geo. of N. C 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

Toner 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Geo. of N. C 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



Elevation 
in Feet 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S .- 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Toner 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

Toner 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N.C.G.S., Kerr's 

Map. 

Guyot 

U. S. C. &G. S 
U. S. G. S 



4,582 
4,889 
6,068 
6,090 
5,700a 

6,159 
2,103 

3,700a 

2,500 

5,749 

4,400a 

1,950a 

2,949 

5,500a 

2,450a 

1,992 

1,993 

1,994 
2,150 
1,900a 
5 

12 

5,100 

6,619 

6,620 

6,690 

1,034 

6,661 

137 

127 

102 

6,707 

4,000 

43 

4,249 

4,300a 

194 

198 

2,366 
3,952 
3,735 
4,649 
2,614 
6,476 
4,310 
4,930 
5,300a 
5,815 
30 
4,364 
4,355 
5,854 

5,215 
6,380 
6,378 
6,386 



12 



Altitudes in JSTorth Carolina 



Location of Station 



Blackwells Mill 

Blackwood, at road cross- 
ing- - 



Bladenboro. 



Blowing Rock 

Bluff 

Bluff Mountain 

Bluff Mountain, _• 

Bob's Yellow 

Boggan 

Bogue 

Boiling Springs, at Baptist 

Church 

Bold Spot Mountain 

Bolick's Gap 

Boiling 

Bollins Knob 

Boomer 

Boone... 

Boonford 

Boonville 

Boseman 

Bosley .._ 

Bostic 

Boteler Peak 



Description of 
Station 



Station. 



Postoffice. 
Town 



Postofnce. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 

Station 

Postoffice. 

Postofrice. 



Bowlens Pyramid. 



Boyett 

Bracken Knob 

Brandon. . 

Brantley Grove 

Brassfield, in front of sta- 
tion 

Brapstown 

Brevard, entrance to court* 

house 

Brevard _ 

Brewers 

Brickt on 

Bridgersville 

Bridgewater, in front of 

station 

Briercreek 

Briggsville 

Bright Yellow 

Brindletown 

Brinkley 

Bristow 

Brittain's Mill 

Broad River 

Broad Shoals 

Brock 

Brother Plott 

Brown 

Brown Knob 



Station 

Mountain. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postofhce. 

Village 

PostofEce. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 

Mountain. 

Village 

Mountain. 
Postoffice. 
Church 



Brown Marsh- 



Brown Marsh Swamp. 
Brown's : 



Station 

Postofnce. 

Postoffice- 
Postofnce. 
Store 

Village 

Hamlet... 



Postoffice- 

Village 

Village 

Mountain- 
Village 

Station 

Village 



Ford of river. 



Postoffice- 
Mountain. 

Village 

Mountain. 

Station 



County 



Rowan. 

Orange. 
Bladen. 



Watauga. 
Madison- 
Ashe 

Madison- 



Anson.-. 
Carteret- 
Gaston.. 



Halifax 

Burke 

Wilkes 

Watauga.-. 

Yancey 

Yadkin 

Catawba. ._ 

Gates 

Rutherford- 
Clay. 



Yancey- 



Wilson 

Transylvania- 
Ashe 

Hertford 



Clay. 



Station. 
Church- 



Transylvania. 
Transylvania- 
Sampson 

Henderson 

Wilson.- 



Burke 

Wilkes 

Madison 

Mitchell 

Burke 

Columbus 

Mecklenburg 

Catawba 

McDowell 

Alexander 

Graham 

Haywood-Jackson- 
Randolph 

Buncombe.. 



Bladen. 



Authority 



U. S. G. S._ 



U. S. G. S 

/S. A. L 

\Car. C. R. R. 

Kerr's Map 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S...._ 

U. S. G. S 

Yeates 

S. A. L 

A. C. L 



Bladen... 
Sampson. 



U. S. G. S.... 

Toner 

Montgomery _ 
S. A. L 

U. S. G. S._._ 
U. S. G. S._- 
U. S. G. S.._. 
U. S. G. S._- 
U. S. G. S.„. 
U. S. G. S._._ 
U. S. G. S.-_ 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S._._ 

/Guyot 

\U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S..._ 
U. S. G. S..__ 
U. S. G. S..._ 
U. S. G. S..._ 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 

U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 



s.. 
s.. 
s.. 
s.. 



A. C. L. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 



s.... 
s.-.. 

S.— 



U. S. G 
Guyot-- 
R. & G. 
U. S. G 
S. A. I 
Car. C 
S. A. L. 
U. S. G 



S. 



R. 


R 


. S. 




. R 


R 



s.. 



Elevation 
in Feet 



850a 

485 

105 

110 

4,090 

2,150a 

5,073 

4,640 

5,005 

306 

62 

877 
4,658 
2,322 

205 
2,200 
1,450a 
3,332 
2,382 
1,067 

875a 
34 

739 
4,900a 
6,348 
4,962 

205 
3,530 
2,850a 
44 

375 
1,650a 

2,227 
2,230 

170 
2,094 

122 

1,096 
1,165 
2,300a 
5,300a 
1,350 
51 

694 

975 
2,516 

950a 
1,800a 
6,246 

355 
3,760 

100 

100 
65 

167a 



Altitudes in Nokth Carolina 



13 



Location of Station 



Brown Summit- 

Bruce 

Brummett 

Brushy 

Bryson City 

Buchanan Bald 

Buck... 

Buck Creek Gap 

Buckeye Knob 

Buckley Mount 

Buckland 

Buckland School 

Buckner 

Buckshoal 

Buckwheat Knob... 

Buena Vista. 

Buffalo Cove 

Buffalo Creek 

Buffalo Creek 

Buies 

Bullard Crossroads 

Bullhead 

Bullhead Mountain 

Bullinger Mountain 

Bullocrape Gap 

Bullock... 

Bullocks Crossroads 

BullRuffin 

Bumgarners Mill 

Bunch. 

Bunn, at postoffice 

Bunyan, near station 

Burg aw 

Burgess.... 

Burke- Catawba county line 

Burkmont 

Burli ngton 

Burlington, in front of sta.. 
Burnington 

Burningtown Bald . 

Burningtown Gap 

Burns ville 

Burnsville, near county 

courthouse 

Busbee 

Busbee 

Bushnell 

Butcher 

Butler Knob 

Byers Fork 

Bynum 

Byrdsville 



Description of 
Station 



Postoffice. 

PostofEce. 
PostofBce. 
Mountain. 

Postoffice. 



Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain Gap 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Hamlet 

School 

Postoffice ._.. 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Station 

Postoffice 

Railroad crossing. 
Railroad bridge... 

Postoffice 

Crossroads 



Mountain. 



Mountain. 



Mountain 

Mountain Gap. 

Postoffice 



Crossroads 

Mountain 

Village 

Village 

Postoffice 

Station 

Postoffice 

Postoffice .._. 

Sou. R. R. cross- 
ing 

Hamlet 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 



County 



Guilford. 



Pitt 

Mitchell-. 
Haywood- 
Swain 



Mountain. 



Mountain Gap. 
Postoffice 



Postoffice. 

Station 

Mountain. 
Postoffice. 

Hamlet 

Mountain. 

Village 

Village 

Village 



Watauga... 

McDowell 

Watauga 

Swain-Tenn. line. 

Gates.. 

Gates 

Madison 

Yadkin 

Transylvania 

Buncombe 

Caldwell 

Johnston 

Guilford 

Robeson 

Pitt 



Alleghany. 



Buncombe- 
Caldwell— 
Mitchell— . 



Granville- 



Edgecombe.. 

Watauga 

Catawba 

Randolph.. _ 

Franklin 

Beaufort 

Pender 

Perquimans. 



Burke-Catawba. 

Burke 

Alamance 

Alamance 

Macon 



Macon. 



Macon.. 
Yancey- 



Yancey 

Buncombe. 
Buncombe. 

Swain 

Surry 

Burke 

McDowell.. 
McDowell.. 
Columbus. 



Authority 



Elevation 
in Feet 



S. R. R 

P. A. L. R. R..- 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fS. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

leather Bur 

Yeates 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S. 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

S. R. R 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Kerr's Map 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Montgomery 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G..S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.— ----- 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

Toner 

U. S. G. S 

S, R. R 

Yeates 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 



800 

803 
72 
,400a 
,600a 
,740 
,753 
,000 
,835 
,500a 
,200a 
,400a 
,599 
32 
32 
,400a 

900 
,010 
,233 
,425a 

133 

796 

182 
74 
,800a 
,784 
,935 
,958 
,595 
,882 

426 

429 

111 
,100a 
,100a 

858 

295 
14 
57 
13 



1,170 
2,598 . 

663 

662 
2,100a 
5,200a 
5,243 
3,700a 
2,840 

2,817 
2,279a 
3,700 
1,500 
1,100a 
2,062 
1,533 
1,650a 
58 



14 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



c 



Location of Station 



Cahill.... 

Calahaln 

Calhoun. 

Calico 

California 

Calif orni a 

California Creek 

Calo 

Calvert's School 

Calvin, in front of station. 

Camden 

Camel Knob 



Cameron. 



Camp Creek Bald 

Cana 

Candler 

Cane Brake, at State line. 

Cane River _ 

Caney Fork Bald 

Canto 

Canton 

Cape Hatteras 



Cape Lookout. 



Caraleigh Junction, at 
switch point 



Carlton Knob. 



Carmel Church...,. 

Carpenter Knob 

Carr's Mountain 

Carriers Springs 

Carroll Mill 

Carter 

Carter. 

Cartoogajay 

Cary, rail at crossing 

Cary, in front of station... 
Cashiers 



Castle Hayne. 



Castoria 

Caswell, road crossing at 

station 

Catalocchee 

Catawba... 

Catawba, in front of station 
Catawba, at J. U. Long's 

store 

Catawba 

Catawba River 

Catawba River 



Catawba River Bridge. 
Catfish 



Description of 
Station 



Cattail Peak. 



Station 

Postoffice 

Village 

Hamlet _ 

Hamlet 

Village 

Village 

Village 

School 

Station 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Postoffice. 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Village 

Hamlet.. _ 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice - 

Signal Station 

Signal Station 
Junction 



Mountain- 
Church 

Mountain. 

Village 

Village 

Mill 

Village 

Station 

Mountain. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 



Postoffice. 
Village 



Station — 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 



Postoffice 

Postoffice 

So. Ry. crossing. 
Between Marian 
and Old Fort... 

Bridge 

Village.. _-. 



County 



Stokes 

Davie 

Transylvania- 
Pitt 

Hertford 

Pitt 

Madison 

Yancey 

Greene 

Burke 

Camden 

Rutherford 



Moore- 



Madison 

Davie 

Buncombe 

Ti ansylvania 

Yancey 

Haywood-Jackson. 

Buncombe. -_. 

Haywood 

Dare 



Carteret- 



Wake. 



Rutherford- 



Mountain. 



Mecklenburg- 
Cleveland 

Anson 

Buncombe 

Rowan 

Gates 

Rockingham. 

Macon 

Wake 

Wake 

Jackson 



New Hanover- 
Greene 



Jones 

Haywood- 
Catawba-. 
Catawba. . 



Catawba. 
Catawba. 
Catawba. 



McDowelL 
McDowelL 
Catawba.. 



Authority 



Elevation 
in Feet 



Yancey. 



N. & W 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U.S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

R. &A.A.L.R.R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U.S. G. S 

U. S. Sig. Ser.— 

J Weather Bur 

\U. S. Sig. Ser._ 

U. S. G. S 

(U. S. C. &G. S. 
JN. C.G. S.,Kerr's 

[Map 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S , 

N. & W 

Guyot 

R, &A.A. L. R. R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

/A. C. L 

\Wil. N. &N. R.R. 
U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

W. N. C. R. R. — 
U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(Guyot 

\U. S. G. S 



579 

750 

2,144 

42 

51 

80 

3,000 

2,735 

39 

1,060 

10 

2,124 

312 

309 

4,780 

750 

2,125a 

1,253 

2,485 

5,926 

2,250a 

2,587 

8 

15 

15 

355 

2,284 

2,284 

702 
1,619 

445 
2,139 

775a 
20 

574 
5,064 

501 

496 
3,550a 
20 
26 

107 

46 
2,200a 
1,294 
832 

871 
844 
800 

1,396 
1,018 
1,020 
6,611 

6,609 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



15 



Location of Station 



Cedar Church. 

Cedar Cliff 

Cedar Cliff 

Cedar Cliff 



Cedar Creek 

Cedar Falls 

Cedarhill 

Cedar Mountain. 
Cedar Point 



Cedar Rock. 



Cedartop 

Cedar Valley 

Cefare . 

Celo Mountain 

Center Church 

Center Church 

Cerro Gordo 

Chadbourn 

Chalk Mountain 

Chambee Mountain 

Chambers 

Chapanoke 

Chapanoke, at postoffice 

Chapel Hill. 



Description of 
Station 



Chapel Hill, at Memorial 

Hall 

Charity.... 

Charley Bald... .. 

Charleston 

Charlotte 

Charlotte, at county court- 
house 



Charlotte. 



Cheoah. 



Cheowah Maximum. 

Cherokee 

Cherry 

Cherry Lane 

Cherry ville 

Chesterfiel d 

Chestnut Mountain. 
Chestnut Mountain.. 
Chestnut Mountain- 
Chestnut Mountain. 
Chestnut Mountain- 
Chestnut Mountain.. 

Chestnut Ridge 

Chickasaw Knobs... 



Chimney Knob. 
Chimney Peak.. 
Chimney Top... 



Hamlet 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 

Creek 

Postoffice. 

Church 

Postoffice. 
Church 



Mountain. 

Mountain. 

Village 

Hamlet 

Mountain. 

Church 

Hamlet 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Postomee. 
Postoffice- 
Postoffice. 



Town. 



Town 

Village 

Mountain. 

Station 

City 



City. 



City. 



Postoffice- 

Mountain. 

PostofEce. 
Mountain. 
PostofEce. 
Postoffice. 

Hamlet 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain- 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
PostofEce. 
Mountain. 



Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 



County 



Lincoln 

Madison 

Macon-Jackson. 
Buncombe.. 



Franklin 

Randolph 

Iredell 

Transylvania- 
Sampson 



Transylvania. 

Graham 

Caldwell 

Wilson 

Yancey 

Davie 

Mecklenburg- 
Columbus 

Columbus 

Mitchell 

Madison 

Swain 

Perquimans... 
Perquimans... 



Orange. 



Orange 

Yadkin 

Jackson 

Swain 

Mecklenburg. 

Mecklenburg. 
Mecklenburg- 
Graham 



Graham. 



Authority 



U. S. G. S „_ 

U. S. G. S-. 

U. S. G. S 

N.C.G.S., Kerr's 

Map 

S. A. L 

C. F.&Y.V.R. R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



Swain. ._ 

Macon 

Alleghany 

Gaston 

Burke 

Caldwell 

Caldwell 

Burke-Caldwell 

Buncombe-Henderson 

Madison 

Yancey 

Yadkin 

Henderson 



Jackson. 
Jaekson. 



(U. S. G. S..._ 

|Yeates _ 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.—_ 

U. S. G. S 

N. S. R. R.— 

U. S. G. S 

f Weather Bur. 
\Toner 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
S. A. L.._. 



U. S. G. S 

fS. R. R 

Weather Bur 

U. S. Sig. Ser._. 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(U. S. G. S 

\Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(Toner 

\U. S. C. & G. S. 

Guyot 

fU. S. G. S 

\Guyot 



Elevation 
in Feet 



1,000a 
4,300a 
4,824 

3,850 

372 

503 

900a 
2,700a 

183 
4,111 
4,263 
4,000a 
1,250 

270a 
6,351 

800a 

657 
93 

106 

3,558 

4,500 

1,135 

12 

10 

500 

570 

502 
1,100a 
5,530 
1,751 

725 

759 

747 

773 

838 

707 

2,300a 

5,065 

4,996 

2,000a 

4,600a 

2,810a 

909 
1,038 
2,555 
1,760 
3,173 
3,069 
6,234 
5,200 
1,020a 
2,686 
5,588 
4,573 
6,234 
4,606 
4,573 



16 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Chimneytop 

China Grove 

China Grove, i n front of 
station _ 



China Grove, at China 
Grove Bank 



Chip 

Chocowinity 

Chowan. _, 

Chowder 

Christie's Peak. 
Chronicle 



Chunky Gal. 



Cisco 

Claremont, N. E. corner 

of station 

Claremont, in front of sta.. 

Clarence 

Clark, road crossing at sta.. 

Clarks ville 

Clarkton 

Clarissa : 

Claw Hammer 

Clay.. 



Clayton 

Clemmonsville. 



Cleveland •_. 

Cleveland, at station 

Cleveland 

Clifton 

Cliftonville 

Climax 

Clingman . 

Clingman' Dome 

Clingman's Mountain 

Clingman's Peak 

Clinton, at county court- 
house 

Clio 

Closs 

Clotho. 

Cloudland 

Clyde 

Cookley 

Coalville „._ 

Cobbs }_. 

Cochrum 

Cody 

Coddle. 

Cofield... 

Cold Butt 

Cold Mountain 

Cold Mountain 

Cold Mountain 

Cold Mountain 



Description of 
Station 



County 



Mountain. 
Postoffice. 



Postomce 



Postoffice. 



Hamlet... 
Postoffice. 
Village 



Mountain. 
Village 



Mountain. 
Village 



Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Postoffice. 

Village 

Postomce. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Village 



Postoffice. 



R. F. D. from 

Clemmons 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Postoffice 

Village 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 



Town 

Village 

Village 

Village.,.. 

Village 

Pcstoffice. 

Village 

Village 

Village 

Village 

Village.-.. 

Hamlet 

Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 



Swain.. 
Rowan- 
Rowan. 



Rowan. 



Craven... 
Beaufort. 
Chowan.. 



Graham.. 
Catawba. 

Clay 

Chowan.. 



Catawba 

Catawba 

Clay 

Craven 

Davie 

Bladen 

Mitchell 

Transylvania- 
Granville 



Johnston. 



Forsyth.. 
Rowan... 
Rowan... 
Rowan... 

Ashe 

Wilson... 
Guilford- 
Wilkes.. 
Swain 



Yancey. 



Sampson 

Iredell 

Lenoir 

Transylvania 

Mitchell 

Haywood 

Edgecombe 

Cherokee 

Cherokee 

Yadkin 

Surry 

Cabarrus 

Hertfcrd 

Henderson 

Burke-Caldwell- 
Haywood 

Haywood 

Transylvania. ._ 



Authority 



Elevation 
in Feet 



U. S. G. S._ 
N. C. G. S. 

U. S. G. S.. 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S, C. & G. S. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(U. S. G. S 

\Guyot 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S._ 
S. A. L 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

TJ. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

N. Car. R. R..... 

S. R. R..— 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C. F. &Y.V. R.R. 

U. S. G. S 

Yeates 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
N. C. G. S.. 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. & G. S. 



5,500a 
857a 

821 

823 

867 

11 

40 

26 

1,606 

5,239 

1,010a 

4,600a 

4,986 

24 

969 
967 
1,900a 
31 

875a 
104 
2,650a 
4,500a 
358 
345 
347 
347 

771 
791 
789 
801 
2,900a 
174 
821. 
1,150a 
6,616 
6,707 
6,611 

159 

900a 
30a 
2,250a 
6,261 
2,460 
79 
1,710a 
1,800a 

9C0a 
1,050a 

860a 
43 
4,000 
3,830 
6,063 
6,000 
4,627 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



17 



Location of Station 



Cold Part Mountain 

Cold Spring Knob 

Cold Spring Knob 

Cold Spring Mountain... 

Collins Mountain 

Colon 

Columbus, at courthouse. - 
Columbus 



Comet.. 

Comfort 

Como, at postoffice 

Compass Bald. 

Concord 

Concord, in front of sta... 
Concord, at county court 

house 

Concord Church 

Concordia 

Conetoe 

Connelly's Gap 

Connelly's Springs, in front 

of station 

Conley Bald 

Connor 

Conoho 

Conover, road crossing at 

station 

Conover 

Conoway Knob 

Conrads '_. 

Contentnea 

Conway 

Cook Gap 

Coolspring 

Coon Mountain 

Coopers 

Coopers Store 

Copeland : 

Copper Bald 

Corbin Knob .... 

Ccrbins Knob.. 

Corinth Church 

Cove Creek 

Corinth 

Cornatzer 

Corundum 

Costner's Mill 

Couch Mountain 

Council 

County Line 

Cove 

Covington 

Cowans Ford 

Coward Bald 

Cowarts 

Cowee Bald 



Desciiption of 
Station 



Cowee Tunnel- 



Mountain. 
Mountain- 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Postoffice_ 
Postoffice. 
Postofhce. 



Village 

Village 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Town 

Town 



Town 

Church 

Church 

Postoffice 

Mountain Gap... 



Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Hamlet... 
Village 



Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Station 

Station 

Postoffice 

Mountain Gap. 

Village 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Hamlet 

Village 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Church 

Creek 

Church 

Postoffice- 

Village 

Hamlet 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Hamlets 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Village 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain 



County 



Tunnel. 



Swain 

Haywood- 
Haywood. 

Swain 

Lee 

Polk 

Polk 



Ashe 

Jones 

Hertford- 
Clay 

Cabarrus. 
Cabarrus. 



Cabarrus 

Gaston 

Rowan 

Edgecombe. 
Burke 



Burke 

McDowell- 
Wilson 

Martin 



Catawba. 

Catawba 

McDowell 

Yadkin 

Wilson 

Northampton. . 

Watauga 

Iredell 

Alexander 

Cumberland 

Mecklenburg 

Surry.. 

Macon 

Macon 

Jackson-Macon- 
Johnston 

Craven 

Catawba 

Davie 

Clay 

Lincoln _. 

Henderson 

Bladen 

Davie 

Craven 

Cleveland 

Mecklenburg. ... 

Jackson . 

Jackson 

Jackson-Macon- 
Swain 

Jackson 



Authority 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

Guyot 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S-, Kerr's 

Map 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S—-... 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

W. N. C. R. R. 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
N. C. G. S. 
A. C. L._.__ 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S.. 



U. S. G. S.. 
S. R. R.— . 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S- 
U. S. G. S- 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
N. G. C. S. 
U. S. G. S._ 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S- 

Yeates 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S- 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S- 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S.. 

U. S. G. S._ 

U. S. G. S- 



Elevation 
in Feet 



3,616 
4,800a 
6,010 
5,915 
6,188 
335 
1,109a 

1,145 

2,990a 

51 

73 

3,296 

604 

606 

705 
970 

1,000 

48 

1,269 

1,194 

2,200 

273 

84 

1,059 
1,070 
2,144 

674 
93 

106 
3,349 

825a 
1,520 

240 

637 
1,100a 
5,400a 
4,300a 
4,445 

176 
50 
1,150a 

753 
3,300a 

750a 
3,330 
70 

880 

47 

2,038 

811 
5,100a 
2,600a 

4,979 

2,000 



18 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Coxcomb 

Cox Crossing 

Cox Knob 

Cox Store 

Coxville 

Cozart. 

Crabtree.. 

Crabtree 

Crabtree Bald 

Crabtree Mountain 

Craggy Dome 

Craggy Pinnacle. 

Cranberry 

Cranberry Gap 

Cranberry Knob.... 

Creedmoor 

Creston 

Crisp 

Crit 

Croatan, in front of station 

Crocker 

Cronly 

Cross 

Crossnore 

Crossroads Church 

Crouse .-^._ 

Crowders 

Crowders.. 

Cruso . 

Crutchfield 

Culberson 

Cullasaja - 

Cullowhee 

Cullowhee Mountain 

Cumnock 

Currie 

Cut Laurel Gap 

Cypress Creek 

Cypress Lake 



Description of 
Station 



Mountain 

Hamlet _. 

Mountain 

Hamlet 

Village .... 

Village 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain Gap 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Village 

Postoffice 

Hamlet 

Village 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Village 

Postoffice 

Station 

Mountain 

Postoffice ,„•-. 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice. 

Mountain 

Postoffice 1. 

Postoffice 

Mountain Gap 

Village 

Station 



County 



Buncombe 

Pitt 

Caldwell 

Transylvania 
Pitt 

Granville 

Mitchell 

Haywood 

Haywood 

Mitchell 

Buncombe 

Buncombe 

Avery 

Mitchell 

Burke.. 

Granville 

Ashe __ 

Edgecombe... 

Clay. 

Craven 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

McDowell 

Avery 

Yadkin 

Lincoln 

Gaston 

Gaston _. 

Haywood 

Surry 

Cherokee 

Macon 

Jackson 

Jackson 

Lee 

Pender 

Ashe 

Bladen 

Pender 



Authority 



[Guyot 

•j Yeates. 

[u. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fU. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S.,Kerr's 

Map 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fU. S. G. S 

iGuyot 

(E. T. &W. N. C- 

\Mont 

Mont 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. &G. S._ 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Yeates 

U. S. G. S 

C. F. &Y.V. R. R. 
C. F.&Y.V.R. R. 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

A. C. L 



Elevation 
in Feet 



5,426 
5,410 
5,400a 

64 
2,430 
2,686 

39a 
332 
4,100 
2,450a 
5,280 

5,336 
3,960 
6,105 
5,494 
5,945 
3,250 
3,146 
3,500 
4,223 
385 
2,850a 

104 
1,900a 
29 
954 
19 
3,600a 
3,400a 
925 
856 
760 
1,624 
1,606 
2,900a 
837 
840 
1,646 
2,100a 
2,066 
4,411 
252 
33 
3,746 
49 
50 



D 



Dallas 


Postoffice . . 


Gaston 


fS. R, R 

\C. & L. N. R. R.. 

U. S. G. S 

C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


891 


Dallas, Main St. Station __ 


Postoffice .. 


Gaston 


944 

785 


Dalton 


Pcstoffice . 

Postoffice .. 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 


Stokes "... 

Stokes... 

Ashe . 

V\ ilkes 

Avery. ._ 


900 


Danbury ... . .. 

Dandy . - 


836 
3,455 


Darby 

Darkridge .. 


900 
3,000a 



Altitudes in Nokth Carolina 



19 



Location of Station 



Davidson.. 

Davidson's Mill 

Davidson's River, at post- 
office 

Davis Bald 

Davis School 

Davistown 

Davy Mountain 

Dawson, in front of station. 

Daybook 

Daysmill 

Deal's Knob 

Dealville 

Deaver View 

De Bruhles 

Deck Hill 

Deep Gap 

Deep River. 



Description of 
Station 



Deerfield 

Deer Mountain. 



Dellaphane 

Dellinger's Gap 

Demming 

Democrat 

Dendron 

Dennis 

Denver 

Derita. near P. O 

Derr 

Devil's Court House. 
Devil 's Court House- 
Devil's Court House- 
Devil Shoal Ford 



Devotion 

Dickerson 

Dillsbcro 

Dill's Knob 

Dish Knob 

Dixie 

Dix Mountain 

Dixon 

Dixon Ford 

Dixon Gap 

Dobson 

Dobson Mount 1 

Dockery 

Doe Hill Mountain 

Dog 

Dogwood 

Dogwood Stump Mountak 

Donnaha 

Dora 

Dorsey 

Double Chimney School--. 

Double Knob 

Double Spring 

Double Spring Gap 



Town... 
Hamlet. 



Postoffice. 

Mountain 

Station 

Village 

Mountain 

Station 

Postoffice.. _. 

Village 

Mountain. 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Station 

Station 

Mountain Gap 

Track of Sou. Ry. 

Village .. 

Mountain 



Village 

Mountain Gap 

Village 

Pcstoffice 

Station 

R. R. Station 

Pcstoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

M ountain 

M ountain 

Mountain 

Crossing Catawba 

River 

Pcstoffice 

Village 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain. .._ 

Hamlet 

Mountain 

Postoffice.. 

Hamlet 

Mountain Gap 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Postoffice. 

Mountain 

Mountai n 

Hamlet 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Hamlet 

Postoffice 

School 

M ountain 

M ountain 

Mountain Gap 



County 



Transylvania- 
Macon. 

Forsyth 

Edgecombe... 

Clay .._.. 

Lenoir 

Yancey.. 

Davie 

Burke 

Alexander 

Buncombe 

Craven 

Watauga 

Watauga 

Guilford.. 



Watauga- 
Yancey... 



Wilkes 

Mitchell 

McDowell 

Buncombe 

McDowell 

Forsyth 

Lincoln 

Mecklenburg.. 

Lincoln 

Transylvania. 
Transylvania. 
Jackson 



Authority 



Mecklenburg Toner 

Iredell- U. S. G. S. 



Caldwell-Catawba 

Surry 

Granville 

Jackson 

Buncombe 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Jackson 

Onslow 

Cleveland 

Cleveland 

Surry 

Macon 

Wilkes 

Mitchell 

Macon 

Burke 

Burke 

Fcrsyth 

Lincoln. 

Swain 

Lincoln 

Jackson 

Haywood 

Haywood. 



U. S. G. S..._ 
U. S. G. S.._. 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S.._. 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.-_ 
U. S. G. S.... 
Geo. of N. C. 



U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. Precise 

level line 

U. S. G. S...._ 
/U. S. G. S.— 

\Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
N. & W.— 



U. S. G. S. 



Guyot 

U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
S. A. L. 
S. R. R. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
A. C. L. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
S. R. R. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G, 
Toner.. 
U. S. G 



S._ 

s.. 
s.. 
s._ 
s._ 
s.. 
s._ 
s.. 
s._ 



s.. 
s.. 
s.. 
s.. 



Elevation 
in Feet 



850 
810a 

,101 

,500a 

791 

102a 
,958 

100 
,350 

700a 
,922 
,150 
,130 
25 
,200a 
,500 



751 

,200a 

,500 

,233 

,100a 

,389 

,350a 

,119 

,753 
847 
950a 
816 
920a 

,049 

,816 

,931 



S.. 



945 
1,650a 

440 
2,006 
3,790a 
1,800 

748 

3,664 

63 

886 

943 
1,257 
3,500a 
1,180a 
4,217 
4,000a 
1,219 
2,546 

736 
1,033 
1,550a 
1,005 
4,412 
6,380 
4,000 



20 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Doubletop Mountain- 

Dover 

Downsville 

Draco 

Dresden 

Drexel 

Drumsville 

Dry Wells 

Dudley. 

Dugger 

Duel Hill 

Dulins 

Dunn 

Dunkirk . 

Dunsmore 

Dunsmore, near ford 

Dunsmore Mountain 

Duplin Roads 

Durants Neck 

Durham. 

Durham, at county court- 
house 

Durham, at 1st National 

Bank 

Durham 

Durham 

Durham Corners 

Dutch Creek... 

Duvall 

Dwight. .. 

Dyer Knob 

Dysartville 



Description of 
Station 



Mountain 

Postoffice _. 

Village 

Village 

Postoffice.. _. 

Postoffice __ 

Hamlet 

Village 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Station 

Village.. 

Postoffice 

Church 

Village 

Village 

Mountain 

R. R. Crossing... 

Postoffice 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City ..... 

Hamlet 

Creek at Valle 
Crucis Church. 

Postoffice- _. 

Village 

Mountain 

Postoffice 



County 



Jackson 

Craven 

Caldwell 

Caldwell 

Ashe 

Burke 

Catawba 

Nash 

Wayne 

Watauga 

Madison 

Davie 

Harnett 

Wilkes 

Buncombe... 
Buncombe... 
Buncombe.. . 

Duplin 

Perquimans. 
Durham 



Durham. 



Durham.. 
Durham.. 
Durham.. 
Johnston. 



Watauga- 
Macon 

Chowan.. . 
Watauga.. 
McDowell- 



Authority 



U. S. G. S.. 

U. S. G. S.. 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



U. S. G. S. 
A. C. L.___ 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



A. C. L 

U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S.. 
A. C. L..... 
U. S. G. S._ 
N. & W. 



u. 


s. 


G. 


S. 




u. 


s. 


G. 


S. 




s 


R. 
C 


R. 
ar. 






N. 


R. 


R 


u. 


s. 


G. 


S. 





Montgomery. 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.— 



Elevation 
in Feet 



5,540 
63 
1,350a 
1,500a 
2,800a 
1,191 
940a 
320 
180 
3,700 
1,950a 
725a 
210 
1,625 
2,800 
2,387 
2,700a 
52 
9 
392 

405 

408 
400 
400 
221 

2,732 
2,750a 

49 
3,300a 
1,262 



E 



Eads Knob. 

Eagle Top Mountain 

Earl, near station 

Easonburg 

Eason Crossroads 

East Bend 

East Downing Creek 

East Durham, in front of 

station 

East Fork 

East Laport 

Eatmon 

Ebenezer Church-- _. 

Ebenezer Church 

Ecusta 



Edenton. 



Edgecombe 

Edith.. 

Ed meston 

Edneyville, near P. 



0. 



Mountain. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Village 

Postoffice. 
Mountain. 

Postoffice.. 

Village 

Pcstoffice. 

Hamlet 

Church 

Church 

Village 



Town. 



Station. 
Village.. 



Iredell 

Swain 

Cleveland- 
Nash...—. 

Gates. 

Yadkin 



Ponder 

Catawba... 

Rowan 

Postoffice I Henderson. 



Durham 

Transylvania- 
Jackson 

Nash 

Catawba. 

Mecklenburg- 
Transylvania. 

Clicwan 



U. S. G. S 

Toner 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. & G. S. 



U. S. G. S.— . 

U. S. G. S. — . 

U. S. G. S— . 

IT. S. G. S. — . 

U. S. G. S— . 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

[Weather Bur. 
U. S. G. S..._ 
N. S. R. R,... 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S. 



1,600 
5,433 
• 850 
126 
36 
1,048 
2,126 

408 

2,275 

2,186 

202 

1,242 

709 

2,100a 

30 

16 

5 

66 
1,049 

850a 
2,247 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



21 



Location of Station 



Edwards Crossroads 

Edwardsville 

Efland, milepost 37 

Egypt 

Eighty Mile Siding 

EkaneteJee Gap 

Elf . 

Elizabeth City 

Elizabeth City Junction. 

Elizabeth Rock 

Elk Church 

Elk Crossroads 

Elkin 

Elk Knob 



Elk Mountain. 



Elk Park (Hotel) 

Elkville 

Elk Wallow Knob 

Ellenboro 

Ellerbe 

Ellijay 

Ellis Mill.. 

Ellisboro . 

Ellisboro, in front of sta._ 

Elm City. 

Elm City, near station... 

Elmer 

Elmira Crossroads 

Elmore School v . 

Elmwood 



Elmwood, at station 

Elon College, at road cross- 
ing 

Elsie 

Elrod 

Emanuel Church 1 

Emit 

Emma 

Enfield 

English 

Eno River 



Eno River. 



Enochville... 

Enos Plotts Balsam... 

Enterprise 

Ephesus 

Erastus 

Estatce 

Etna 

Etowah Mill 

Eufola 

Eupeptic Springs 

Eure.. 

Eure Church 

Eureka, at postoffice*. 
Eva 



Description of 
Station 



Postoffice 

Village 

Postoffice 

Village 

Siding on R. R 

Mountain Gap 

Village 

Town 

Junction on R. R. 



County 



Alleghany- 
Surry 

Orange 

Yancey 



Hamlet 

Postoffice. 
Mountain. 

Mountain. 



Postoffice-- 
Postoffice.. 
Mountain.. 
Postoffice.. 
Postoffice.. 
Postoffice.. 

Mill 

Station 

Station 

Postoffice.. 
Postoffice.. 

Village 

Crossroads. 

Hamlet 

Postoffice... 



Postoffice. 



Postoffice 

Hamlet 

Postoffice 

Church 

Village 

Village 

Postoffice 

Postoffice.^ 

River, east of 

Hillsboro 

River, west of 

Hillsboro 

Village 

Mountain 

School 

Village 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mill 

Postoffice 

Village 

Postoffice 

Church 

Postoffice 

Village 



Swain 

Clay 

Pasquotank. 
Pasquotank. 



Ashe 

Surry 

Watauga. 



Buncombe- 



Avery 

Wilkes 

Yancey.. 

Rutherford... 

Richmond 

Macon 

Iredell. 

Rockingham. 
Rockingham. 

Wilson. 

Wilson -•_ 

Yancey 

Pitt 

Sampson 

Iredell 



Iredell. 



Alamance. . 
Mitchell.... 
Robeson... 
Caldwell... 
Johnston... 
Buncombe- 
Halifax 

Madison 



Orange- 



Orange 

Rowan 

Haywood 

Sampson 

Davie 

Jackson 

Mitchell 

Macon 

Catawba 

Iredell 

Iredell 

Gates 

Gates. _ 

Wayne 

Perquimans. 



Authority 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 



S. A. L 

U. S. G. S.. 



N. S. R. R 

N. S. R. R 

Yeates 

Mont... 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R. 

U. S. G. S 

Yeates 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L... 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C. F.&Y.V. R.R 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

u: s. g. s 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R. 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S., track 

level 

U. S. G. S., track 

level 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S.. 



Elevation 
in Feet 



2,800a 
1,100a 

662 ' 
2,780a 

350 
3,900a 
2,000a 
8 
5 
5,464 
1,344 
3,000a 

874 
5,555 
3,149 
3,190 
3,250 
1,100a 
4,600a 
1,060a 

253 
2,200a 

705 

827 

825 

131 

136 
2,500a 
48 

185 

840 

837 

850 

716 
2,630 

163 
1,250a 

287 
2,030 
99 
3,400a 

530 

575 

597 
6,097 

207 

800a 
3,300a 
2,700a 
1,950a 

975a 

775 

850 
22 
29 

126 
15 









22 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 


Description of 

Station 


County 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Evalin 


Village 


Iredell 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Weather Bur. ... 
U. S. G. S 


1,100 


Everetts, near station.. _. 


Postoffice 


Martin. 


66 


Ewart 


Postoffice 


Mitchell 


2,600 


Experimental Farm __ 






475 


Ezra . . _. 


Village 


Johnston . 


239 











Fair Bluff 

Fairfax. 

Fairfield Lake (water sur- 
face) 

Fairground 

Fairview 

Fairview 

Fairview Church 

Faison. 

Faison Crossing 

Falkland 

Fallcliff 



Falling Creek. 



Falling Creek Station. 

Fallston 

Farintosh. 

Farmer... 

Farmingtan 

Farmville 

Farmville, at station.. 

Faro 

Father's Old Field 

Faust 

Fayetteville 

Fayetteville 

Fayetteville 

Felix 

Fender Knob 

Ferguson , 

Fernhurst._ 

Ferny Knob ■_ 



Fields 

Fieldsboro 

Fifth Creek Church... 
Fig 

Files Mill 

Filmore. 

Finch _ 

Finds Mill 

Fines Creek 

Firescald Mountain... 

Fisher Peak 

Fish Hawk Mountain. 

Fitch Knob 

Flat Branch Church... 

Flat Creek.. 

Flat Creek 

Flat Rock- . 



Postoffice. 
Village 



Lake 

Church 

Postoffice. 
Hamlet... 

Church 

Postoffice. 



Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 

Postoffice. 



Station 

Postoffice. 

Station 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Mountain. 
Postoffice. 

City 

City. 

City. 

Village 

Mountain. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Mountain. 

Station 

Village 

Church... 
Postoffice. 

Mill.. 

Hamlet 

Village.... 

Hamlet 

Village 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 

Church 

Mountain. 

Village 

Mountain. 



Columbus. 
Swain 



Jackson 

Catawba 

Buncombe 

Watauga 

M c D o well-Rut herf o r d 
Duplin 



Pitt 

Jackson. 

Lenoir... 



Lenoir 

Cleveland. 
Durham... 
Randolph- 
Davie 

Pitt 

Pitt 

Wayne 



Madison 

Cumberland. 
Cumberland- 
Cumber] and. 

Davie 

Alleghany 

Haywood 

Jackson 

Alleghany 



Lenoir 

Greene 

Iredell 

Ashe 

Rowan 

V\ilson 

Nash 

Wilson 

Haywood. 

Yancey 

Surry 

Macon 

Iredell 

Gates. 



Mitchell (?) 
Madison (?). 



A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. & W 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Toner 

U. S. G. S 

C. F.&Y.V. R. R. 

Weather Bur 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N.C.G.S., Kerr's 

Map 

U. S. G V S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.— 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Yeates 

Yeates 

Geo. of N. C. 



69 
1,700a 

3,148 

1,000a 
2,250a 
3,300a. 
1,247 
158 
156 
76 
2,500a 
52 
54 
54 
1,029 
267 
54 
758 
82 
86 
124 
6,045 
3,150a, 
100 
170 
101 
775a 
3,600a 
2,510 
2,700a 

4,150 
109 
92 
925a 

2,880a 
675a 
135 
246 
141 

2,600 

4,840 

3,609 

4,684 

1,800a. 
35 

3,691 

2,180 

4,924 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



23 



Location of Station 



Flat Rock, near station... 



Flat Top. 



Flat Top. 



Flatwood Gap 

Flay . 

Flemming 

Flemington 

Fletcher, at station 

Fletcher, at postoffice. 

Flinty 

Floral College 

Flowers Store 

Flows 



Description of 

Station 



County 



Postoffice Henderson. 



Mountain. 



Mountain. 



Mountain Gap. 

Village 

Village 

Station 

PcstofEce 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Hamlet 

Village 



Yancey. 



Watauga- 



Macon 

Lincoln 

Catawba... 
Columbus.. 
Henderson. 
Henderson. 

Yancey 

Robeson 

Johnston... 
Cabarrus... 



Fodderstack (or Terrapin). 
Fodderstack. 



Fodderstack Mountain. 

Folkstone 

Folly 

Footville 

Forbush 

Forest City. 

Forestville 

Forestville, at station.. 

Fork Mountain '. 

Fork Mountain 

Forney 

Forks of Pigeon I._ 

Fort 

Fort Barnwell 

Fort Johnson 



Mountain. 
Mountain. 



Mountain. 



Jackson 

Transylvania- 
Macon 



Postoffice--. 
Crossroads- 
Village 

Village 

PcstofEce.. . 

Station 

Station 

Mountain.. 
Mountain. . 
Pcstoffice--. 

Village 

Mountain.. 
PcstofEce... 



Onslow 

Gates 

Yadkin 

Yadkin 

Rutherford- 
Wake 

Wake 

Mitchell 

Rutherford- 
Swain 

Haywood. . 
Rutherford. 
Craven 



Fort Macon. 



Foscoe 

Fountain (Reba). 
Fountain Hill 



Four Oaks. 

Fox Knob- 
Frank 

Franklin... 



Franklinton. 



Franklinville 

Frazier Crossroads 

Free Bridge 

Freeman 

Fremont 

Fremont, at postoffice. 
French Mountain 



Friendship. 



Friendship Church. 

Friezeland. 

Frog Level 



Village 

PcstofEce. 
Village 



PostofEce. 

Mountain. 
PostofEce. 
PostofEce. 

PostofEce. 



Postoffice-- 
Crossroads. 

Bridge 

Postoffice.. 
Postoffice.. 
Postoffice.. 
Mountain.. 



Postoffice. 

Church 

Village 

Hamlet... 



Watauga. 

Pitt 

Lenoir 



Johnston. 

Yadkin... 

Avery 

Macon 



Franklin. 



Randolph- 
Nash 

Jones 

Columbus. 

Wayne 

Wayne 

McDowell. 

Guilford- 



Burke 

Madison. 
Pitt 



Authority 



U. S. G. S 

Weather Bur. 

U. S. G. S 

Yeates 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S.._. 



A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C.F. &Y.V.R.R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fU. S. C. & G. S._ 

\Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

(U. S. G. S 

JN.C.G. S.,Kerr's 

[ Map 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S._ 

Toner 

flL S. Sig. Off. ... 

|Toner 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(A. C. L 

\U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(S. A. L 

\R. & G. R. R...__ 
C. F. &Y. V.R.R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

N. W. N. C. R. R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



Elevation 
in Feet 



2,199 
2,214 
4,954 
4,807 
4,595 
4,537 
1,475 
1,051 

910a 
65 
2,091 
2,112 
2,400a 

193 

191 

678 
4,510 
4,609 
3,083 
4,280 

4,807 
70 
37 
1,000a 
1,000a 
1,040 
358 
374 
4,500a 
1,750 
1,450a 
2,701 
1,750a 
40a 
20 
11 
20 
3,100a 
110 
40 
206 
211 
1,590 
3,100a 
2,099 
41» 
417 
463 
275 
37 
55 
143 
147 
2,200a 
886 
892 
1,145 
2,500 
81 



24 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 


Description of 
Station 


County 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Frosty Knob 


Mountain .. 


Buncombe. . 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. & W 


4,676 


Frying Pan Knob. .. 
Frying Pan Mountain ... 

Fullbright --- 


Mountain . . _ 
Mountain. . 


Haywood.. .. . _ 
Haywood-Transyl- 
vania .. 

Catawba. . .. 


5,200a 


Mill 


5,450 
975a 


Fulp 

Funnel Top.. ... - 
Funnel Top.. — _ 


Station _. 


Stokes.. 


799 


Mountain ... _ 
Mountain 


Graham . . .. 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


3,200a 


Transylvania . 


4,360 



Galilee Church 

Galloway 

Galloway Crossroads 

Gambles Store 

Gamewell 

Garclnerville 

Garland 

Garner, at ticket office 

G arys 

Garysburg 

Gaston r _. 

Gaston 

Gastonia._ 

Gastonia 

Gastonia 

Gastonia 

Gastonia, at R. P. Crossing 
Gastonia, in public square. 
Gatesville, at county court- 
house 

Gela . 

Gem 

Georgetown 

Georgetown 

Germanton. 

Gibbs, Mount 

Gibsonville, at ticket office. 

Gilead 

Gillespie Gap 

Glady 

Glass, in front of station.. _ 

Glass, near postoffice 

Glassy Rock 

Glen Alpine, in front of sta. 
Glen Alpine, Hennessee & 

Co. Store 

Glen Alpine Springs 

Glen Ayre 

Glenfield, near station 

Glenfield Crossroads 

Glen Inglis 

Glenola.. 

Glenn 

Glenville „ 



Church 

Village 

Crossroads 

Hamlet 

Village 

Hamlet 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Station 

Postoffice 

Station 

Postoffice. 

Town 

Town 

Town 

Town 

Town 

Town.. _ 

Postoffice 

Village 

Postoffice. 

Village 

Village 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Village 

Mountain Gap 

Village 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Resort 

Postoffice 

Station 

Hamlet 

Village 

Postoffice 

Hamlet _. 

Postoffice. 



Johnston 

Transylvania- 
Pitt 

Rutherford 

Caldwell 

Pitt 

Sampson 

Wake 

Northampton 
Northampton 

Halifax 

Yancey 

Gaston 

Gaston 

Gaston 

Gaston 

Gaston 

Gaston 

Gates 

Granville 

Buncombe 

Jackson 

Lenoir 

Stokes... 

Yancey 

Guilford -. 

Beaufort 

McDowell 

Buncombe ... 

Cabarrus 

Cabarrus 

Jackson 

Burke 

Burke 

Burke 

Mitchell 

Greene 

Greene 

Buncombe 

Randolph 

Ashe 

Jackson 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S......... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C. F. &Y.V.R.R 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

A. C. L 

/S. A. L.— 

\R. &G. R. R..— 

Toner 

S. R. R 

A. &R.A. L.R.R 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

/U. S. G. S 

\C.F.&Y.V.R.R 

fauyot. 

(Yeates. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G.*S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S.. 

U. S. G. S 



165 
2,000a 

59 
1,154 
1,077 
33 
139 
383 
132 
145 
150 
152 
575 
832 
832 
814 
806 
808 
825 

27 
483 
2,500a 
3,250a 
79 
676 
677 
6,591 
6,539 
720 
36 
2,800 
2,400a 
772 
768 
4,500a 
1,210 

1,214 

1,480 

3,172 

90 

78 

2,056 

805 

3,500a 

3,250a 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



25 



Location of Station 



Description of 
Station 



Glenwood 

Glenwood Crossroads 

Gliden 

Globe 

Glover. 

Godwin 

Golden 

Gold Hill 

Gold Point 

Goldsboro, at county court- 
house 

Goldsboro, in front of sta.. 

Goldsboro 

Goldsboro. 

Goldston 

Gold Valley 

Go od win 

Goodspring. 



Station 

Crossroads. 
Postoffice... 
Postoffice.. . 

Hamlet 

Village 

Village 

Postoffice.. 
Village 



Goosenest. 



Gorman, near church 

Goshen Church 

Governors Island 

Grace Church 

Grade 

Gragg 

Graham, in front of station 
Graham, front of county 

courthouse 

Graham _' 

Graham Bridge 

Graham's Mill.. 



City 

City 

City 

City 

Postomce.-. 
Crossroads. 

Church 

Postoffice.. 



Station. 



Postoffice. 

Church 

Village 

Church 

Village 

Postoffice. 
Town 



Graingers. 



Grandfather 

Grandfather Mountain. 

Grandfather Mountain 
triangulation station- 
Grandmother 

Grange 

Granite Falls 



Town.. 
Town.. 
Bridge- 
Mill.... 



Station. 



Village 

Mountain. 



Granite Hill 

Grantville 

Grapevine 

Grassy Knob 

Grassy Knob- 

Grassy Knob 

Grassy Land 

Grassy Mountain... 
Grassy Ridge Bald. 
Graybeal 



Graybeard Mountain. 

Great Hogback. 

Great Pisgah... 



Triangulation 
station 



Mountain. 

Hamlet 

Postoffice. 



Village 

Village 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Village 



Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 



County 



McDowell 

Johnston 

Chowan 

Caldwell 

Nash 

Cumberland- 
Rutherford... 

Rowan 

Martin 



Wayne 

Wayne 

Wayne 

Wayne 

Chatham. 

Nash 

Sampson- 
Surry 



Martin. 



Durham... 
Sampson,. 

Swain 

Catawba.. 
Alexander. 

Avery 

Alamance. 



Alamance. 
Alamance. 
Cleveland. 
Iredell 



Lenoir- 



Watauga 

Avery-Caldwell- 
Watauga 

Avery-Caldwelf- 
Watauga 



Avery 

Transylvania. 
Caldwell. 



Iredell 

Buncombe- 
Madison 

Buncombe- 
McDowell.. 

Yancey 

Madison 

Henderson. 

Mitchell 

Ashe 



Buncombe. 



Transylvania- 
Buncombe 



Authority 



O. R. & C. R. R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 



S. R. R..__ 
U. S. G. S. 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. Car. R. R 

Weather Bur 1. 

C. F. &Y. V.R. R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Wil. & Weldon... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S 

N. Car. R. R.... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Wil & Weldon. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fU. S. G. S 

[Guyot 



U. S. G. S 

fU. S. G. S. 

\Toner 

U. S. G. S 

(C & L. crossing. 
\U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Yeates 

Geo. of N. C 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.-. 

fU. S. G. S 

(Guyot 

JU. S. C. & G. S.. 

iGuyot 

JU. S. G. S 

\Guyot 



Elevation 
in Feet 



1,258 

197 

36 

1,325a 

284 

160 

1,200a 

775 

74 

110 
109 
102 
102 
419 
272 
193 

1,250a 

81 

84 

363 

184 

1,750a 
960a 
975a 

2,890a 
655 

641 

677 

603 

720a 

70 

74 

3,700a 

5,964 

5,897 

5,964 
4,686 
5,787 
2,098 
1,211 
1,211 

950a 
2,050a 
2,200a 
2,710 
3,171 
4,700a 
3,884 
3,078 
6,226 
3,000a 
5,500 
5,448 
4,780 
4,792 
5,749 
5,757 



26 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Green Knot. 



Greenlee- 



Green Mountain. 



Green Park 

Green Ridge 

Green River .. . 

Green River 

Greens 

Greensboro 

Greensboro, in front of sta.. 

Greensboro, courthouse 

Greensboro 

Greensboro 

Greensboro 

Greens Gap 

Greenville 

Greenville, at county court- 
house 

Gregory 

Gregory 

Greystone 

Griffith 



Description of 
Station 



Mountain. 



Station. 



Mountain 

(summit). 
Postoffice— 



Grifton 

Grimesland 

Grimsley Church. 

Grindool... 



Grover. 



Gudgers Mills. 

Gulf 

Gumberry 

Gunpowder 

Guy 

Guyot 

Gypsy __ 



Station. 
Village. 
Station. 
City.... 
City.... 
City.... 
City.... 
City.... 
City.... 



Town. 



Town 

Postoffice. 
Station... 
Postoffice. 
Station... 



Postoffice. 

Postoffice. 
Church 



Village. 



Postoffice. 

Village 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 



Village 

Mountain. 
Hamlet 



County 



Haywood-Transyl- 
vania 



McDowell. 

Yancey 

Watauga.. 



Henderson. 

Polk.. 

Granville... 

Guilford 

Guilford—. 

Guilford 

Guilford.... 
Guilford—. 
Guilford 



Pitt. 



Pitt 

Currituck 

Granville 

Vance 

Mecklenburg- 
Pitt 



Pitt.... 
Greene. 

Pitt.... 



Cleveland- 



Buncombe 

Chatham. _. 

Northampton 

Caldwell. 

Cherokee. 

Haywood-Swain. 
Henderson 



Authority 



U. S. G. S..__ 
U. S. G. S... 
S. R. R 

U. S. G. S.„. 



U. S. G. S- 
U. S. G. S- 



S. R. R 

Weather Bur 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C. F. &Y. V.R.R 

R. & D. R. R 

N. Car. R. R 

Montgomery 

Weather Bur 



U. S. G. S 

N. S. R. R 

S. R. R 

S. A. L 

S. R. R 

/A. C. L 

\U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Wil. & Weldon... 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



Elevation 
in Feet 



C.F.&Y. V.R.R. 
S. A. L 



U. S. G. S.. 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S.. 



5,150 
1,285 
1,287 

4,500a 

3,800a 

4,911 

2,200a 

2,300a 

330 

843 

836 

839 

836 

831 

430 

2,977 

75 

64 

11 

478 

490 

721 

27 

28 

44 

84 

60 

90 

856 

880 

1,875 

275 

132 

970 

2,000a 

6,636 

2,172 



H 



Hagar's Mill 

Hagles Mill 

Hairston 

Hairy Bear 

Halewood 

Halifax 

Halifax Crossing 
Hall 

Hallback 

Halls Knob 

Halls Mills 

Hall's Store....'. 



Mill- 
Mill. 
Mill. 



Mountain. 



Village 

Postoffice. 
Crossing.. 
Station... 



Mountain. 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Station 



Iredell.. 
Lincoln. 
Davie... 



Yancey. 



Madison. 
Halifax.. 

Nash 

Jackson. 



Yancey. 

Burke... 
Burke... 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

{Guyot. 
Yeates _. 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

(Guyot 

\Yeates 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

W. N. C. R. R 



780 
1,100a 

625a 
6,681 
6,610 
6,571 
2,200a 

101 

144 
2,571 
6,403 
6,377 
1,850a 
1,350a 
1,154 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



27 



Location of Station 



Hall Swamp, at station.. 

Hamburg Mountain 

Hamilton 

Hamlet 

Hammond's Knob 

Hampstead 

Hamptonville 

Hancock 

Hanging Rock 

Hanlon 

Hannah Creek 

Hannah Gap 

Hanrahan 

Hardins, near station 

Hardy, Mount 

Hare's Crossroads 

Harmon's Mill 

Harmony 

Harold Church 

Harper 

Harpers 

Harrellsville.near postoffice 

Harris 

Harrisburg, in front of 

station 

Hartland 

Harts ., 

Hartsboro, at crossing 

Hartsease 

Harts Knob 

Hartsville 

Haslin Corner 

Haslin School 

Hassell 

Hasty 

Hatteras 

Hattie 

Havelock, in front of sta.. 

Hawk 

Hawk 

Haw Knob 

Hawksbill 

Hawra 

Haw River, in front of sta. 

Haw River 

Hayesville 

Haynes Knob 

Haystack 

Hebo 

Headquarters Mountain.. 

Hebron 

Hebron 

Hedrick 

Heflin 



Description of 
Station 



Station 

Mountain. 
Postoffice. 

Town 



Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffics 

Hamlet... 

Mountian 

Mountain 

R. R. Crossing 

Mountain Gap 

Postoffice 

Station 

Mountain 

Crossroads.. _ 

Mill.... 

Postoffice 

Church 

Hamlet 

Mill 

Postoffice. 

Postoffice 



Postoffice. 

Village 

Village 

Station ... 

Village 

Mountain. 

Village 

Hamlet.. . 
Hamlet 



Postoffiee. 

Postoffice. 

Postoffice. 

Village 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 



Mountain. 

Hamlet 

Postoffice. 
P_stoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Village 



Mountain. 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 

Station 

Village 

Village 



County 



Beaufort... 
Buncombe- 
Martin 



Richmond- 



Henderson 

Pender 

Yadkin 

Chowan 

Avery-Watauga- 
Buncombe 

Johnston 



Pitt 

Gaston... 
Jackson.. 
Johnston- 
Iredell 

Iredell 

Gates 

Johnston. 
Catawba- 
Hertford. 
Jackson.. 



Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Rowan 

Edgecombe. 
Edgecombe. 
Henderson.. 

Wake 

Beaufort 

Beaufort 



Martin. 



Scotland- 
Dare 



Watauga- 
Craven... 
Mitchell- 
Mitchell.. 
Graham.. 



Burke. 



Wilson 

Alamance. 
Alamance. 

Clay 

Haywood- 
Surry 



Madison-Haywood 

Caldwell 

Henderson 

Mecklenburg 

Alexander 

Johnston 



Authority 



Elevation 
in Feet 



U. S. G- S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

{Gannett 
S. A. L 
R. & A. R. R 

Geo. of N. C 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

Guyot. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. &G. S... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S.'G. S.. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Geo. of N. C 

U. S. G. S ... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Wil. & Weldon.... 

U. S. G. S 

C. F.&Y.V.R. R 

We ather Bur 

U. S. Sig. Off..... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S... 

U. S. G. S.. 

Geo. of N. C 

("Geo. of N. C 

\U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. Car. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(Guyot 

\U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



37 

2,910 

73 

331 

325 

331 

2,978 

56 

1,050a 

15 
5,237 
3,430 
130 
3,524 
63 
843 
6,102 
263a 
930 
978a 
24 
184 
910a 
65 
2,250a 

610 

1,194 

860a 

111 

102 

3,053 

283, 

3 

10 
79 
76 
197 
11 
20 
2,800a 

23 
2,900a 
4,700a 
4,924 
4,090 
4,030 
238 
536 
523 
1,893 
3,500a 
1,200a 
4,468 
4,300a 
4,135 
2,966 
662 
920 
280 



28 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Helena. 
Helton- 



Henderson. 



Henderson-Transylvania 
line. 



Hendersonville. 



Hendersonville, near sta... 
Hendersonville, at town 

hall 

Henrietta Mills (Henrietta) 

Henry 

Henry, Mount 

Herrell 

Herring Crossroads 

Hertford, at station 

Hertford, at county court 

house 

Hester 

Hewitts 

Hibriten 

Hibriten, Mount 

Hibriten Mountain trian- 

gulation station 



Hickory, in front of station. 

Hickory, First National 

Bank 

Hickory 

Hickory Crossroads 

Hickory Crossroads 

Hickory Grove Church 

Hickory Nut 

Hickory Nut Gap 

Hickory Nut Knob 

Hickory Nut Mountain 

Hickory Top 



Hiddenite. 



Higdon Mountain 

Higdonville.. 

Higgins 

High Bluff 

High Knob 

High Knob 

Highlands... 

High Peak 

High Pinnacle.. 

High Point 

High Point, in front of sta. 

High Ridge 

High Rocks 



High Shoals. 

High Top.... 
High Top.... 



Description of 
Station 



Village 

Postoffice. 



Town 

Boundary stone .. 

Town 



Town. 



Town.. 

Village 

Postoffice.. 
Mountain.. 

Village 

Crossroads. 
Town 



Town 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Mountain. 



Triangulation sta, 
Town 



Town 

Town 

Crossroads 

Hamlet 

Church 

Mountain 

Mountain gap. 

Mountain 

Mountain 



Postoffice. 

Mountain. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 

Town 

Town 

Tunnel—. 
Mountain. 



Postofficc. 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 



County 



Alleghany. 
Ashe 



Vance 

Henderson-Transyl- 



vania. 



Henderson. 



Henderson. 



Henderson 

Rutherford 

Lincoln. 

Swain-Tennessee- 
Mitchell 

Sampson 

Perquimans 



Perquimans. 

Granville 

Swain 

Caldwell 

Caldwell 



Catawba. 
Catawba. 



Catawba 

Catawba 

Johnston 

Perquimans.. 

Gaston 

Jackson 

Henderson... 

Madison 

Burke... 

McDowell(?). 

Alexander 



Macon 

Macon 

Yancey 

Madison.. 
Haywood. 
Caldwell- 
Macon 

Yancey 



Guilford- 
Guilford... 
McDowell. 

Swain 



Gaston. 



Authority 



N. & W.. 



(S. A. L 

JR. &G. R. R. ... 
[ Weather Bur 

U. S. G. S 

(S. R. R 

N. C. G. S.,Kerr's 

Map 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S... 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S... 

Guyot _. 

U. S. G. SL_. 
U. S. G. S... 
N. S. R. R._ 

U. S. G. S... 

S. A. L 

S. R. R. 



Elevation 
in Feet 



Buncombe-McDowell. 
Henderson. 



U. S. C. &G. S.... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C. & L. N. G. R.R 

U. S. c. s 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.._. 

U. S. G. S-. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C. F. & Y.V.R.R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot. 

N. Car. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

Yeates. 

S. A. L.._ 

Car. C. R. R 

Geo. of N. C 

U. S. G. S 

Geo. of N. C 



553 
2,850a 
505 
505 
490 

2,199 
2,200a 

2,167 
2,125 

2,153 

806 

1,102 

6,373 

2,375 

189 

13 

15 

384 

1,920a 

1,310 

2,265 

2,265 
1,176 
1,163 

1,163 
1,222 

225 
20 

801 
4,266 
3,000a 
4,600a 
2,512 
3,837 
1,140 
1,140 
4,045 
2,100a 
2,350a 
4,703 
4,900a 
2,686 
3,817 
4,400a 
5,690 

943 

935 
2,341 
5,232 
1,001 
1,001 
4,380 
4,300a 
3,482 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



29 



Location of Station 



High Top 

High Top Mountain 

Hildebran, road crossing 

at station 

Hillgirt 

Hillsboro, N. W. corner of 

courthouse 

Hillsboro 

Hines Junction 

Hiwassee 

Hobart 

Hobbsville 

Hobgood.. 

Hobton 

Hodge 

Hodges Gap. 



Hoffman. 



Hogback- 



Hog Mountain 

Hog Mountain 

Hogpen Mountain 

HokesMill 

Hollands 

Hollands Crossroads 

Holloway 

Holly Ridge 

Hollywood 

Holman *.__ 

Holsclaw 

Holtsburg, road crossing 

at station 

Holts Pond— 

Hominy 

Hominy Gap 



Description of 
Station 



Mountain. 
Mountain. 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 



Town 

Town 

Station 

Postoffice 

Hamlet. __. 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Hamlet 

Village 

Mountain gap. 

Postoffice 



Mountain. 

Mountain- 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mill 



Hooker 

Hooper Bald 

Hooper's Mill 

Hope Mills 

Hope Mills, at statiom 

Hopewell 

Hopewell Church 

Homes Mill 



Hornyhead Mountain. 

Horse Cove 

Horse Mountain Gap. 

Horse Pen Branch 

Horsepen Pocosin 

Horseshoe 

Horse Shoe 

Horton 

Hothouse 

Hot Springs 

House 

Houstonville 

Howard Gap 

Howard Knob 



Crossroads- 
Village 

Postoffice--. 

Village 

Village 

Village 



Village 

Pond 

Station 

Mountain gap. 



Village 

Mountain 

Mill 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Church 

Mill on Content- 

nea Creek 

M ountain 

Hamlet 

Mountain gap 

Railroad crossing. 

Pocosin 

Mountain. _ 

Postoffice 

Postoffice. _.. 

Village . 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice- 

Mountain gap 

M ountain 



County 



Yancey. 
Yancey. 



Burke 

Henderson. 



Orange 

Orange 

Lenoir 

Cherokee.. 

Burke 

Gates 

Halifax 

Sampson.. 
Cleveland- 
Watauga— 



Richmond- 



Macon- Jackson- 
Burke 

Graham 

Rutherford 

Lincoln 

Pitt 

Wayne, 

Person 

Onslow 

Carteret 

Davie 

Alexander 



Davidson.. 
Johnston... 
Buncombe. 
Haywood. . 



Alleghany 

Graham 

Catawba 

Cumberland- 
Cumberland.. 
Mecklenburg. 
Johnston 



Wilson. 

Jackson 

Jackson 

Burke 

Richmond.- 

Gates 

Henderson.. 
Henderson.. 

Watauga 

Cherokee 

Madison 

Pitt 

Iredell 

Watauga(?). 
Watauga 



Authority 



U. S. G. S. 

U. S. G. S. 

U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



U. S. G. S 

N. Car. R. R... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Wil. & Weldon 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

R. & A. R. R. 

Yeates 

U. S. G. S.— . 
U. S. G. S...... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S. 



S. R. R 

N. C. G. S., Kerr's 
Map. 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G S. 

C. F. &Y. V. R.R. 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S.„. 
U. S. G. S.— 
Weather Bur. 
U. S. G. S.„. 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.„. 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S..„ 
U. S. G. S.— 
Geo. of N. C. 
U. S. G. s:.- 



Elevation 
in Feet 



4,351 
4,440 

1,148 
2,123 

542 

539 

49 

1,375a 

1,309 

40 

83 

175 

1,135 

3,376 

427 

335 

4,731 

4,950 

2,048 

5,200 

1,900a 

850a 

25 

150 

357a 

66 

22 

800a 
1,250a 

630 

116 

2,125 

2,678 
2,600a 
5,500a 
910 
117 
123 
741 
210 

122 
4,060 
2,800 
2,018 

270 
28 
2,775 
2,100a 
3,100a 
1,900a 
1,326 
31 

800 
3,679 
4,451 



30 



Altitudes in North Carolina 




Icaria 

Ida . 

Idlewild 

Inanda.--- 

Indian Camp 

Indian Creek 

Indian Cieek (track level ).. 

Indian Gap 

Indian Grave Gap . 

Indian Knob . 

Indian Trail 

Indian Trail, in front of sta 

Ingalls . 

Irena 

Ironmonger Mountain 

Iron Station, Methodist 

Church yard 

Iron Mountain Gap 

Islandford 

Ivanhoe 

Ivy, near postoffice 

Ivy Gap -'. 



Village.. _ 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Village _ 

Mountain 

Postoffice (Pungo) 
Creek near 

Lincolnton 

Mountain gap 

Mountain gap 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice-- -_ 

Postoffice- 

Village-.. 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain gap 

Village 

Postoffice- 

Postoffice- 

Mountain 



Chowan. __ 

McDowell 

Ashe 

Buncombe 

Transylvania 

Beaufort 

Lincoln 

Swain 

Mitchell 

Haywood 

Union 

Union 

Avery :__ 

Clay .... 

Burke 

Lincoln.. 

Mitchell. _.- 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Madison 

Yancey-Mitchell 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

Toner 

U.S. G. S — 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S --. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.— 

U. S. G. S 

C.F.&Y.V.R.R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



25 

2,000a 
2,700a 
2,150a 
3,364 
3 

776 
5,317 
3,100a 
4,600 
690 
696 
2,800a 
2,050a 
1,823 

896 
3,725 

780 
32 
2,085 
3,150a 



Jack's Creek (mouth) 

Jackson Knob 

Jacksonville 

Jacob's Fork 



Creek 

Mountain 

Postoffice Onslow.. 

Village _j Catawba 



Yancey .. 

Mitchell-McDowclL 



Yeates .-.. 2,332 

U. S. G. S 3,223 

A. C. L._ 15 

U. S. G. S i 900a 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



31 



Location of Station 



Jacocks 

James City 

Jamestown, in front of sta.. 

Jamestown 

Jamestown 

Japan 

Jarrett Knob 

Jarretts . 

Jarrett's Gap .._ 

Jasper 

Jefferson. 

Jennings 

Jerome - 

Jerome 

Jerusalem 

Jerusalem Church 

Joanna Bald 

Joe 

Johns 

Johnson.. 

Johnson Crossroads 

Johnson Knob 

Johnson's Mills 

Johnstown 

Jonathan Bald 

Jonathan Knob. 

Jonesboro , 

Jones Knob 

Jones Knob 

Jonesville 

Joppa Church 

Jordan's Store 

Joshua Mountain 

Joy 

Judson 

Julian 

Julius Knob 

Jumpoff Mountain 

Junaluska Mountain 

Junaluska Gap 

Juneau 

Juneau, in front of station 

Juno 

Jupiter 



Description of 
Station 



Village.. 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice. 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Village 

Mountain gap. 



Hamlet 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 



Postoffice. 



Station 

Hamlet 

Church 

Mountain.. 
Postoffice... 
Postoffice.. 

Village 

Crossroads. 
Mountain.. 

Mill 

Hamlet 

Mountain.. 



Mountain. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain- 
Mountain. 
Postoffice.. 

Church 

Store 

Mountain. 

Hamkt 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 



Mountain. 



Mountain 

Mountain gap. 

Village 

Village 

Village. _ 

Village 



County 



Perquimans. 

Craven 

Guilford 

Guilford 

Guilford 

Graham 

Macon 

Swain 

Macon 



Craven. 

Ashe 

Iredell.. 



Bladen. 



Johnston... 

Davie 

Greene 

Graham 

Madison 

Scotland- .. 

Graham 

Johnston... 
Henderson. 

Pitt... 

Lincoln 

Haywood. . 



Haywood 

Lee. 

Haywood-Jackson. 

Macon 

Yadkin. 

Gates 

Wayne 

Transylvania 

Burke 

Swain 

Guilford 

Yancey 



Henderson. 



Haywood 

Macon 

Mecklenburg. 
Mecklenburg- 
Buncombe 

Buncombe 



Authority 



Elevation 
in Feet 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

N. Car. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

N. C. G. S., Kerr's 

Map 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.. 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C. F.&Y.V.R.R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S., Kerr's 

Map 

U. S. G. S 

C.F. &Y.V.R.R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.- 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S._ - 

U. S. G. S — 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

C. F.&Y.V.R.R. 

Yeates 

(Yeates 

\U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



7 

la 

775 

887 

821 

1,700a 

4,500a 

2,030a 

2,931 
38a 

2,900a 
900a 
194 
192 
205 
787 
111 

4,708 

2,650a 
179 

1,800a 
220 

4,540 

31 

794 

5,867 
5,200a 

419 

6,209 

4,600 

1,000a 

51 

160 
3,163 
1,091 
1,530 

770 
3,931 
3,175 
3,141 
6,223 
3,700a 

718 

739 
2,100a 
2,100a 



K 



Kagle Mountain 

Kappa 

Kapp's Mill 

Kawana 

Keener 

Kelford 



Mountain 
Village. -. 
Postoffice. 
Village. .. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 



Transylvania- 
Davie 

Surry 

Mitchell 

Sampson 

Bertie. 



U. S. G. S.. 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
S. A. L 



3,687 

750a 
1,100a 
3,775a 
173 
93 



32 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Kelley'sMill 

Kelley's Mill 

Kelsy 

Kenansville 

Kendrick Crossroads 

Kenly 

Kenly, at postoffice 

Kernersville 

Kerr 

Kerr Big Bald 

Kesler's Mill 

Keyser 

Kidsville 

Kilby .,. 

Killian's Mill.... 

Kincaid 

Kind 

King 

Kingsboro 

Kings Creek 

Kings Mountain 

Kings Mountain 

Kings Mountain, trian- 

gulation station... 

Kinsey 

Kinston, at courthouse 

Kinston, at Caswell Monu- 
ment 

Kinston, in front A. C. L. 

station 

Kinston, at Caswell Street 

crossing 

Kinston, rail at station 

Kinston 

Kirby Gap 

Kirby Knob ...'. 

Kirkland 

Kirksey 

Kittrell 

Kitty Hawk 

Klines Mill 

Knoll 

Kreagers 

Kyle 

Konahetah 



Description of 
Station 



Mill 

Mill 

Village 

Postoffice 

Hamlet 

PostoffiGe 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice. _ 

Mountain 

Mill 

Postoffice. _ 

Village 

Village 

Mill 

Station 

Village 

Postoffice- _ 

Station 

Postoffice- _ 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Triangulation 

station 

Postoffice 

Town 

Town.. ... 

Town... 

Town 

Town. 

Town 

Mountain gap. . 

Mountain 

Station 

Village 

Postoffice...- 

Postoffice 

Mill 

Village 

Mill 

Postoffice ... 

Mountain 



County 



Iredell 

Davie._ 

Watauga 

Duplin 

Mecklenburg- 
Johnston 

Johnston 



Forsyth. 



Sampson. 
Yancey... 
Iredell 



Moore- 



Lincoln 

Alexander- 
Lincoln 

Rowan 

Madison... 



Stokes. 



Edgecombe. 
CaldwelL— 



Cleveland- 
Gaston 



Cleve land. 
Cherokee. - 
Lenoir 



Lenoir- 



Lenoir. 



Lenoir 

Lenoir 

Lenoir 

Caldwell 

Macon-Jackson_ 
New Hanover.. 
McDowell 



Vance- 



Cur rituck. 

Catawba.- 

Macon 

Iredell 

Macon 

Cherokee.. 



Authority 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



Toner 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

N.W. N. C.R.R 

S. R. R 

C.F.&Y.V. R.R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

R. & A. R. R 



U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C.F.&Y.V. R.R. 

U. S. C. &G. S.„ 
U. S. G. S.... 



(U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

A.&R.A. L. R.R. 

N. C. G. S., Kerr's 

Map 



U. S. G. $.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 

U. S. G. S._ 

TJ. S. G. S.. 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. & N. C. R. R.- 
Montgomery 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S '. 

S. A. L 

R. & G. R. R. ... 

Weather Bur 

U. S. Sig. Off. ... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S .. 

N. C. G. S., Kerr's 
Map 



Elevation 
in Feet 



950a 
650a 
3,500a 
60 
636 
220 
204 
1,016 
1,010 
86 
5,500a 
775a 
301 
286 
850a 
1,350a 
800a 
710 
2,000a 
1,115 
1,692 
110 
1,250a 
979 
952 
952 

1,692 

1,705 
1,550a 
44 

43 

42 

43 

45 

45 

1,789 

4,410 

58 

1,268 

410 

417 

9 

22 

900a 

2,520a 

820a 

3,150a 

4,498 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



33 



Location of Station 



Laboratory 

Lackey Mountain 

Ladonia 

LaGrange, at ticket office.. 

Lake 

Lake Toxaway (water sur- 
face) 

Lamb 

Lamm 

Lamm Crossroads 

Lancaster 

Landers ChapeL _" 

Landis, in front of station. 

Latham 

Lattimore 

Laurel Hill 

Laurel Knob 

Laurel-patch Mountain 

Laurel Springs 

Laurelton 

Laurel Top 



Description of 
Station 



Village 

Mountain. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Village 



Laurinburg. 



Lavinia 

Leaksville 

Leander 

Leatherman 

LeConte 

Ledf ord + 

Ledger 

Lee Bridge 

Lee's Chapel 

Leggett 

Leggett's Chapel 

Leicester 

Leigh Nixon 

Lemon Springs 

Lenoir 

Lenoir, at county court- 
house 



Lenoir. 



Lenoir Creek, near mouth_ 

Leonard's Creek 

Lesle Knob 

Lewis 

Lewis, near station 

Lewis Ferry 

Lewiston 

Lexington, at county court- 
house 

Lexington 

Liberty 

Licklog Tunnel 

Lick Mountain 

Lickstone Bald 



Lake 

Mountain. 

Village 

Hamlet 

Village 

Hamlet 

Postoffice. 

Hamlet 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Postoffice- 

Village 

Mountain. 

Town 



Village 

PostofEce. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain- 
Village 

Postoffice. 
Bridge 



Village 

Crossroads. 
Postoffice... 
Crossroads. 
Postoffice... 
Postoffice.. 



Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 



Creek 

Creek at So. Ry. 

Mountain 

Station 

Station 



Postoffice. 

Town 

Town 

Postoffice. 
Tunnel.... 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 



Lickstone Mountain. 



Mountain. 



County 



Lincoln 

Alexander. 

Surry 

Lenoir 

Davidson. 



Transylvania 

Macon 

Wilson 

Nash 

Edgecombe 

Gaston 

Rowan 

Beaufort 

Cleveland 

Scotland 

Jackson 

Haywood- Jackson. 

Alleghany... 

Madison 

Swain 



Scotland. 



Haywood 

Rockingham. 

Watauga 

Macon 

Swain 

Clay. 

Mitchell 

Johnston 



Edgecombe- 
Beaufort 

Buncombe... 
Perquimans. 

Lee 

Caldwell 



Caldwell. 
Caldwell. 



Haywood. 
Davidson. 

Macon 

Granville. 
Granville. 



Bertie. 



Davidson. 
Davidson. 
Randolph- 
McDowell. 
Caldwell.. 
Haywood. 



Haywood. 



Authority 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S._ 

U. S. G. S.. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S .. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Toner 

S. A. L 

Car. C. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S ... 

Toner 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Toner 

U. S. G. S .... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

Weather Bur 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

C.&L.N.G.R.R.. 

U. S. G. S 

Pre( ise level line.. 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L... 

U. S. G. S 

N. Car. R. R...... 

C. F.&Y.V. R. R 

Toner 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(Guyot 

\U. S. G. S. 



Elevation 
in Feet 



861 

1,430 

1,300a 

108 

664 

2,998 

4,600a 

179 

245 

108 

905 

870 

17 

945 

250 

4,416 

5,518 

2,850a 

2,600a 

5,922 

218 

230 

2,930 

700 

2,750a 

2,150a 

5,694 

1,800a 

2,733 

115 

865 

63 

33 

2,106 

15 

387 

1,186 

1,182 

1,133 

1,186 

2,736. 

676 

3,500a 

523 

544 

762 

76 

810 

776 
785 
2,443 
1,990 
5,741 
5,707 
5,926 






34 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Liles ville 

Lima 

Lincolnton 

Lincolnton, at courthouse. 

Lincolnton 



Lindell 

Links.. 

Linn. 

Linville— _ 

Linville-- 

Linville Gap 

Linville's Store 

Linwood, in front of station 

Lipe 

Lisle Knob 

Little 

Little Bald 

Little Bald Mountain 

Little Bald Mountain 



Little Buck Mountain 

Little Butt... 

Little Creek 

Little Creek 

Littlefield 

Little Fishawk Mountain.. 
Little Grandfather 



Description of 

Station 



Postoffice. 
Hamlet... 
PostofEce. 
Postoffice. 

Postoffice. 



Village 

Mill 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Cave 

Mountain gap. 

Store 

Postoffice 

Village 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 



Mountain 

Mountain 

Village 

Railroad crossing. 

PostofEce.. 

Mountain 

Mountain 



Little Hogback. Mountain 

Little Pine Creek 

Little Pisgah 

Little River 

Little River 

Little River 

Littles 



Little Snowball Mountain. 



Littleton. 



Little Yellow 

Livingstone Creek 

Lizzie 

Locust Gap 

Loftis.. 

Loggy 

Lomax 

Lone Bald 

Lone Bald 

Lone Balsam 

Lone Mountain 

Long Arm Mountain. 
Long Branch School- 
Long Creek 



Longford 

Long Ridge- 
Long Ridge- 



Village 

Mountain 

Station 

Railroad crossing. 
River at So. Ry... 
Mill 



Mountain. 



Postoffice. 



Mountain 

Railroad crossing. 

Hamlet 

Mountain gap 

Village__ 

Village 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

M ountain 

Mountain 

M ountain 

School 

Railway bridge, 

east end 

Village 



Mountain. 



County 



Anson... 
Craven. 
Lincoln. 
Lincoln. 

Lincoln. 



Greene 

Catawba 

Catawba 

Avery 

Avery 

Mitchell 

Burke 

Davidson 

Stanly 

Macon 

Burke 

Clay 

Macon 

Haywood-Transyl- 
vania 

Alexander-Caldwell. 
Yancey-Buncombe.. 

Madison 

Johnston 

Pitt 

Macon 

Wilkes 



Jackson ... 

Madison 

McDowell.. 
Alexander- 
Johnston... 

Wayne 

Alexander.. 
Buncombe. 

Halifax 



Mitchell 

Cclumbus 

Greene 

Madison 

Transylvania 

Mitchell 

Wilkes. 

Haywood- Jackson. 

Jackson 

Jackson 

Rutherford 

Burke 

Johnston 



Catawba. 
Iredell 



Yancey. 



Authority 



S. A. L 

U. S. G. S._ 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

Car. C. R. R.__. 

U. S. C. &G. S... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Weather Bur 

U. S. G. S 

Montgomery 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. & G. S.._. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S., Kerr's 

Map 

U. S. G. S... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. &G. S... 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

Precise level line.. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S... 

fS. A. L 

JR. &G. R. R 

[Weather Bur 

U. S. G. S.— 

A. C. L 

U. S. Ck S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S._ 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S.. 



U. S. C. & G. S. 
U. S. G. S 



Elevation 
in Feet 



474 
18 
866 
868 
860 
866 
940 
944 
110 
975a 
1,300a 
3,800 
3,350a 
4,087 
1,364 
657 
825a 
3,600a 
1,500a 
5,030 
5,217 

5,330 
1,890 
3,300a 
2,850 
163 
65a 
4,706 

3,783 
4,511 
1,700a 
4,437 
1,125a 
125 
77 

900a 
4,824 
376 
380 
380 
5,400a 
18 
74 
3,000a 
2,800a 
3,800a 
1,300a 
6,016 
5,500a 
5,898 
1,650a 
4,350 
185a 

986 
805 
1,194 
6,200a 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



35 



Location of Station 



Longtown 

Looking-glass Mountain 

Lookout 

Louisboro 

Louisburg 

Louise 

Lovelace ; 

Lovelace Knob 

Lovelady 

Lowell 

Lowell, near station 

Lower Pungo School 

Lowesville 

Lowrey Bald 

Lloyd Crossroads 

Lucama 

Lucia 

Lucile 

Luck . 

Luftee Knob 

Lumber Bridge 

Lumberton 

Luther 

Lynch 

Lyndover 

Lynn 

Lyons 

Lyttle's Peak 



Description of 
Station 



Village— . 
Mountain 
Postoffice. 
Station... 

Postoffice. 

Hamlet... 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 

Village.. . 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 

School 

Village 

Mountain. 
Hamlet... 

Postoffice. 

Village 

Village 

Postoffice. 

Mountain 

Postoffice. 

Postoffice. 

Village 

Village 

Village 

Postoffice. 

Postoffice. 

Mountain. 



County 



Yadkin 

Transylvania 

Macon 

Anson 

Franklin 

Catawba 

Wilkes 

Buncombe 

Caldwell 

Gaston 

Gaston 

Beaufort 

Lincoln. 

Swain 

Hertford 

Wilson 

Gaston 

Wilkes 

Madison 

Haywood 

Robeson 

Robeson 

Buncombe 

Madison 

Durham 

Polk 

Granville 

Buncombe 



Authority 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S... 

S. A. L 

fS. A. L 

\Weather Bur 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

C.&L.N.G.R.R.. 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fU. S. G. S 

\Toner 

C. F. &Y. V. R.R. 

(S. A. L.._. 

-jCar. C. R. R 

[Weather Bur 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. & W 

Weather Bur 

/S. R. R 

\U. S. G. S. 

Kerr's Map 



Elevation 
in Feet 



910a 
4,000 
3,250a 
406 
220 
375 
960 
890a 
4,315 
1,206 
1,259 
745a 
770 
7 
785 
4,400a 
62 
134 
134 
819 
950a 
3,100a 
5,700a 
6,220 
192 
■ 120 
135 
102 
2,200a 
2,200a 

521 

1,500 

381 

386 

4,359 



M 



McCan's Store... 
McCaudle's Gap. 



McClam 

McClam Crossroads. 

McCoy's Store 

McDaniels Bald 



McElroy Tunnel. 

McFarlan 

Mclntyre 

McKoy 



McLaurin. 



McLeansville. 



McNair Crossing. 

McNatts 

Mabel 

Macclesfield 



Hamlet.. _ 

Mountain gap. 

Crossroads 

Crossroads 

Store 

Mountain 



Tunnel on So. 
Postoffice 



Ry 



Hamlet. 
Station. 



Postoffice. 

Station 

Station 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 



Surry 

Mitchell— 

Sampson 

Sampson 

Iredell 

Graham-Cherokee 

Tennessee 

McDowell.— 

Anson 

Rutherford 

Johnstoo 

Surry _ 

Guilford 

Edgecombe _ 

Robeson 

Watauga 

Edgecombe _ 



U. S. G. S 

fU. S. G. S 

^Montgomery 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R.... 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

/S. A. L 

Icar. C. R. R 

fU. S. G. S 

\U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S ,._.. 

C. F. & Y. V. R.R 

U. S. G. S._ 

U. S. G. S..„ ...... 



1,235 

4,087 

4,285 

188 

190 

900 

4,662 

2,330 
297 

1,000a 
211 
238 
238 
747 
743 
107 
190 

3,800a 
100a 



36 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 


Description of 
Station 


County 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Macedonia 


Church . 


Lincoln 


U. S. G. S 

U. S.'G. S 

N. S. R. R 

fS. A. L 

1r. & G. R. R. ... 
[C.F. &Y.V.R.R.. 

ju. S. G. S 

(N. & W 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 


1,100a 


Mackey Mountain 


Mountain 

Postoffice 


McDowell 


4,100a 


Mackeys Ferry.. 


Washington 


4 


Macon . 


Postoffice 


Warren 


383 


Madison 


Postofnce- -_ . 


Rockingham 


376 
568 
577 


Magnetic City 


Postoffice ... 

Postoffice 


Mitchell 


559 

2,800a 


Magnolia. 


Duplin.. . . __ . ._ 


139 


Maiden. 


Postoffice. 


Catawba . . 


Chester & Lenoir 
R. R 






Postoffice ._ _ 


Catawba ._ . ... 


875 


Maiden, near station.. 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

C. F.&Y.V.R. R. 

(S. A. L 

\R. & A. R. R 

S. A. L. . 


891 


Maj olica, in f i ont of station 


Station . 


Rowan ._ . 


745 


Malmo . ... . ... __ 


Village 


Brunswick. 


66 


Malt Grove Church.. _ .._ 


Church . 


Catawba 


925 


Manchester.. . .. 


Postoffice 


Cumberland 


173 


Manly 


Postoffice.. . .. ._ 


Moore ... 


437 


Manson. ..... 


Postoffice .. 


Warren.. 


450 

428 


Maple-Cypress _ 


Hamlet .. 


Craven. 


U. S. G. S _. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


22 


Maple Grove School. . . . 


School . 


Sampson .... 


201 


Marble _ . 


Postoffice .. . 


Cherokee.. _ 


1,710a 


Margaret Peak . _. 


Mountain 


Rutherford-McDowell 
Northampton. .. 


2,500a. 


Margarettsville... . 


Postoffice.. . ... 


S. A. L 


58 


Marion, in front of station. 


Postoffice _ _ 


McDowell 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

W. N. C. R. R..._ 
Weather Bureau. .. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

J'S. A. L. 


1,391 


Marion, at county court- 
house. . 


Postoffice . 


McDowell _ 


1,437 


Marion.. . 


Postoffice ._ 


McDowell 


1,425 


Marion . . 


Postoffice.. 


McDowell.. _ 


1,425 


Marion Ferry .... 


Crossing Yadkin 
River 


Yadkin 






798 


Marlboro . _- 


Hamlet 


Pitt 


80 


Marler. .. 


Postoffice 

Mountain. ._ 


Yadkin . _ 


1,020a 


Marlin Knob ______ 


Rutherford . 


2,100a. 




Station 


Bladen. . 


65 


Marlville.. . . 


\Car. C. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

W. N. C. R. R. ... 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 




Marshall, at county court- 
house.. 


Postoffice.. _ 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 


Madison 

Madison . . .._ 

Madison .. 

Madison. . ... 
Union 


65 
1,645 


Marshall, in front of station 
Marshall . .. 


1,644 
1,647 


Mars Hill. 


Postoffice 


2,300a 


Marshville.. .. . 


Postoffice 


554 


Martin _._ 


Village .. 


Yadkin. 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S ... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 


1,010a 


Marvin Church _. __ 


Church. . _ 


Catawba . 


1,050a 


Marvin Church 


Church . . 


Gaston-Mecklenburg,. 
Buncombe . _ 


697 


Mascot 


Village.. 


2,100a 


Mast 


Postoffice _ 


Watauga.. . _ 


2,890a. 


Matthews 


Postoffice.. - . 


Mecklenburg.. _. .. 


716 


Matthews, in front of Sta. . 


Postoffice 

Postoffice... 


Mecklenburg,. _. .. _ 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

J Yeates . 


731 


Maury __ 


Greene. 


78 


Mavaton ._ 


Hamlet 


Chowan 


40 




Mountain 


Madison. .. 


4,700 


Max Patch Mountain. .. . 


\U. S. G. S 

C. F.&Y.V. R.R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 




Maxton.. 


Postoffice. _ 


Robeson . .. 


4,660 
198 


Mayesworth, at road cross- 
ing _ ._ 


Village 


Gaston 


608 


Mayflower .. 


Village 


Clay 


1,900a 


Mayhew ._ 


Village.. 


Iredell 


860a. 


Mayodan . 


Postoffice _ 


Rockingham .__ 


N. & W 


556 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



37 



Location of Station 



Mayodan, in front of sta.._ 

Maysville.. 

Meat Camp 

Mebane, at station 

Mebane, N. E. corner of sta. 
Mebane, in front of statiom 

Medlock Bald. 



Medora. 
Mege.._. 

Melrose- 



Mercer 

Merchant Mills. 

Merry Oaks 



Method, in front of station. 

Mewborns Crossroads 

Meyers 

Mica 

Micaville 

Micro 



Description of 
Station 



Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice- 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 



Mountain. 

Postomce. 
Village 



Station- 
Village 
Vil lage. 



Postoffice. 



Postoffice.. 
Crossroads. 

Mill 

i Postoffice... 
Postoffice.. 
Postoffice.. 



Middleburg. 
Middlecane. 



Midway. 



Mildred 

Millboro 

Mill Bridge 

Millbrook 

Millbrook, at station. 

Millbrook 

Mill Creek Church... 

Mil lers Creek 

Millers Mill 

Mill Ridge 

Millshoal 

Mill Spiing 

Mills Mountain 

Mills River 

Minehole Gap 

Mineola 

Mingo 

Mingo River 

Mingus 

Minneapolis 

Mintonville 

Miranda 



Mitchell, Mount 

Mitchell's High Peak. 

Mocksville 



Monbo. 



Moncure. 



Postoffice. 
Village 



Village. 



Village 

Postoffice. 

Village 

Station 

Station 

Station 

Church 

Postoffice. 

Mill 

Ridge 



County 



Postoffice 

M ountain 

Hamlet 

Mountain gap 

Hamlet 

Village 

Railroad Crossing 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Village 

Village 



Mountain. 
Mountain. 



Postoffice. 



Postoffice. 



Postoffice. 



Rockingham. 

Jones 

Watauga 

Alamance 

Alamance 

Alamance 



Clay. 



Edgecombe. 
Chowan 



Polk. 



Edgecombe- 
Gates 



Chatham. 

Wake 

Lenoir 

Catawba. 
Mitchell.. 
Yancey... 
Johnston. 



Vance. 



Watauga. 



Davidson. 



Edgecombe- 
Randolph... 

Rowan 

Wake 

Wake 

Wake 

Johnston 

Wilkes 

Burke 

Madison 

Macon 

Polk 

Henderson.. 
Henderson.. 
Buncombe.. 

Beaufort 

Sampson 

Harnett 

Swain 

Avery 

Gates 

Rowan 



Yancey- 



Davie 

Catawba- 
Chatham. 



Authority 



U. S. G. W 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fU. S. G. S 

N.C.G. S.,Kerr's 

Map 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

/S. R. R ...... 

\U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

R. & A. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.— 

S. A. L 

R. &G. R. R. ... 

U. S. G. S 

/S. A. L 

\R. & G. R. R. ... 

U. S. G. S 

C. F. &Y.V. R. R. 

U. S. G. S .... 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

R. &G. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S- 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U.S. G. S 



/U. S. G. S... 

\Guyot 

U. S. C. &G. S... 

( Weather Bur 

S. R. R. 

U. S. G. S 



fS. A. L 

<JR. & A. R. R. 
[Weather Bur . . 



Elevation 
in Feet 



585 
42 

3,400a 
678 
677 
676 

5,230 

5,258 
117 
31 
1,700a 
1,485 
113 
10a 
247 
245 
446 
78 
900a 
2,657 
2,504 
192 
478 
461 
1,500a 
202 
200 
46 
753 
800 
296 
312 
304 
165 
1,220a 
1,000a 
2,763 
2,250a 
1,017a 
2,761 
2,077 
2,555 
25 
208 
200 
5,696 
3,400a 
28 

900a 
6,711 
6,582 
6,688 • 
651 
791 
842 
750a 
176 
145 
145 






38 



Altitudes in Nokth Carolina 



Location of Station 


Description of 
Station 


County 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Monroe 


Town 


Union 


(S. A. L _ 

jCar. C. R. R 

[Weather Bur 

C. F.&Y.V.R. R. 
U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. & G. S... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S... 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 


576 

586 


Montague 


Postoffice 


Pender 


586 
40 


Montezuma 


Post office 


Avery 


3,882 


Montford, in front of sta... 


Station on Sou- 
thern Railway.. 
Village.. ._ 


Buncombe 


1,968 


Moore . 




572 


Moore Crossroads 


Crossroads 

Church 


Johnston 


207 


Moore Chapel 


Mecklenburg 


745 


Moore Gap _ 


Mountain gap 

Postoffice 


Yancey 


3,100a 


Mooresboro 


Cleveland 


970 


Moore's Knob 


Mountain 


Stokes 


N. C. G. S., Kerr's 
Map 






Postoffice 


Iredell. 


2,585 


Mooresville 


/N. C. G. S 

\U. S. G. S _ 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S _ 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R. 


913 


Moravian Falls 


Postoffice 


Wilkes 


913 
1,250a 


Morehead City, just east of 
station j 


Postoffice 


Carteret 


7 


Morehead, rail at station.. 


Postoffice 


Carteret 


12 


Morehead, corner 8th and 
Arendell Streets 


Postoffice 


Carteret 


17 


Morehead 


Village 


Guilford 


815 


Moretz 


Village 


Watauga 


U. S. G. S 

S. R. R._ 


3,100a 


Morganton 


Town 


Burke 


1,111 


Morganton. 


Town 


Burke 


Weather Bur 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

W. N. C. R. R. ... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. Car. R. R. 

A. C. L 


1,135 


Morganton, in front of sta. 


Town. -. 


Burke... 


1,110 


Morganton, at county 
courthouse 


Town 


Burke 


1,181 


Morganton 


Town 


Burke 


1,140 


Morgant Peak 


Mountain 


McDowell 


2,500 


Morrison's Mill 


Mill 


Iredell 


875a 


Morris Store 


Hamlet 


Surry. 


1,500 


Morrisville, in front of sta. 


Postoffice 


Wake 


300 


Morrisville 


Postoffice 


Wake 


308 


Morven.. 


Postoffice 


Anson 


341 


Moser 


Village _ 


Surry 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fS. A. L 

\Car. C. R. R 

U. S. G. S 


1,080a 


Moses Knob 


Mountain 


Caldwell _ 


2,330 


Mossneck 


Village 


Robeson 


158 


Mountain Church 


Church.. 


Catawba 


159 
1,100a 


Mountain Creek . 


Village 


Catawba 


875a 


Mountain Island.. . 


Village 


Gaston 




1,380a 


Mount Airy 


Town 


Surry 


(C.F.&Y.V.R.R. 

<ju. S."G. S 

[Weather Bur 


1,015 
1,020 


Mount Bethel.. 


Village 


Alexander 


1,048 
1,100a 


Mount Grove 


Church 


Catawba 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


925a 


Mount Guyot 


Mountain 


Haywood 


6,636 


Mount Holly 


Postoffice- 


Gaston _ 


621 - 


Mount Hope 


Church 


Rowan 


840a. 


Mount Ida 


Mountain 


McDowell.. _ 


2,000 


Mount Mitchell, trian- 
gulation station . 


Triangulation 
station 


Yancey 


6,711 


Mount Mourne .. 


Postoffice 


Iredell 


fS. R. R 

\U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L _ _ 

Weather Bur | 


857 


Mount Nebo 


Village 


Yadkin 


851 
1,100a 


Mount Olive 


Church 


Catawba 

Wayne 

Cabarrus. i 


1,000a 


Mount Olive 


Postoffice 


157 


Mount Pleasant ._ 


Postoffice _ 


650 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



39 



Location of Station 


Description of 
Station 


County 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Mount Pleasant Church 


Clurch- 

Mountain 

Postoffice.. _ 

Postoffice ._ 


Hertford 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S ._ 

Yeatea 


72 


Mount Snowball ._ 

Mount Sterling.. 

Mount Ulla 


Buncombe _ 

Haywood 

Rowan .. 


5,400a 
5,000 




850a 


Mount Vernon 


Church 


Lincoln. 


U. S. G. S._ 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. S. R. R... _ 

U. S. G. S._ 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R... ..._ 


962 


Mount Vernon Church 


Church 

Church 


Lincoln ._ 


1,160 


Mount Vernon 


Rowan 


810a 


Moyock _ 

Moyton _. 


Postoffice .. 


Currituck . 


8 


Hamlet.. 

Station 


Wilson 


94 


Mud Cut 


McDowell . 


2,152 


Muddy Creek 


Station . _ 

Postoffice _. 

Hamlet 


Forsyth 


715 


Mulberry 


Wilkes 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Kerr's Map 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fs. r! r._- 

\ Weather Bur 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


1,300a 


Mulberry Church 


Mecklenburg 


777 


Mullato Mountain 


Mountain 

Hamlet . 


Ashe .. 


4,680 


Mull Grove 


Catawba 


989 


Mullins Store 


Store 


Lincoln. .... 


920a 


Murphy 


Postoffice 


Cherokee _ 


1,540 


Muttenz _ 


Hamlet 


Burke .. 


1,614 
1,296 


Myer's Mill ... 


Mill _ 


Catawba .. 


900 











N 



Nancy 


Mountain.. 


Transylvania .. 


U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 


3,013 


N antahala 


Postoffice 


Swain 


2,060a 


Nantahala .. 


Mountain gap 

Postoffice 


Macon 


Guyot 


4,158 


Naples, at switch stand 


Henderson 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 


2,078 


Nashville, near station. . . 


Postoffice 


Nash 


189 


Nathans Creek 


Postoffice 


Ashe 


2,800a 


Navassa 


Station 


New Hanover 


(8. A. L 

\A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. &G. S... 

U. S. G. S 

Montgomery 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.. ._ 

R. & G. R. R 

U. S. G. S., track 
level 


10 


Nebbs Knob 


Mountain 


Haywood 


15 
1,150 


Nebo, in front of station 


Postoffice 


McDowell 


1,283 


Nebo 


Postoffice 


McDowell 


1,297 


Nebo Church . 


Church 


Catawba. 


1,150 


Needmore 


Postoffice 


Swain 


1,800a 


Negro Mountain 


Mountain 

Village 

Mountain gap 

Village 


Ashe... 


4,597 


Nelson 


Durham 


402 


Nelson's 


Watauga (?) 


2,902 


Nestor _ _ 


Davie .. 


835 


Nettle Knob 


Mountain 


Watauga 


4,000 


Neuse, at station 


Postoffice 


Wake.... 


281 


Neuse 


Postoffice 


Wake 


270 


Neuse River 


R. R. Bridge 

Church 


Johnston 






Davie 


140 


New Amore 


U. S. G. S 

Weather Bur _ 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.-_. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 


900a 


New Bern 


Town 


Craven 


12 


New Bern N. W. corner 
Broad and Craven Streets 


Town. 


Craven 


15 


New Bern, corner Queen 
and Hancock Streets 


Town 


Craven ... 

Craven .. 

Craven . 

Craven 


12 


New Bern, at county court- 
house 


Town . 


15 


New Bern, Wm. Ellis's 
dwelling.. .. 


Town .... 


9 


New Bern, Government 
yard 


Town 

Town 


2 


New Bern 


Craven 


12 



40 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



New Bern 

New Bridge 

New Castle.. 

New Church 

Newell, near postoffice 

Newell , in front of station- 
Newfound 



New Hill- 



Description of 
Station 



Town 

Bridge 

Postoffice. 



Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Village 



New Hope 

New Hope (Durants Neck 

P. O.) 

Newland 

Newport, in Iront of station 

Newsome- _. 

New Sterling 

New Sterling 

Newton, in front of station- 
Newton, at county court- 
house.- 

Newton 

Newton Bald 

Newton Grove 

Newton's Gap 

New Union Church 

New Zealand Church 

Nibb's Knob 

Nicanor 1 

Nicholsons Mills 

Nigger Head 

Nigger Mountain 

Nina 

Nixonton 

Nona 

Nonah 

Nolen 

Norman 

Norris 

Northe ast 

Northwest 

Norton 



Postoffice. 
Postoffice- 

Village 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Hamlet... 

Church 

Village 

Postoffice. 



Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain gap. 

Church 

Church 

Mountain 

Station __ 

Village 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Village 



County 



Craven 

Edgecombe... 

Wilkes 

Catawba 

Mecklenburg- 
Mecklenburg. 
Buncombe 



Wake.. 
IredelL 



Perquimans. 

Avery 

Carteret 

Hertford 

Iredell ._ 

Iredell 

Catawba 



Catawba. 
Catawba. 

Swain 

Sampson- 



Mountain. 

Village 

Mountain. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Stationi._. 

Station 

Postoffice. 



Davie 

Johnston 

Haywood. -- 
Perquimans. 

Iredell 

Macon ._ 

Ashe 

Cherokee 

Pasquotank- 
Macon.. 

Macon 

Macon 

Alleghany. .. 

Watauga 

Onslow 

Brunswick... 
Jackson 



Authority 



A. & N. C. P. R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

R. & A. R. R. .. 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 



U. S. G. S 

C.&L. N.G.R.R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Toner 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 



U. S. G. S.. 

A. C. L 

S. A. L 



Elevation 
in Feet 



12 

75 

850a 

1,150 
757 
761 

2,200a 
330 
332 

1,105 

9 
3,695 
19 
76 
1,025 
1,004 
1,016 

995 
1,070 
5,400a 

185 
1,953 

900 

191 

5,300 

12 

800a 
4,900a 
4,600a 
1,400a 

8 
5,042 
2,250a 
5,094 
2,500a 
3,290a 
45 
46 
3,600a 



O 



Oak City, near sta 


Postoffice -._ . 

School. 


Martin. . _____ 
Lenoir.. ._ _. __ 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


84 


Oak Dale School 


68 


Oakes Knob 


Mountain __ 

Mountain 

Village . . 

Church .- 

Village 


Madison - ... 

Rutherford-. ... . 

Johnston ... ... 

Sampson .. .. 


4,400a 


Oakey Knob.._ 

Oak Forest . 


2,200a 
193 


Oak Grove School 


189 


Oakland.. 


Nash 

Rowan . . 


241 


Oakland - ._ 


Village -. _ 


810a 


Oakley - 


Village.. 


Pitt 

Guilford 


U. S. G. S 

W'eather Bur. .._ 

U. S. G. S 

Toner. 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot .. 


64 


Oak Ridge 


Posl office 


885 


Oakwillow _. 


Hamlet.. - . 

Mountain ._ 


Hertford... . ... ... 


48 


Oat Patch Mountain .. 


4,700 


Obids — 


Postoffice 

Mountain 


Ashe .. . 


2,800a 


Ocona, Mount-- 


6,135 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



41 



Location of Station 



Oconalufty... 
Oconalufty... 
Occoneechee, 

point 

Ocracoke 

Ogburn 

Ogden 



at switch 



Ogle Meadow Knobs. 



Description of 
Station 



Postoffice. -_. 

Tunnel 

Station on Sou- 
thern Railway . 

Lighthouse 

Station 

Postoffice. -_ 



Ogreeta 

Okisko 

Old Bald Mountain 

Old Field Bald 

Old Field Mountain 

Old Fields 

Old Fields of Toe (Newland 

P.O.) 

Old Fort, at ticket office. -_ 

Old Fort 

Old Gipsy 

Old Hundred 

Old Rocky Mountain 

Old Rumbling Bald 

Old Sheep Knob 

Old Sparta 

Olin 

Oliver 

Oliver Grove Church 

Olivers, near church 

Olivette, in front of station. 

Omega 

Onion Mountain 

Orange, at postoffice 

Ore Hill... 

Ore Knob 

Ormondsville 

Osbornville 

Oscar 



Mountain. 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Hamlet 



County 



Swain. 
Swain. 



Orange.. 
Hyde.... 

Forsyth. 
Clay— .. 



Yancey. 



Osgood. 



Osteen 

Otter Knobs 

Otto 

Outlook 

Overshot 

Owen Grove 

Oxford, near station... 
Oxford, Crawford and 

Broad Streets 

Oxford 

Oxford Ford 

Oxford Ford 



Ozark. 



Village 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 



Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Village 

Postoffice 

Station 

Church 

Village 

Station on Sou- 
thern Railway. 

Village 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Postoffice 

Village 



Postoffice. 



Village 

Mountain. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Hamlet 

Church 

Town 



Town 

Town 

Village 

Crossing Catawba 

River 

Village 



Cherokee 

Pasquotank 

Jackson 

Ashe-Watauga. 

Haywood 

Mitchell 



Avery 

McDowell. 
McDowell. 



Scotland 

Macon 

Rutherford- 
Cleveland... 
Edgecombe. 

Iredell 

Johnston 

Johnston 

Jones 



Buncombe- 
Rowan 

Macon 

Sampson... 
Chatham.. 

Ashe 

Greene 

Wilkes 

Jackson 



Lee- 



Henderson. 
Mitchell—. 

Macon 

Madison 

Johnston... 
Sampson... 
Granville.. 



Granville. 
Granville- 
Catawba. 



Authority 



Toner. 



U. S. G. S... 

Toner 

N. & W 

U. S. G. S... 

(Yeates 

\U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S... 
N. S. R. R. 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S... 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S... 



Montgomery. 



S. G. S. 
R. R.__. 

S. G. S. 
A. L..__ 

S. G. S. 
S. G. S. 
S. G. S. 
S. G. S. 
S. G. S. 
S. G. S. 
S. G. S. 
S. G. S. 



_ U. S. G. S.- 



Catawba-Alexander. 
Wilkes 



Elevation 
in Feet 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C.F. &Y.V.R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

[R. & A. R. R..-. 

S. A. L 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 

U. S. G. S. 
S. R. R.-. 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



2,000a 
1,942 

568 
75 

962 
1,850a 
5,315 
5,384 
1,450a 

12 
5,786 
4,939 
5,100 
3,600a 

3,695 
1,437 
1,436 
2,173 
337 
4,825 
2,700a 
1,497 
43 

870a 

169 

198 

46 

1,895 

8.50a 

3,500a 

170 

495 

3,150a 

72 
1,100a 
2,200 
246 
255 
321 
2,190 
3,695 
2,150a 
1,800a 
174 
173 
461 

476 

455 

1,050a 

829 
1,100a 



42 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 


Description of 
Station 


County 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Pack Mount 


Mountain 


Cherokee... 


U. S. G. S 

Wil. & Weldon.... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S. 


3,499 
22 


Pactolus 


Postofhce. ._ 


Pitt 


Pactolus, near station 


Postoffice _ 


Pitt. 


21 


Paddy Mountain. 


Mountain 


Ashe 


4,200a 


Painter 


Village 


Jackson.. 


2,105 


Painter Knob 


Mountain. 


Cleveland . 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S. 


2,323 
2,250a 


Paintfork... 


Postoffice 


Madison 


Paint Gap 


Postoffice 


Yancey 


3,000a 
1,266 


Paint Rock, in front of sta.. 


Postoffice- 


Madison 


U. S. G. S.. 

U. S. G. S... 

Toner 


Paint Rock, at end of 
bridge 


Postoffice 


Madison 


1,257 


Paint Rock 


Mountain 


Madison 


1,261 


Palm 


Village 


Haywood 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot..'... 


2,500 


Pant 


Village . . _ 


Haywood 


2,700 


Pantego 


Postoffice 


Beaufort.. 


6 


Pantego, near station 


Postoffice. 


Beaufort ... 


11 


Panther Knob 


Mountain 


Cherokee 


2', 287 


Panther Knob 


Mountain _ 


Hay wood- Jackson 

Jackson 


5,359 


Panther Knob 


Mountain . 


U. S. G. S 

Toner- 


4,376 


Panther Path 






4,516 


Panther Tail. 




Transylvania 


Guy ot 


4,516 


Parker Bridge 


Bridge 


Johnston 


U. S. G. S 

C.F.& Y.V.R. R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


133 


Parkersburg 


Postoffice- _. 


Sampson 


121 


Parks 


Mill.. 


Rowan . 


825a 


Parks 


Village 

Mountain 


Wilkes ... 


1,400a 


Parks Mountain 


Burke 


4,066 


Parkton 


Postoffice _ 


Robeson 


A. C. L 


187 


Parmele 


Postoffice 


Martin 


Wil. & Weldon.... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


75 


Parmele, near station 


Postoffice 


Martin ._ 


74 


Parrish 


Postoffice.. 


Macon. 


2,000a 


Partee 


Village 


Alexander .. 


1,150a 


Pasquotank 


Village 


Pasquotank 


N. S. R. R.... 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 


15 


Pastons Mill 


Mill 


Rowan 


820 


Pates 


Postoffice 


Robeson 


175 


Patrick 


Postoffice 


Cherokee 


U. S. G. S 


1,650a 


Patten 


Village 


McDowell 


1,210a 


Patterson 


Postoffice. 


Caldwell 




1,307 


Patterson Springs, atsta... 


Postoffice. 


Cleveland _ 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.— 

S. A. L 


904 


Patton Knob. 




Yancey. 


6,000 


Peachland 


Postoffice. _ 


Anson 


417 


Peach Orchard Knob.. 


Mountain.. 


Yancey 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S... 
Toner 


5,500a 


Peachtree Knob 


Mountain 


Cherokee 


4,200a 


Peachtree Knob 


Village 


Cherokee 


1,700a 


Peacocks Crossroads 


Hamlet 


Johnston... 


201 


Peak 


Mountain.. 


Ashe .. ... _._ 


5,195 


Peak, The 


Mountain. 


Mitchell 


3,866 


Pearson Knob _ 


Mountain 


Alexander 


1,850 


Peck's Peak 


Mountain. 


Swain 


6,232 


Pee Dee 


Postoffice 


Anson 


S. A. L 


242 




Postoffice .. 


Caswell... .-.._- _ 
Robeson .. ._ 

Robeson 


fS. R. R 


739 


Pelham ., 


\P. A. L. R. R._- 
S. A. L 




Pembroke 


Postoffice _. 


742 
170 


Pembroke, at railroad- 
crossing 


Postoffice 


A. C. L 


175 


Pendleton . 


Postoffice 


Northampton . 


S. A. L... 


76 


Pendleton Mill 


Hamlet. _. 


Buncombe ._ 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


1,990a 


Penelo, at P. 


Postoffice . 


Edgecombe. 


110 


Penelope : 


Hamlet 


Burke. .. ._ 


1,170 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



43 



Location of Station 



Penland 

Penland Bald 

Penley— 

Pensacola, at Baptist 

Church 

Penrose 

Perry Knob 

Persimmon Tunnel 

Perth 

Peru. 

Pestle 

Petra 

Pettiford's Ferry 

Phenoy... 

Phi 

Phillipsburg 

Phillips Crossroads 

Phillips Knob 

Phoenix 



Description of 
Station 



Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Postoffice. 



Postoffice. 
Postoffice.. 
Mountain. 



Phoenix Mountain. 



Pickens Nose- 



Piedmont Springs. 

Pigeon River 

Pigeon River 

Pigford School 



Village 

Village 

Mountain.. 

Village 

Ferry 

Postoffice.. 

Village 

Village 

Crossroads- 
Mountain.. 
Postoffice.. 



Mountain. 

Mountain. 

Hamlet 

River 

Bridge 

School 



Pikeville. 



Pike Road >_ 

Pilands Crossroads 

Pilot 

Pilot Mountain 

Pilot Mountain 

Pilot Mountain 

Pilot Mountain 



Pilot Mountain. 



Pilot Mountain 

Pinckton 

Pine 

Pinegrove School 

Pine Hall 

Pineland 

Pine Level, at station 

Pinelog 

Pine Mountain 

Pineola 

Pine Ridge 

Pine Rocks 

Pinetops 

Pinetown 

Pinetown, near station... 

Pineville 

Pineville, near postoffice. 
Pineville 



Postoffice. 

Station 

Hamlet 

Village 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 



Piney Green. 
Pink Bed— . 
Pink Beds- 



Mountain. 

Mountain. 

Village 

Mountain. 

School 

Postoffice. 

Village 

Postoffice. 

Village 

Mountain. 
Postoffice. 

School 

Mountain. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 



Church- 
Hamlet. 



County 



Mitchell- 
Macon 

Watauga- 



Yancey 

Transylvania 

Haywood- Jackson. 



Iredell 

Haywood.. 
Mitchell.... 
Caldwell- 
Craven 

Mitchell.... 

Rowan 

Gaston 

Jones. 

Yancey 

Brunswick- 
Ashe 



Macon. 



Burke 

Haywood. 
Haywood. 
Sampson.. 



Wayne. 



Beaufort. 
Hertford. 
Franklin. 

Burke 

Caldwell. 
Jackson.. 
Surry 



Surry. 



Transylvania- 
Ashe 

Buncombe 

Lincoln... 

Stokes 

Macon 

Johnston 

Clay 

Burke .. 

Avery 

Franklin 

Haywood 

Edgecombe- 
Beaufort 

Beaufort 

Mecklenburg-. 
Mecklenburg.. 
Mecklenburg.. 



Sampson 

Henderson 

Transylvania- 



Authority 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S- 

U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 

Guyot 

Toner 



U. S. G. S.. 
Yeates 



U. S. G. S., 
U. S. G. S._ 



Elevation 
in Feet 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S. 

S. A. L 

ITJ. S. G. S 

\ Kerr's Map 

JU. S. G. S .._ 

\U. S. C.&G. S... 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L._ 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S I 

U. S. G. S J 

U. S. G. S ! 

C. F. &Y. V. R.R. 1 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. &G. S._ 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. & W 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S -.-- 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

Charlotte C. & A. 

R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



2,, 500a 
5,000a 
2,400a 

2,858 
2,100a 
5,026 
1,948 

900a 
2,750a 
4,348 
1,000a 

2 
2,850a 
750a 
820a 
49 
4,390 
40 
4,700a 
4,673 
4,822 
4,910 
1,217 
2,580 
2,487 
153 
135 
136 
19 
39 
362 
2,050a 
1,486 
4,059 
1,101 
1,486 
2,413 
5,151 
3,498 
3,800a 
863 
579 
2,200a 

168 
1,950a 
1,821 
3,900a 
290a 
5,000a 
100 
43 
43 
575 
571 

575 
190 
2,200a 
3,277 



44 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Description of 

Station 



Pinkney 

Pinnacle. 

Pinnacle 

Pinnacle 

Pinnacle Mountain 

Pinnacle Mountain 

Pinnacle Mountain 

Pino 

Piny Grove Church 

Pisgah 

Pisgah Church 

Pisgah Gap 

Pisgah, Mount 

Pisgah Mountain, trian- 

gulation station 

Pittsboro 

Plainview Church 

Plateau 

Pleasant Garden 

Pleasant Hill 

Pleasant Hill 

Pleasant Union 

Plott 

Plott Balsam 

Plott's 

Plott's Old Field„_ 

Plumtree 

Poindexter 

Point Peter 

Polkton 

Polloksville 

Polycarp 

Pomona, in front of station 

Pond 

Pond Ridge 

Poore's Knob 

Poplar 

Poplar Grove 

Poplar Spring 

Postell 

Potato Hill 

Potato Knob 

Potato Top 

Potecasi 

Powell Crossroads 

Preston 

Price 

Price, in front of station 

Price's Creek , 

Princeton 

Princeton 

Princeton, at station 

Princeville 

Pri vett 

Probst 

Proc tor 



Village 

Mountain. 



Mountain 

Postomce 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Village 

Church 

Church 

Church 

Mountain gap. 



County 



Authority 



Wayne 

Buncombe- 
McDowell-Yancey 

Gaston 

Stokes 

Henderson 

Macon 

Rutherford 

Davie 

Gates _. 

Catawba 

Lincoln 

Mitchell 



Mountain Buncombe. 



Triangulation 

station 

Postomce 

Church 

Village 

Postomce 

Church 

Postomce 

Church 

Postomce 

Mountain 

Village 

Mountain 

Postomce 

Village 

Station 

Postomce 



Postomce. 



Village 

Postomce. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Postomce. 

Village 

Church 

Postomce. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Postomce. 

Hamlet 

Village 

Postomce. 
Postomce. 

Village 

Postomce. 
Postoffice. 
Postomce. 

Village 

Village 

Store 

Postoffice. 



Haywood-Buncombe 

Chatham 

Sampson 

Catawba 

Guilford 

Rowan 

Northampton 

Sampson 

Haywood 

Jackson • 

Iredell 

Haywood 

Avery 

Yadkin 

New Hanover 

Anson 



Jones. 



Alexander 

Guilford.. 

Ashe 

Burke-McDowell... 

Wilkes 

Mitchell 

Polk 

Alexander 

Cherokee 

Yancey 

Buncombe-Yancey. 

Buncombe 

Northampton 

Gates 

Johnston 

Rockingham 

Rockingham 

Yancey 

Johnston 

Johnston 

Johnston 

Edgecombe 

Franklin 

Catawba 

Swain 



U. S. G. S._ 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C. F.&Y. V.R.R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. &G. S... 
U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Geo. of N. C 

fU. S. G. S 

{U. S. C. &G. S.._ 
(Guyot 



U. S. G. S 

Weather Bur 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C. F.&Y. V.R.R 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C. F.&Y. V.R.R 

S. A. L 

/A. C. L 

\U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. &G. S._.. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



Elevation 
in Feet 



S._ 



U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S.-__. 

Guyot 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S._... 
U. S. G. S—.. 

N. & W 

U. S. G. S.-_. 
U. S. G. S.-.. 
U. S. G. S..._. 
N. Car. R. R. 
U. S. G. S.-.. 
U. S. G. S.-.. 
U. S. G. S.~. . 
U. S. G. S..... 
U. S. G. S.~- . 



148 

5,693 

1,705 

1,088 

3,662 

5,020a 

3,832 

750a 
41 
1,000a 

911 
3,437 
5,749 
5,713 
5,757 



5,749 
480 
177 

1,025 
837 

1,000a 
119 
185 
776 

5,345 
781 

5,200 

2,839 

1 , 100a 
6 
292 
13 
20a 

1,000a 



5,000a 
3,546 
2,680 
2,000a 

934 
1,300 
1,900a 
6,487 
6,419 
6,393 
72 
22 

233 

986 
1,005 
2,700a 

153 

160 

151 
39a 

327 
1,160a. 
2,100a 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



45 



Location of Station 


Description of 
Station 


County 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Propst's Knob 


Mountain .. _ _ 


Burke ._ _ _ 


Geo. of N. C. 

U. S. G. S 


3,022 


Prospect -.- . .- - _ 
Providence 


Church.. . __ 

Station . _ 

Station _. .. 

Station 

Church . 

Church . ._ . .. 


Rowan. 

Chatham __ . 


860a. 
425 


Providence, at station 


Granville 

Granville 

McDowell- ... . 


S. R. R 


425 


Providence _. . . 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Yeates 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


431 


Providence . 


1,320a 


Providence 


Rowan- 


850a 


Pumpkin Patch ______ 

Pungo . 


Mountain 
Postoffice _. . 
Mountain ._ 

Postoffice . 

Village 


Mitchell 

Beaufort . . 

Haywood 

Wilkes ... 

Madison. . _ 


4,263 
3 


Purchase Knob 

Purlear - 

Putnam 


5,000a 
1,470a 
1,500a 









Quallatown 

Queen Creek Mountain 

Quinerly 

Quitsna 



Mountain. 

Hamlet 

Postoffice- 



Q 



Jackson... 
Henderson 

Pitt 

Bertie 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



2,250a 
3,650 
30a 
29 



R 



Rabun Gap 

Radford Crossroads 

Rainbow Mountain 

Raleigh, cornerstone of 

Capitol 

Raleigh.. 

Raleigh 

Raleigh 

Ramseur 

Randleman 

Ranger 

Rattlesnake Cliff. 

Rattlesnake~Den 

Rattlesnake Knob 

Raven Knob 

Raven Knob 

Ravenswood 

Raven Top 

Ray 

Rayns Crossroads 

Reba (Fountain P. O.) 
Rector Knob 

Redbanks 

P.eddies River 

Redhill 

Red Hill... 

Red Marble Gap 

Red Springs 

Reedy Patch Gap 

Reepsville 



Mountain gap 

Crossroads 

Mountain 

City 

City 

City 

City 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Station 

Mountain 

Village 

Crossroads 

Hamlet 

Mountain 

Village 

Postoffice 

Village 

Hamlet 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain gap 
Postoffice 



Macon-Georgia 

Johnston 

Burke 

Wake 

Wake 

Wake 

Wake 

Randolph 

Randolph 

Cherokee 

Swain 

Jackson 

Swain- Jackson. 

Haywood 

Macon 

Jones 

Graham 

Madison 

Johnston 

Pitt 

Burke 

Robeson 

Wilkes .... 

Mitchell 

Sampson 

Macon 

Robeson.. 

Henderson 

Lincoln.. _. 



Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

R. & A. R. R 

W r eather Bur 

C. F. &Y.V. R. R. 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S., Kerr's 

Map 

U. S. G. S 

Toner 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

Car. C. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

u. s. g. s : 

Guyot 

C. F. &Y. V.R. R. 
Car. C. R. R 

U. S. G. S 



2,168 

200 

2,895 

362 
317 
316 
388 
442 
717 
1,600a 
4,950 

4,697 
3,500a 
6,260 
4,700a 

40 
3,400a 
2,300a 

145 

110 
2,153 

176 

176 
1,090a 
2,424 

170 
2,800a 
2,686 

204 
2,242 

961 



46 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Reese 

Rehoboth. 

Reidsville. 



Reinhart Knob- 
Relief. 

Rennert 

Renoton. 

Renshaw Ford.. 

Republic 

Rhems 



Description of 
Station 



Postoffice, 
Church 



Town. 



Mountain. 
Postomce. 
Postomce. 



River... 
Village. 
Village- 



Rich Fork. 



Rich Hill. 



Richland Balsam Mountain 

Richland Balsam, trian- 

gulation station 

Richland Knob 

Richmond 

Rich Mountain 

Rich Mountain 

Rich Mountain 



Rich Mountain. 



Rich Mountain 

Rich Mountain Bald 

Rich Square 

Riddick Crossroads T ... 

Riddicksville 

Ridge 

Ridge, in front of station. 
Ridgepole 



Creek at Southern 
Railway 



Mountain. 



Mountain. 



Ridge Spring- 
Ridgeway 



Ring Fire Knob _. 

River Bluff Mountain. 
Riverdale, at station.. 

Riverhill.. 

River Road Station... 

River Side... 

Roanes Mill 

Roan High Bluff 

Roan High Knob 



Roan Mountain. 

Roaring Gap 

Roaring Gap 



Roaring River 

Robbinsville 

Robinson's Store. 

Robson 

Rock Branch 

Rockford _-. 



Triangulation sta- 
tion 

Mountain 

Station 

Mountain. 

Postoffice 

Mountain 



Mountain. 



Mountain.. 
Mountain. . 
Postomce... 
Crossroads- 
Village 

Station 

Station 

Mountain.. 



Village. 



Postoffice. 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Station 

Postomce. 

Village 

Mountain. 
Mountain- 
Mountain. 



Village 

Mountain gap. 



Postoffice. 
Postomce. 
Hamlet... 

Station 

Station 

Postoffice. 



County 



Watauga. 
Catawba. 



Rockingham. 



Hay wood- Jackson. 

Mitchell 

Robeson 

Pitt 

Davie 

Yadkin 

Craven 



Davidson. 
Surry 



Haywood-Jackson. 



Haywood- Jackson. . 

Buncombe 

Chatham 

Buncombe 

Jackson 

Madison 



Transylvania- 



Transylvania.. 

Watauga 

Northampton. 

Gates 

Hertford 

Gaston 

Gaston 

Macon 



Greene. 



Warren. 



Wilkes 

Madison.. 
Craven... 

Iredell 

Beaufort. 

Ashe 

Macon 

Mitchell.. 
Mitchell- 



Mitchell. 

Wilkes... 
Wilkes- 



Wilkes 

Graham 

Mecklenburg. 



Harnett. 
Surry 



Authority 



U. S. 

U. S. 
S. R 
P. A 

u. s. 

U.S. 
A. C. 

u. s. 
u. s 
u. s 
u. s 



G. S 

G. S 

. R 

. L. R. R. 
G. S...... 

G. S 

L 

G. S 

G. S 

G. S 

G. S 



S. R. R 

N. Car. R. R.__. 

U. S. G. S 

fU. S. C. & G. S. 

^Guyot 

Yeates. 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C.F. &Y.V. R. R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fU. S. G. S 

\Yea1es 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

TJ. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S... 

S. A. L 

R. & G. R. R. .. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(Yeates 

\Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S., Kerr's 

Map 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C. F. &Y. V. R. R. 
S. R. R 



Elevation 
in Feet 



3,110a 
910a 
826 
831 
5,800a 
2,026 
187 
65 
654 
910a 
25 

649 
649 
3,260 
6,370 
6,425 
6,556 

6,540 

4,979 

467 

3,535 

5,368 

3,643 

3,779 

3,526 

4,017 

5,369 

77 

30 

34 

872 

791 

5,008 

31 

36 

415 

415 

1,300a 

2,326 

25 

800a 

21 

2,950a 

2,450a 

6,287 

6,313 

6,297 

6,306 

1,400a 

2,914 

918 
2,150a 

697 

486 

316 

813 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



47 



Location of Station 



Rockingharn 

Rockliff , in front of station. 

Rockpass 

Rockstand Knob 

Rocky Bald _ 

Rocky Bend 

Rocky Face 

Rocky Face 

Rocky Face 

Rockyfaca Mountain 

Rockyhock.' 

Rocky Knob 

Rocky Knob _. 

Rocky Knobs (south peak) 

Rocky Mount. 

Rocky Mount, near station 
Rocky Mounts at station . 

Rocky Mountain 

Rocky Mountain 

Rocky Point 

Rocky River Bridge 

Rocky Springs 

Rocky Trail Peak 

Roduco 

Rogers Crossroads 

Rollins... 

Rollins L 

Ronda 

Roper 

Rose.. ..' 

Rose 

Roseboro 

Rosehill 

Roselle, in front of station, 

Rosindale 

Rosin Hill 

Rosman 

Roten 

Rougemont 

Rough Butt Bald 

Round Knob. 

Round Knob, near hoteL.. 

Round Mountain 

Round Mountain 

Round Mountain 

Round Top 

Roundtree 

Roundtree Bridge 

Rover 

Rowes 

Rowland 

Roxboro 

Roxobel 

Rudisils 



Description of 
Station 



Postoffice. 



Postoffice 

Hamlet 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Village 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice ._. 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Bridge 

Hamlet 

Mountain 

Postoffice _ . 

Hamlet 

Station 

Hamlet...: 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Station 



Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Station 



Postoffice. 

Hamlet... 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Postoffice. 
Mountain. 

Station 

Station 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 

Village 

Mountain. 

Hamlet 

Bridge 

Village.... 

Mill 

Postoffice. 



County 



Richmond. 

Polk ... 

McDowell. 
Haywood.. 
Macon 



Alexander 

Jackson 

Macon 

Buncombe-Haywood 

Chowan 

Caldwell 

Transylvania 



Postoffice. 

Postoffice. 
Store 



Edgecombe- 
Edgecombe. 
Edgecombe- 
Watauga 

Jackson 

Pender 

Cabarrus 

Alexander... 



Gates 

Nash 

Madison 

Burke 

Wilkes. 

Washington. 

Chatham 

Wayne 



Sampson. 
Duplin.. . 
Rowan... 



Bladen- 



Sampson 

Transylvania 

Ashe 

Durham 

Haywood- Jackson. 

McDowell. 

McDowell 

Jackson 

McDowell 

Wilkes 

Alexander 

Pitt. 

Wilson 

Beaufort 

Catawba 

Robeson 



Person- 



Bertie... 
Lincoln. 



Authority 



S. A. L „ 

Car. C. R. R 

Weather Bur 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot. 

Toner 

Toner 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.___ 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. S 

N. S. R. R.... 

U. S. G, S 

U. S. G. S., precise 

line 

C. F. &Y. V. R.R. 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

Car. C. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S .... 

U. S. G. S 

N. & W 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



A. C. L 

/Weather Bur... 

\N. & W- 

S. A. L... 

U. S. G. S 



Elevation 
in Feet 



211 

274 

210 

210 

1,407 

1,198 

6,002 

5,323 

1,446 

1,814 

6,031 

4,500a 

4,540 

28 

3,283 

4,000 

5,306 

115 

114 

105 

4,078 

4,427 

40 

556 

1,150a 

6,488 

35a 

287 

1,668 

1,307 

912 

13 

136 

135 
134 

89 
852 
120 
127 
175 
2,180 
3,050a 

549 
6,010 
1,830 
1,828 
4,220 
3,500a 
1,320a 
1,750 
67 
82 
36 
1,050a 
145 
600 
650 
97 
1,000a 



48 



Altitudes in JSTorth Cakolina 



Location of Station 


Description of 
Station 


County 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Ruffin 


Postofnce . ... . 


Rockingham 


(a. R. R 

\P. A. L. R. R._._ . 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 


707 


Rugby. . . 


Hamlet-.- - 


Henderson. ._ ._ 


710 
2,100a 


Ruggles.. . 


Station. - . 

Mountain ._.._.. 


Halifax _ . 


84 


Run Knob ._ 


Buncombe. . ... 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(C.F. &Y.V.R.R.. 
\S. R. R 


3,800 


Run Knob. 


Mountain . _ .. 
Postofnce ._ 


Macon. 


4,300 


Rural Hall 


Forsyth.. 


1,007 




Village _ . __ - . 


Edgecombe .. .-. 


977 


Runnymede __ . 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


70a 


Rusk 


Postofnce - ... _ 


Surry 


1,000a 


Russell.. . . . __ 




Rowan __ 


850a 


Rutherfordton.- . .. 


Postofnce- _. 


Rutherford 


S. A. L.- 


1,096 


Rutherwood. 


Postofnce.. .. _ . 
Mountain. _ 


Watauga _ 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


3,300a 


Rye Mountain . ._ 


Jackson ._ 


4,542 


Ryland, at postofnce . 


Postofnce . 


Chowan 


41 











Sabbath Home- 
Saddleback 

Saint Jude 

Saint Lewis 

Saint Luke's 

Saint Peter's 

Saint Stephen.. 



Salem- 



Salem Church 

Sale mburg 

Salisbury, in front of sta... 
Salisbury, at county court- 
house 

Salisbury, opposite cotton 

mills 

Salisbury 

Saluda 

Saluda, in front of station- 
Samaria 

Sam Knob 

Sampson 

Sampson Mountain 

Sanders 

Sanders Bridge 

Sandofer Gap 

Sands 

Sandy, in front of station. _ 

Sandy Crossroads-.-- 

Sandy Bottom 

Sandy Bottom 

Sandy Cross 

Sandy Knob 

Sandy Mush, near Union 
Church , 



Church 

Mountain. 

Village 

Village 

Church 

Church 

Church 



City. 



Church 

Postofnce. 
Town 



Town. 



Town 

Town 

Postofnce. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Mountain- 
Mountain. 
Mountain- 
Mill 

Bridge 



Postofnce. 

Station 

Hamlet 

Village 

Village 

Village 

Mountain. 

Postoffice. 



Ashe. 



Watauga 

Edgecombe- 
Rowan 

Catawba 

Catawba 



Forsyth- 



Lincoln.-. 
Sampson. 
Rowan. .. 



Rowan. 



Rowan 

Rowan 

Polk 

Polk 

Nash.. 

Haywood- 
Watauga— 

Yancey 

Lincoln... 
Sampson.. 



Watauga-.. 
Madison... 

Nash 

Buncombe. 



Gates. 



Buncombe. 



U. S. G. S 


2,796 


U. S. C. &G. S... 


4,563 


U. S. G. S 


2,700a 


U. S. G. S 


114 


U. S. G. S 


900a 


U. S. G. S 


1,065 


U. S. G. S 


1,200a 


1 Weather Bur. . _ 


1,000 


N. W. N. C. R. R. 


884 


Js. R. R 


( 878 
\ 884 " 


N. & W 


858 


U. S. G. S 


884 


U. S. G. S 


904 


U. S. G. S 


167 


U. S. G. S 


749 


U. S. G. S 


764 


U. S. G. S 


750 


N. Car. R. R 


760 




2,150a 


U. S. G. S 


2,074 


U. S. G. S 


250a 


U. S. G. S 


6,130 


Yeates. ... 


4,716 


U. S. G. S 


4,826 


U. S. G. S 


950a 


U. S. G. S 


105 


Toner. _ ._ . 


3,170 


U. S. G. S 


3,250a 


U. S. G. S 


1,462 


U. S. G. S.. 


202 


U. S. G. S._ - 


2,012 


U. S. G. S 


1,463 


U. S. G. S 


52 


Geo. of N. C. 


6,612 


U. S. G. S 


2,250a 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



49 






Location of Station 



Sandymush Bald. 



Sandymush Bald, triangu- 

lation station 

Sandy Plains 

Sandy Plains 

Sandy Ridge 

Sanes Pinnacle i 



Sanford. 



Description of 
Station 



Mountain. 



Triangulation sta- 
tion 

Hamlet 

Hamlet 

Church 

Mountain 



Postoffice. 



Santeetlah 

Sapphire ' 

Saratoga 

Sardis 

Sardis, in front of station. 

Sarem 

Sarem Grove Church 

Sassafras 

Sassafras~Gap 

Sassafras Mountain 

Satulah Mountain 

Savage 

Saxon 

Scaly 



Scaly Mountain. 



Scotland Neck- 



Scott Creek. . 

Scotts 

Scotts Creek.. 
Scotts HilL__ 

Scottville 

Scuppernong- 
Seaboard 



Village 

Postofnce 

Village 

Village 

Village 

Village 

Church 

Mountain 

Mountain gap. 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postofnce 

Village 

Postofnce 



Mountain. 



Selma. 



Selma, at Webb Street 

Selma, at railroad crossing. 

Selwin 

Senia 

Settle 



Setzer. 



Setzer Gap 

Seven Mile Ridge. 

Severn.. 

Sexton 

Shallott Bald 

Shannon 

Sharon 

Sharon Church 

Sharp Mountain.. 



Sharpsburg. 



Sharp Top 

Sharp Top 

Sharptop Mountain. 



Postofnce. 

Trestle.-.. 
Postoffice. 



Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 

Lake 

Postoffice. 

Postoffice. 

PostofRce. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Postofnce. 
Village 



Station. 



Mountain gap. 

Mountain 

Postofnce 

Village 

Mountain 

Postofnce 

Church 

Church 

Mountain 



Postofnce. 

Mountain- 
Mountain. 
Mountain, 



County 



Buncombe- 



Buncombe-Hay wood- 
Madison 

Cleveland 

Polk 

Rowan 

Buncombe 



Authority 



(V. S. G. S. 
(Yeates 



Elevation 
in Feet 



Lee- 



Graham 

Jackson 

Wilson 

Mecklenburg.. 
Mecklenburg.. 

Gates 

Gates 

Transylvania. 
Transylvania- 
Jackson 

Macon 

Gates 

Stokes 

Macon 



Macon- 



Halifax. 



Craven 

Iredell 

Jackson 

Pender 

Ashe 

Washington- .. 
Northampton- 
Johnston 



Johnston. 
Johnston. 

Gates 

Avery 

Iredell 



Catawba- 



Caldwell 

Yancey 

Northampton- 
Madison 

Graham 

Robeson 

Mecklenburg. _ 

Lenoir 

Transylvania.. 



Nash. 



Haywood- 
Yancey 

Swain 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

TJ. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fC.F. &Y.V.R.R.. 

R. & A. R. R 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Weather Bur 

U. S. G. S 

fU. S. G. S 

•JN.C.G. S. .Kerr's 

[Map 

JWil. & Weldon. 

\A. C. L. 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

Toner 

S. A. L 

fU. S. G. S 

\ Weather Bur 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S.G. S 



/U. S. G. S. . 

\S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

U. S.G. S ,... 

U. S. G. S 

C. F. &Y. V. R.R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S.G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



5,168 
5,168 

5,168 

961 
1,018 

900a 
5,272 

359 

320 

368 
•1,900a 
3,800a 

121 

707 

718 

34 

40 

3,540 

2,774 

4,347 

4,490 

31 

900 
3,600a 
4,769 

4,835 
99 
103 
7 
1,060a 
2,450 
42 
2,950a 
30 
131 
17& 
225- 
177 
176 
34 
3,400a. 
960a. 
976 
966. 
1,342' 
4,400a 

64 
1,850a 
5,400 
205 
715a 
71 
3,383 
134 
140 
5,100a 
5,500a 
3,516 



50 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Shawbor o 

Shawnee. 

Sheep Cliff 

Sheep Knob 

Shelby 

Shelby, at county court- 
house 



Shelby_ 



Shell Knob.... 
Shelmerdine-_. 
Sherrar's Gap. 

Sherrills 

Sherrills Ford. 

Shewbird 

Shiloh 

Shiloh Mills... 



Shining Rock. 



Shins ville 

Shoal 

Shoals 

Shooting Creek. 

Shopton 

Shore's 



Shortoff. 



Shortoff 

Shortoff Mountain. 

Shortoff Mountain. 

Shuck Stack 

Shu] Is Mills 

Sigma 

Signpine 

Silas Bald 

Silas Creek 

Siler City 

Siloam... 

Silver Creek 



Silver Creek Knob. 



Silverstone 

Simmond's Gap 

Sinclair 

Sioux 

Sitton Knob 

Sitzer's Gap 

Sixteen-mile Siding 

Sixty-one Mile Siding 

Skull Camp . 

Skyland, in front of station 

Skyuka 

Slagle 

Slatestone, at station 

Slaty Knob 

Slicken Gap 



Description of 
Station 



Postoffice. 



Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Town 



Town. 
Town. 



Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain gap. 

Mill 

Postoffice 

Village 

Church 



Mountain. 

Village 

Mountain. 
Postomce. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Mill 



Mountain. 

Postoffice. 

Mountain. 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Postoffice. 



Hamlet 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Railroad bridge- 
Mountain 



Village 

Mountain gap. 
Mill 

Postoffice 

Mountain 



Siding on railroad 
Siding on railroad 

Mountain 

Postoffice 



Village 

Station 

Mountain 

Mountain gap. 



County 



Currituck. 
Catawba.. 
Jackson... 
Jackson... 
Cleveland- 
Cleveland. 
Cleveland- 



Buncombe-Henderson 

Pitt 

Gaston 

Catawba 

Catawba 

Clay 

Iredell 

Edgecombe.. 



Haywood- 



Iredell 

Rutherford- .. 

Surry 

Clay 

Mecklenburg- 
Yadkin 



Macon. 



Macon- 



Burke. 



Jackson-Macon- 
Swain 

Watauga 

Iredell 

Chowan 



Ashe 

Chatham. 

Surry 

Burke 



Burke-Rutherford- 
Watauga 



McDowell 

Yancey 

Transylvania. 



Washington- 



Surry.. 

Buncombe- 



Macon 

Beaufort 

Madison 

Transylvania- 



Authority 



N. S. R. R. 
U. S. G. S- 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S._ 
S. A. L 



U. S. G. S 

Car. C. R. R. 
S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S..._. 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S._. 
U. S. G. S._ 

J Toner 

\U. S. G. S. 



U. S. G. S. 
S. R. R.... 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fU. S. G. S 

N. C.G. S.,Kerr's 

Map 

U. S. G. S . 

(N.C.G.S., Kerr's 

I Map 

(U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Yeates 



C. F. &Y. V. R. R. 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. &G. S... 

U. S. G. S 

M ontgomery 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Montgomery 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Weather Bur 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. 8.., Kerr's 
Map 



Elevation 
in Feet 



15 

800a 

4,653 

4,784 

863 

895 
875 
875 

4,520 
40a 

1,090 
970 
960a 

1,900a 
960 
45a 

5,988 

6,040 
900a 

2,350a 
769 

2,130a 
728 
775a 

5,000a 

5,039 
3,700a 

3,105 
3,127 

5,054 
4,100 
3,000 

800a 
35 
5,595 
2,740a 

590 

788 
1,026 
2,838 
2,849 
3,500a 
1,696 
1,197 
2,100a 
3,000 
1,424 
16 

396 
2,100a 
2,254 
3,200 
3,400a 

40 
2,790 

2,873 



Altitudes in JSTorth Carolina 



51 



Location of Station 



Slips Gap 

Sloan 

Sloan 

Sloans 

Small Crossroads . 

Smathers .. 

Smathers View Mountain.. 

Smithfield •_ 

Smithfield, at county court- 
house. 

Smiths Store 

Smithville 

Smoke Mountain 

Smoky Dome 

Smoky Mountain 

Snaggy Bald 

Snake Mountain, trian- 

gulation station 

Snells Crossroads 

Snowball Mountain 

Snowbird 

Snowden 

Snow Hill, at county court- 
house 

Snow Hill, in front of sta... 

Soco Bald 



SodahilL. 
Solitude.. 

Solo 

Somerset. 
Sonoma.. 



Sophia 

Southern Pines. 



South Point Church 

Southport 

South River 

South Rocky Mount, in 

front of station 

South Side 

South Washington 

Spach 

Sparkling Catawba Springs 

Sparta 

Spear.. 

Speed. 

Speedwell 

Speights Bridge 

Spencer 

Spero 

Spillman 

Spilona... 

Spivey Mountain.. 

Split Mountain 

Spout Springs 

Spring Creek 

Springdale 

Spring Hope, near station- 
Spring Mountain , 



Description of 
Station 



Mountain gap. 

Village ... 

Postoffice 

Mill.... 

Hamlet. 

Village 

Mountain 

Postoffice 



Postoffice. 
Hamlet... 



Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Triangulation 

station 

Hamlet 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice 



Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 

Mountain. 

Village 

Village 

Village 

Village 

Hamlet 

Postoffice. 



Postoffice. 

Church 

Postoffice. 
Village 



Town... 
Village. 
Village. 
Station. 



Postoffice. 
Postoffice.. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice.. 

Village 

Mountain. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Hamlet 

Mountain. 

Village 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 



County 



Yancey 

Alexander 

Duplin 

Iredell 

Chowan 

Buncombe 

Haywood-Buncombe 
Johnston 



Johnston. 
Lincoln... 



Watauga. 



Jackson. 



Watauga... 

Nash 

Buncombe. 
Haywood.. 
Currituck. . 



Greene. 
Greene. 



Haywood- 
Watauga. _ 

Ashe 

Watauga. . 
Chowan... 
Haywood. 
Randolph. 



Moore. 



Gaston 

Brunswick. 
Rowan 



Edgecombe- 
Lincoln 

Pender 

Stokes 

Catawba 

Alleghany... 

Avery 

Edgecombe- 
Jackson 

Greene 



Randolph.. 

Yadkin 

Johnston... 
Buncombe- 
Haywood.. 

Harnett 

Madison 

Haywood.. 

Nash 

Alexander. 



Authority 



U. S. G. S..... 
U. S. G. S.— . 
Weather Bur.. 
U. S. G. S._... 
U..S. G. S._... 
U. S. G. S.-_. 
U. S. G. S.-.. 
A. C. L 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S..... 
U. S. Sig. Off. 
U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S.. 

U. S. G. S- 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
N. S. R. R. 



U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
A. C. L. 
N. & W. 
U. S. G. 



U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
Yeates.. 
S. R. R. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
A. C. L. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 



Elevation 
in Feet 



U. S. G. S.. 

U. S. G. S 

/U. S. G. S... 

^Yeates 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S... 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

(S. A. L 

[Weather Bur 

U. S. G. S 

Weather Bur 



6,100 

1,090 

50 

825a 
31 
2,400a 
4,203 
151 

146 
994 
34 
5,694 
6,660 
5,195 
5,538 

5,594 

200 

5,494 

4,263 

10 



74 
5,400a 
5,635 
3,350a 
3,000a 
3,290a 

11 
2,700a 
789 
519 
400 
714 
34 
650a 

125 
880 
60 
674 
1,050a 
2,850a 
2,839 
60 
2,250 
94 
1,294 
735 
950a 
226 
3,331 
2,600a 

332 
2,236 
2,890a 

261 
1,620 



52 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Spruce Pine 

Spruce Ridge Top 

Stackhouse, in front of sta. 

Stairs 

Staley 

Stallings 

Stallings Crossroads 

Stamp Field 

Standard 



Standing Indian, 
Standing Indian. 



Stanhope 

Stanley 

Stantonsburg. 

Starlight 

Starling, Mt... 



State Line Gap 

State Road 

Statesville, in front of sta.. 

Statesville 

Statesville 

Statesville, at county court- 
house 1 

Staton 

Stecoah 

Stedman 

Steestachee Bald : 



Description of 
Station 



Postoffice. 



Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Hamlet 

Mountain. 
Village 



Mountain. 

Mountain- 
Hamlet 

Postoffice. 
Postoffiee. 

Village 

Mountain. 



Stem. 



Stepps Gap 

Stocksville 

Stokes 

Stokesdale . 

Stokesdale, in front of sta. 

Stone Mountain.. 

Stone Mountain 

Stone Mountain 

Stoneville 

Stoneville, in front of sta._ 

Stony Hill 

Stony Mountain 

Stony River 

Story's Crossroads 

Stott Knob 

Stout 

Stovall 

Stovall, near station 

Strattons 

Strickland Crossroads 

Strickland 

Stubbs 

Stultz 

Sugar Grove 

Sugarloaf ... 

Sugarloaf Knob 

Sugarloaf Mountain 



Mountain. 
Postoffice. 

Town 

Town 

Town 



Town 

Station 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 

Postoffice. 



Mountain gap 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Hamlet 

Mountain 

Railroad crossing. 

Crossroads 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 



Crossroads- 
Bridge 

Hamlet 

Station 

Postoffice.. 
Mountain. . 
Mountain.. 
Mountain.. 



County 



Mitchell. 



Madison 

Haywood 

Randolph 

Franklin 

Beaufort 

Henderson-Polk. 
Pitt 



Clay. 



Macon- 



Nash 

Gaston 

Wilson 

Wayne 

Haywood- 
Watauga.. 

Surry 

Iredell 

Iredell 

Iredell 



Iredell 

Pitt . 

Graham 

Cumberland 

Hay wood- Jackson. 

Granville 



Cleveland-Gaston. 

Buncombe 

Pitt 

Guilford 

Guilford 

W ilkes-Alleghany . 

Henderson 

McDowell 

Rockingham 

Reckingham 

Wilkes 

Henderson 

Harnett 

Gates 

Surry 

Union 

Granville ,__ 

Granville 



Johnston 

Nash (?) 

Cleveland 

Stokes 

Watauga 

Watauga 

Madison-Tennessee 
Polk 



Authority 



Elevation 
in Feet 



U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C. F. &Y. v. r:r. 

Toner 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

/U. S. C. & G. S._ 

} Guyot 
Guyot 
U. S. G. S.. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S., Kerr's 

Map 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

W. N. C. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C. F. &Y.V. R. R. 

U. S..G. S 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C. F.&Y. V.R. R. 

U. S. G. S 

Yeates 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. & W 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C\ L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. & W 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. & G. S._- 



2,511 
6,076 
1,418 
5,000 

724 

347 
44 
2,600a 

74 
5,495 
5,840 
5,528 
5,562 

283 

852 
94 

167 

5,852 

3,700a 

1,310 

921 

935 

955 

925 
42 
2,150a 

131 

5,700 

462 

476 

1,040 

2,250a. 

56 

949 

948 

3,879 

3,647 

3,700a. 

800 

818 

1,280a. 

3,000a 

183 

28 

1,800a. 

654 

473 

478 

3,106 

149 

178 

737 

589 

2,775a. 

4,705 

4,540 

3,97a 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



53 



Location of Station 






Sugar Mountain 

Sugar Top 

Sugg's Siding 

Sulphur Springs 

Summerfield . 

Summerfield, in. front of 

station 

Summers 

Summit 

Sumner, in front of station. 

Sun 

Sunbury 

Sutherland 

Swain 

Swannanoa 

Swannanoa Gap 

Swannanoa Gap 

Swannanoa Tunnel 

Swanns 

Swearing Creek, track level 

Sweet Home 

Sweetwater 

Swift Ford Branch 

Sylva 



Description of 
Station 



County 



Mountain ! Avery. 



Mountain Haywood.. 

Railroad Siding... Greene 

Station Buncombe. 

Postoffice Guilford 



Postoffice Guilford. 

Mill Iredell... 

Village Halifax. . 

Station Rowan... 

Village Wilson... 

Postoffice Gates 

Village 

Village 

Postomce 



Ashe 

Swain 

Buncombe- 



Mountain Buncombe. 

Mountain Gap Buncombe- 
Tunnel on So. Ry. Buncombe. 



Ry- 



Station 

Creek at So. 

Village 

Postomce 

Creek i Watauga-Wilkes. 

Postoffice Jackson 



Lee 

Davidson. 

Iredell 

Watauga.. 



Authority 



(U. S. G. S 

(Yeates 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

C. F. &Y. V. R.R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(v. s. g. s : 

(Yeates 

U. S. G. S 

(S. R. R 

Toner 

U. S. G. S 

C. F. &Y. V. R.R. 
Precise level line.. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



Elevation 
in Feet 



S. R. R. 



5,289 
5,282 
4,930 

102 
2,100 

873 

872 
920a 
305 
802 
130a 
38 
3,150a 
1,700a 
2,222 
2,625 
2,660 
2,522 
2,490 
2,638 
2,521 
311 
677 
850a 
2,830a 
1,399 
2,063 



Tabor 

Table Rock 

Table Reck 

Table Rock Mountain tri- 

angulation station 

Talbot 

Tarboro 

Tarboro, at county court- 
house 

Tarboro, in front of station. 

Tar River 



Tarts. 



Tatham Gap. 



Taylor 

Taylor Crossroads.. 
Taylors Hole Creek. 

Taylorsville 



Teacheys 

Teague 

Tellico Bald 

Tennessee Bald. 
Tennessee Bald- 



Terra Ceia Postoffice 



Church 

Mountain 

Hamlet 

Triangulation sta- 
tion 

Hamlet 

Town 



Town. 
Town. 



Postoffice. 

Store 

Mountain- 



Village 

Crossroads 

Railroad crossing. 

Postoffice 



Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 



Iredell 

Burke 

Burke 

Burke 

Wilson(?) 

Edgecombe 

Edgecombe 

Edgecombe 

Granville 

Johnston 

Graham 

Wilson 

Nash 

Cumberland 

Alexander 

Duplin 

Haywood 

Macon 

Transylvania 

Transylvania-Hay 

wood-Jackson... 

Beaufort 



U. S. G. S.-_. 
Geo. of N. C._ 
U. S. G. S._... 



U. S. G. S.__. 
U. S. G. S.-_ 
Weather Bur._ 

U. S. G. S—_ 
U. S. G. S. — . 

S. R. R 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S.— 
/U. S. G. S.... 
\Guyot 



U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
A. C. L 

U. S. G. S. 

S. R. R.-_ 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 

Guyot 

j Yeates 

\U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S._ 



900a 
3,918 
1,268 

3,909 
240 

50 

52 
71 
398 
327 
188 
3,500a 
3,639 
135a 
198 
116 
1,400a 
1,250a 

72 
2,000a 
5,200a 
4,600 
6,458 
5,622 
18 



54 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Terrapin Mountain 

Terrell, in front of station. 

Thaxton 

The Peak.. , 

The Peak 

The Pinnacle. 

Thermal City 

Thermometer Knob 

Thickety 

Third Creek....! 

Thomas Bridge. 

Thomasville, at ticket office 

Thornton Store 

Three Brothers 

Three Forks Mountain... 

Thre'e Top.. 

Thunderhead 

Thunder Knob 

Thurman 



Description of 
Station 



Tillery. 



Timothy 

Tise 

Tobaccoville. 
Toddy 

Toecane 

Toisnot 

Toketah 



Tomahawk 

Tom Knob 

Tomotla 

Tompkins Knob 

Topsy 

Topton 

Toxaway, Lake (water sur- 
face) 

Tracy 

Transon 

Traphill 

Tremont 

Trenton, at county court- 
house.. 

Triangle 

Tricorner Knob 

Trinity 

Trinity College 

Trinity School 

Triplett 

Trotville. 

Trout 



Troutmans. 



Mountain. 

Station 

Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 

Village 

Church 

Bridge 

Postoffice. 

Store 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Village 



County 



Postoffice- 



Village.. 

Station 

Postoffice 

Hamlet 

Postoffice 

Railroad crossing. 
Mountain.. 



True Lone. 

Trust 

Tryol 

Tryon 

Tryon, near postoffice 

Tryon, at road crossing 

Tryon, at State line crossing 



Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 

Village 

Postoffice. 

Lake 

Village 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 



Postoffice.. 

Village 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

College campus. 

School. 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice. 



Postoffice. 

Mountain. 
Postoffice. 



Postoffice. 
Postoffice- 
Postoffice- 
Postoffice. 



Jackson 

Buncombe 

Ashe 

Ashe 

Mitchell 

Gaston 

Rutherford 

Haywood 

Montgomery.. 

Rowan 

Hertford 

Davidson 

Wayne 

Swain 

Transylvania- 
Ashe. 

Swain 

Swain 

Craven 



Halifax. 



Sampson. 
Forsyth.. 
Forsyth.. 

Pitt 

Mitchell- 
Wilson 

Macon 



Sampson- 
Watauga.. 
Cherokee. 
Wilkes.... 

Gates 

Cherokee- 



Transylvania. 

Watauga 

Ashe. 

Wilkes 

Macon 



Jones... 
Gaston. 



Randolph. 
Durham... 

Lincoln 

Watauga- 
Gates 

Ashe 



Iredell- 



Madison 

Madison 

Rutherford- 
Polk 

Polk 

Polk- 

Polk 



Authority 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot. 

N. C. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S._. 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

/Wil. & Weldon.. 

\A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 



N. & W 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A..C. L 

N. C. G. S., Kerr's 

Map 

C. F. &Y. V. R.R. 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 



U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S- 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 

U. S. G. S._ 
U. S.'G. S.. 

Guyot 

S. R. R.— 

Toner 

S. R. R— . 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 

U. S. G. S. 

S. R. R— 
U. S. G. S.: 
U. S. G. S._ 



Elevation 
in Feet 



S. R. R 

U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 



4,510 

2,524 

3,700a 

5,195 

3,866 

1,705 

996 

6,157 

441 

800a 

850 

850 

190 

5,907 

3,740 

5,029 

5,520 

5,682 

27 

101 

70 

195 

934 

999 

89 

2,244 

130 

5,373 
99 
4,293 
1,600a 
4,055 
33 
2,850a 

2,998 

3,390a 

3,000a 

1,150a 

3,700a 

28 

■ 824 

6,188 

871 

400 

878 

1,850a 

39 
2,900a 
955 
955 
4,300a 
2,500a 
l-,150a 
1,050a 
1,075 
1.185 
1,058 



Altitudes in ISTorth Carolina 



55 



Location of Station 



Tryon Mountain 

Tryon Mountain, N. E. 

summit 

Tuckaseigee 

Tugwell 

Tulu 

Tulula— _. 

Tunis 

Turkey 

Turkey Knob 

Turkey Knob 

Turnage 

Turner Crossroads 

Turner Mountain ._. 

Turnersburg 

Turners Hill 

Turnpike 

Tuscarora, road crossing 

at station 

Tuscola 

Tuskeegee 

Tusquitee 

Tusquitee Bald 

Tusquitee Gap 

Tuttles 

Tuttles Gap 

Twine 

Tyner ... 



Description of 
Station 



Mountain. 



M ountain 

Postoffice . 

Village 

Postoffice 

Village 

Postoffice 

M ountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Village 

Hamlet. 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Railroad crossing. 
Station . 



Postoffice. 

Village 

Postoffice. 
Village 



Mountain. 



Mountain gap. 

Store 

Mountain gap. 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 



County 



Polk. 



Polk 

Jackson 

Pitt. 

Chowan 

Graham 

Hertford 

McDowell 

Henderson 

Jackson-Macon- 
Edgecombe 

Cleveland 

Surry 

Iredell 

Cumberland 

Buncombe.. 



Craven 

Haywood. 
Graham... 
Clay 



Clay. 



Clay 

Alexander- 



Clay..... 
Chowan. 



Authority 



U. S. C. &G. S-. 

U. S. C. &G. S-. 
U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S __.. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.. ._ 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



C. F. & Y. V. R.R. 
U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

{Yeates _.. 
Guyot 
U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Montgomery 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



Elevation 
in Feet 



3,249 

3,090 
2,184 
82 
42 
2,500a 
10a 
1,900a 
3,600a 
4,540 
115 
985 
2,100a 
750a 
217 
2,259 

39 
2,594 
1,900a 
2,050a 
5,291 
5,314 
5,200a 
3,800a 
1,100a 
3,947 
1,890a 

48 



U 



Uintah Knob. 
Unaka 



Unaka Mountain. 

Uncas 

Underwood 



Union 

Union 

Union-Anson county line.. 
Union Hope 

University, N. W. of station 
University, in front of sta._ 

Upper Pungo School 

Upton 



Mountain. 
Postoffice. 

Mountain. 

Village 

Mountain. 



Village- 
Church. 



Hamlet 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 

School 

Postoffice. 



Cherokee 

Mitchell 

Mecklenburg. 
Henderson... 



Hertford. 
Caldwell- 



Nash 

Orange... 
Orange. .. 
Beaufort. 
CaldwelL 



Toner 

U. S. G. S.. 

f Yeates 

\U. S. G. S 
U. S. G. S.. 

J Yeates 

\U. S. G. S 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 



4,419 

1,675a 

5,233 

5,258 

765 

3,203 

3,300 

54 

1,350a 

456 

330 

471 

470 

11 

1,420a 



Valdese, in front of station 

Valle Crucis 

Valley 

Valley town 

Vance 



Postoffice 
Postoffice 
Postoffice 
Village. .. 
Village.-- 



Burke 

Watauga. 

Avery 

Cherokee 
Iredell 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 

Toner 

U. S. G. S. 



1,202 
2,720a 
4,000a 
1,783 
900a 



56 



Altitudes in North Carolina 






Location of Station 


Description of 
Station 


County 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Vanceboro, near postoffiee_ 


Postoffice -. 


Craven 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


22 


Vantine -_ _ _ 


Village. ------ 

Village. 


Gaston.. 


943 


Vashti .- 


Alexander.. .. 


1,240a 


Vass _ . _- -. . 


Postoffice ._ 


Moore. 


S. A. L.. 


317 


Vaughan 


Postoffice ._ 


Warren. 


S. A. L.__ 


347 


Vein Mountain . 


Postoffice,- -. 


McDowelL. 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


1,600a 


Venable . _ 


Village 


Surry 


1,150a 


Verble..- .___ 


Village 


Rowan . 


850a 


Verona. .. 


Postoffice... - 


Onslow.. .. 


A. C. L 


51 


Vests .. 


Postoffice.. . 

Postoffice.-. -- 


Cherokee .. . 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.— 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


1 , 600a 


Vilas 


Watauga.. 


2,850a 


Vineyard- - 


Mountain 


Clay - 


4,900a 


Virgil - _. 


Postoffice.-. -._ . 


Watauga. 


2,750a 


Vivian- 


Village - _ _ 


Gates 


30 











w 



Waco _ 


Postoffice 

Station. 

Railroad crossing. 
Postoffice.. __ 

Town 

Mill 


Cleveland... __ ._ . 

Columbus 

Columbus _ _ 

Cumberland. . 

Anson . . 


U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

A. C. L 

A. C. L 

/A. C. L 


917 


Waccamaw.-- - .. .. 

Waccamaw Lake . . 

Wade 


65 

46 

141 

420 


Wadesboro . . . 


\S. A. L 






Catawba . .. 


418 


Wagners.. -- 


U. S. G. S 

N. & W 


950a 


Wagoner .-. .. 


Village.. . ... ._ 


Forsyth. 


882 


Wake 


Station 


Wake 


/S. A. L 

\R. &G. R. R. .__ 
C. F. &Y.V. R. R. 

U. S. G. S 

N. & W 


386 


Wakulla 


Postoffice. 


Robeson -- - 


384 
208 


Walker Knob 


Mountain _ ._ _ 


Burke -_ _ . 


2,919 


Walkertown. . . .. 


Postoffice 


Forsyth 


982 


Wallace 


Postoffice _ 


Duplin.. ... 


A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

/C. F.&Y.V. R.R. 
\N. & W 


53 


Walla Watta, at station _. 


Station 


Beaufort . _ . 

Stokes - 


34 


Walnut Cove _______ 


Postoffice . _ 

Mountain 

Mountain 


625 




Ashe - _. 

Madison __ 

Madison 


621 


Walnut Hill 


U. S. G. S 

Toner. ... . . 


2,700a 


Walnut Mountain __ 


4,335 


Walnut Run. _ .-. . .. 


Village. _. . 
Hamlet... 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 


2,150 


Walton Crossroads 




30 


Ware Bridge 


Bridge 


Cleveland 


542 


Warne ... 


Postoffice 


Clay 


1,800a 


Warren. . .. 


Mill . 


Buncombe .. 


2,250a 


Warren Plains ... 


Postoffice . . 


Warren ... .. 


453 




Postoffice 


Wairen _ . 


fS. A. L 


451 


Warrenton _. . 


\R, & G. R. R. -_ 

Montgomery . 

A. C. L 

Wil. & Weldon.... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S... 

S. A. L 




Warrior Gap 






451 

1,465 


Warsaw. . 


Postoffice. 

Town 

Town 

Hamlet 

Postoffice. 


Duplin .. ... 

Beaufort. . 


154 


Washington 


8 


Washington, at courthouse- 


Beaufoit . 


11 


Wasp -.._ 


Craven.. _. .. 


24 


Watauga Falls 


Watauga _ 


2.630a 


Watauga Gap.. . .. 


Mountain gap 

Mountain ._ 


Macon-Jackson 

Haywood- Jackson 

Haywood 

Vance - - 


3,280 


Water Rock Knob. ._ 


6,399 


Waterville __ 




• 1,300a 


Watkins 


Village.- 


410 


Watsonville 


Hamlet 


Rowan 

Iredell 


835 


Watts 


Mill.. 


795 


Wauchecha Bald, 


Mountain.. 


Graham 


4,400a 


Waxhaw- . 


Postofficc 


Union.-- -- 


645 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



57 



Location of Station 


Description of 
Station 


County 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Wayah Bald 


Mountain. . 


Macon 


(U. S. G. S 

\Guyot ... . 

S. R. R 


5,400a 


Waynesville . _ 


Town . 


Haywood . 


5,494 
2,635 


Waynesville, near station. 


Town.. 


Haywood .... 


U. S. G. S 

Weather Bur . 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(U. S. G. S 

\Geo. of N. C 


2,637 


Waynesville . . _ 


Town . 


Haywood. - 


2,756 


Wayside ... 


Postoffice .. 


Swain 


1,500a 


Wease . . 


Mountain ... _ 


Rutherford- - . 


2,100a 


Weasel. . _ 


Village- 


Ashe ..... 


2,790 


Weatherman Bald .. 


Mountain _ 


Clay 


4,700a 


Weaversford. . 


Postoffice . 

Postoffice - 
Church 

Postoffice... 


Ashe. .. 


5,000 
2,500a 


Weaverville. - 


Buncombe. 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(S. R. R 

\v. S. G. S 

[Toner 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U..S. G. S 

Kerr's Map 

(A. C. L 

S. A. L 

|R. &G. R. R. ... 

Weather Bur 

U. S. G. S.... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

JGuyot.. 


2,300a 


Webb 


Catawba 


800a 


Webster .. . 


Jackson 


1,979 

2,188 


Weddington Church 


Church . _ 


Union .... . _ 
Iredell .. 


2,203 
725 


Weisner . . 


Hamlet 


900a 


Welch 




Graham .. _ 


1 , 650a 


Welch Bald 


Mountain. . 
Town 


Swain ... 


5,087 


Weldon. ... ... 


Halifax ,_ . 

Buncombe 


67 

77 


Wells 


Mill _ 


72 

81 

2,275 


Wells Knob ... ... .... 


Mountain 


Wilkes. 


1,810 


Wenona. 


Station 


Washington. ... 


19 


Wentworth 


School ._ 


Johnston _ 


195 


Wesner Bald ...-. .. . __ 


Mountain 


Haywood-Jackson 

Jackson. . 


5,570 




Mountain . _ 


4,576 


Wessah Knob 


\U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S - 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot- -_ 




Wesser . 


Pos toffee .. .. 


Swain .. 


4,979 
1,650a 


WesserBald 


Mountain. . 


Macon .. 


4,800a 


Western Bald Mountain. .. 


Mountain ___. 


Haywood. 


5,692 


West Peak 


Mount ain. 


Swain-Tennessee 
Macon 


Geo. of N. C. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 


6,568 


Wests Mill 


Postoffice . 


2,000a 


Wharton, near station.. 


Station. 


Beaufort 


19 


Wheat Swamp Church. _ 


Church- 


Lenoir. 


114 


Wheeler .... 


Village.- ______ 


Ashe 


3,290a 


Whichard. 


Postoffice . 


Pitt 

Edgecombe _ _ 

Alleghany ... 


46 


Whitakers . . .. 


Postoffice 


121 


Whitehead 


Postoffice . . 


U. S. G. S 


2,800a 


Whitehouse 


Village 




Whitehouse. ... 




McDowell. 




1,350a 


Whitener. 


Village ----- 


Catawba- 




900a 


White Oak 


Postoffice - - - 


Bladen - . . . 

Onslow ... . . 

Polk 

Sampson... 
Nash... 
Johnston.. ._ 

Graham _ _ _ _ 

Madison 


A. C. L 

A. C. L 


46 


White Oak 


Station. _ . 


46 


White Oak 


Mountain - 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 


2,900a 


White Oak 


Church. . 


160 


White Oak Church 


Church. 


207 


White Oak Creek 


Railroad crossing. 
Mountain.. 


145 


White Oak Knob 


Geo. of N. C. 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot.- .. . .. 


4,301 


White Rock 


Postoffice. 


1,800a 


White Rock Ridge 




5,528 


Whiteside Cove 


Village _ 

Mountain .. ._ 

Mountain 

Mill 


Jackson 


3,000a 


Whiteside Mountain . 


Jackson . _ . _ 


fU. S. G. S 

\U.'S. C. & G. S._ 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot .- 


4,930 


Whites Knob 


Burke. . 


4,931 
1,800a 


Whites Mill 


Iredell 


760a 


White Top Mountain 


5,530 



58 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Whiteville 

Whitford 

Whitley Place 

Whittier 

Whittington 

Wharton. 

Wiggins Crossroads 

Wiggins Crossroads 

Wikles Store.— 

Wilbanks 

Wildcat Knob 

Wildwood 

Wilhite 

Wilkes 

Wilkesbor o 

Wilkins. T 

Wilkinson 

Willard 

Willardville- 

Willey town 

Williamsburg 

Williamston, at county 

courthouse 

Willow 

Willowgreen 

Wilmington 

Wilmington, at old depot. 
Wilmington, at Union Sta. 

Wilmot-. 

Wilson. _ 

Wilson, at county court- 

house.. 

Wilson Knob 

Wilsons 

Wilsons 

Wilsons Mills, near station 

Wilsons Store 

Windingstair Knob 

Wine Spring Bald 

Winfall 

Winfrey Gap 

Winstead 

Winston^Salem 



Winterville, near station.. 
Winton, at county court 

house. 

Wisnants 

Wolf Knob.... 

Wolf Pen Knob 

Wolf Pen Mountain 

Wood 

Woodland . 



Description of 
Station 



Postomce. 

Village 

Hamlet 

Postoffice. 

Village 

Village 

Hamlet 

Village 

Village 

Village 

Mountain. 
Postofflce_ 

Village 

Church 

Postoffice- 

Village 



Station 

Postoffice. 

Station 

Village 

Hamlet... 



Postomce. 

Village 

Village 

City 

City 

City 

Postomce. 
Town 



Town 

Mountain- 
Store 

Mill 

Postomce. 

Hamlet 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 

Postomce. 



Mountain gap, 
Crossroads 



City_ 



Postoffice Pitt 



Postofhce. 

Store 

Mountain. 
Mountain- 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Postoffice. 



County 



Columbus... 

Jones 

Johnston 

Swain 

Wilkes 

Beaufort 

Edgecombe- 
Gates 

Macon 

Wilson.. 

McDowell... 

Carteret 

Yancey 

Burke 

Wilkes 



Granville. 

Beaufort. 

Pender 

Durham.. 



Iredell- 



Martin 

Gates 

Greene 

New Hanover- 
New Hanover. 
New Hanover- 
Jackson 

Wilson 



Wilson 

Yancey-Buncombe- 
Sampson ; 

Catawba 

Johnston 

Sampson 

Burke 

Macon 



Perquimans- 

Cherokee 

Nash 



Forsyth- 



Hertford 

Catawba 

Swain 

Haywood 

Caldwell 

McDowell 

Northampton- 



Authority 



A. C. L 

U. S. G. S..__ 
U. S. G. S.-. 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S..__ 
U. S. G. S—_ 
U. S. G. S.-_ 
U. S. G. S._._ 
U. S. G. S— 
U. S. G. S— 
U. S. G. S— 
U. S. G. S.-_ 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.— 

S. R. R 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S— 

A. C. L 

N. & W 

Weather Bur. 
U. S. G. S—_ 



U. S. G. S.-_ 
U. S. G. S.... 
U. S. G. S..._ 
Weather Bur . 

S. A. L 

A. C. L. 

S. R. R._ 

A. C. L 



U. S. G. S.. 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S -.- 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

Kerr's Map 

U. S..G. S 

'N. & W 

U. S. G. S 

Weather Bur 

N. W. N. C. R. R. 

S. R, R 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
S. A. L.__. 



Elevation 
in Feet 



59 
26 

150a 
1,872 
1,150a 
19 
105 
30 
2,150a 

124 
2,600a 

20 

2,496 

1,130a 

959 

357 

360 

11 

51 

424 

45 



60 

36 

76 

8 

10 

29 

1,881 

133 

145 
5,200a 

185 

1,000a 

228 

189 

3,473 

5,500a 

16 

16 

3,493 

171 

858 

884 

1,000 

884 

878 

884 

72 

45 
1,050a 
4,900a 
3,200a 
2,137 
3,500 

72 



Altitudes in I^orth Carolina 



59 



Location of Station 


Description of 
Station 


County 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Woodlawn, one fourth mile 
from postoffice 


Postoffice 

Postoffice 


McDowell 


U. S. G. S 


1,394 


Woodleaf 


Rowan . 


800a 


Woods 


Crossroads 

Village _ 


Johnston 

Person 


U. S. G. S 

N. & W 


212 


Woodsdale. .- 


467 


Woodside . 


Station 


Pender 

Mitchell 


A. C. L 


51 


Woods Knob 


Mountain 

Village 


U. S. G. S.— 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 


4,248 


Woodville 


Perquimans 


5 


Woolard Crossroads 


Crossroads- _ ... 

School 

Hamlet _ 

Station 


Beaufort . . . 


61 


Worth School 


Lenoir... 

Edgecombe 

New Hanover 


80 


Wrendale .. 


69 


Wrightsboro .. 


34 


Wyatt 


Village . ._ 


Wake ... 


S. A. L 


273 









Yadkin Valley. 


Postoffice 


Caldwell 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 


1,300a 


Yadkinville 


Postoffice 


Yadkin . 


960 


Yale 


Hamlet .. .. 


Henderson 


2,200a 


Yarnall Knob 


Mountain 


Watauga.. ... . 

Buncombe-Yancey 

Yancey.. ... 

Graham 

Wilkes 

Macon-Jackson 

Mitchell 


3,900a 


Yeates Knob 


Mountain. 


6,001 


Yeates Knob 


Mountain 


5,975 


Yellow Creek. . 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fu. S. G. S 

[Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

Jn. s. r. r 

\U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Geo. of N. C. 

U. S. G. S 

fS. A. L 

\R. &G. R.R 

U. S. G. S 


3,700a 


Yellow Hill 


Mountain _ 


1,300a 


Yellow Mountain 


Mountain 


f 5,132 
\ 5,240 


Yellow Mountain '. ._ 


Mountain _ 


5,108 
5,330 


Yeopim 


Station... _ 


Perquimans 

Rowan. 


18 


Young Mountain. 


Mountain . ._ 


15 
1,092 


Young Pisgah. 


Mountain ._ 


Buncombe . . 


4,017 


Young's Knob 


Mountain 


4,387 


Young's Mountain. _ 


Mountain 


Rutherford... 

Franklin 

Watauga 


2,700a 


Youngsville ._ 


Postoffice _ _ 


451 


Yuma . 


Postoffice . 


449 
3,100a 











z 



Zeb 




Rowan 




810a 


Zion 


Church 


Catawba. 

McDowell 

Yadkin 

Watauga . 

Wilkes.. . 

Henderson _ . 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


1,000a 


Zion . . 


Church. . . . _. _ 

Hamlet.. 

Postoffice 

Hamlet.- 

Postoffice.- 


1,475 


Zion 


1,050 


Zionville . . .. 

Zimmerman ... 

Zirconia, near station . .. 


3,300a 
1,100a 
2,084 



ALTITUDES IN NORTH CAROLINA 

ARRANGED BY COUNTIES 



ALAMANCE COUNTY 



Location of Station 


Descripticn of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Back Creek ._ _. . ._ ._ 


Creek at So. Ry. track 
level .. 


/U. S. G. S 

\N. Car. R. R 

N. C. G. S 


538 




504 


Burlington... 


Postoffice 


663 


Burlington, in front of station . 


Postoffice .. 


U. S. G. S.-_ 


662 


Elon College, at road crossing 


Postoffice .. . 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. Car. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

N. Car. R. R._ 


716 


Graham, in front of station. __ . .. 


Town ... ... 


655 


Graham, front of courthouse ._ 


Town .. __ . 


641 


Graham . ._ . 


Town.. 


677 


Haw River, in front of station. . 
Haw River . _ 


Postoffice . 

Postoffice. 


536 
523 


Mebane, at station.. --.-.. 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


678 


Mebane, N. E. corner of station 


Postoffice .. _ 


677 


Mebane, in front of station.. _ . _ 


Postoffice. 


676 







ALEXANDER COUNTY 



All Healing Springs. 

Asbury 

Bald Knob 

Barrett Mountain 

Bells Mill.. 

Broad Shoals 

Coon Mount 

Dealville 

Grade 

Hedrick 



Hiddenite. 



Holsclaw 

Kilby 

Lackey Mountain 

Little Buck Mountain. 

Little River 

Littles 

Mount Bethel 

Oxford Ford .. 

Partee 

Pearson Knob 

Polycarp 

Poplar Spring 

Rocky Face 

Rocky Springs 

Round Top 

Sloan... 

Spring Mountain. 



Taylors vi lie. 

Tuttles 

Vashti 



Village 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 



Mountain. 
Pcstoffice. 

Village 

Village 



Postoffice. 



Village 

Village 

Mountain 

M ountain 

Station 

Mill 

Village 

Crossing, Catawba River. 

Village 

Mountain 

Village 

Church 

Mountain 

Hamlet 

Mountain 

Village 

M ountain 



Postoffice 

Store 

Village 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



U. S. G. S.. 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S.1 
U. S. G. S._ 



U. S. G. S.. 



U. S. G. S. 



U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S.. 

U. S. G. S. 

S. R. R. ... 
U. S. G. S.. 



1,225 
1,804 
1,887 
1,950 
1,275a 

950a 
1,520 
1,150 

975a 

920 
1,140 
1,140 
1,250a 
1,350a 
1,430 
1,890 
1,125a 

900a 
1,100a 

829 
1,150a 
1,850 
1,000a 
1,300 
1,814 
1,150a 
1,750 
1,090 
1,620 
1,400a 
1,250a 
1 , 100a 
1,240a 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



61 



ALLEGHANY COUNTY 



Location of Station 



Bald Knob 

Bullhead 

Cherry Lane 

Edwards Crossroads 

Fender Knob 

Ferny Knob 

Helena 

Hooker 

Laurel Springs 

Norman 

Sparta 

Stone Mountain 

Whitehead 



Descriotin cf Static n 



Mountain- 
Mountain. 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 

Village 

Village 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Postoffice. 



Authcrity 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S—_ . 
Kerr's Map... 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S 

N. C.G. S., Kerr's Map. 
N. & W 



U. S. G. S- 



Yeates 

U. S. G. S. 



Elevation 
in Feet 



3,653 
3,800a 
3,784 
2,810a 
2,800a 
3,600a 
4,150 
553 
2,600a 
2,850a 
2,500a 
2,850a 
3,879 
2,800a 



ANSON COUNTY 



Anson-Union county line 




S. A. L 

S. A. L 

A. C. L 

S. A. L. 


456 


Beamans - 


Station.- - 


407 


Bennetts . __ _. ._. 


Station. ____ ... 


251 


Beverly. ._ . 

Boggan _ - 


Station . _ 


90 


Station. .... 


S. A. L 


306 


Carr's Mountain _____ _ . 


Village.. _ . ... . 

Postoffice- 

Station. ._ 


S. A. L 


445 


Lilesville . _ ._ 


s. a.'l 

S. A. L 


474 


Louisboro - _ _. 


406 


McFarlan 


Postoffice^ .- -_ 


A. C. L 

A. C. L 


297 


Morven ___ ___,_ 


Postoffice-- . -. 


341 


Peachland. _ 


Postoffice .- 


S. A. L 


417 


Pee Dee. _ _ 


Postoffice-.- ----- 


S. A. L 


242 


Polkton -_. 


Postoffice.-- --- - . 


S. A. L 


292 




Town _. __ 


(S. A. L 


418 


Wadesboro ____ ____ 


) 

\A. c. l 








420 












ASHE COUNTY 



Apple Grove 

Baldwin 

Baldwin Gap 

Beaver Creek 

Black Mountain 
Bluff Mountain- 
Brandon 

Clifton.— 

Comet 

Creston 

Cut Laurel Gap. 

Dandy 

Dresden 

Elk Crossroads.. 

Fig 

Glenn 

Graybeal 

Helton 

Idlewild 

Jefferson 



Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mountain gap. 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Postoffice 

Mountain gap. 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Hamlet 

Postoffice 

Hamlet 

Village 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 



U. S. 

u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 



G. S. 
G. S. 
G. S. 
G. S. 
G. S. 
G. S. 
G. S. 
G. S. 
G. S. 
G. S. 
G. S. 
G. S. 
G. S. 
G. S. 
G. S. 
G. S. 
G. S. 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



3,137 

3,250a 

3,500a 

2,990a 

4,649 

5,073 

2,850a 

2,900a 

2,990a 

2,850a 

3,746 

3,455 

2,800a 

3,000a 

2,880a 

3,500a 

3,000a 

2,850a 

2,700a 

2,900a 



62 



Altitudes in Nokth Cakolina 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Mullato Mountain __ 


Mountain. . 


Kerr's Map . _ 


4,680 


Nathans Creek . _ 


Postoffice. .. .... .. 


A. C. L 


2,800a 


Negro Mountain. .. _. .___ 


Mountain. _'_ _ _ __ 


U. S. C. &G. S 


4,597 


Nigger Mountain 


Mountain.. 


U. S. G. S 


4,600a 


Obids 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


2,800a 


Old Field Bald 


Mountain . ... _ .. 


U. S. G. S 


4,939 


Ore Knob-. - _ 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


3,150a 


Paddy Mountain 


Mountain. ... 


U. S. G. S. 


4,200a 


Peak, The 


Mountain. _ 


U. S. G. S 


5,195 




Mountain ... 


(U. S. G. S 


4,700a 


Phoenix Mountain 


T Kerr's Map . .. 






Village . . 


4,673 


Pinckton _. .. 


U. S. G. S 


3,498 


Pond 


Mountain . . ._ 


U. S. G. S 


5,000a 


Riverside 


Postoffice... . _ _ . _. 


U. S. G. S. 


2,950a 


Roten .. 


Village .. . 


U. S. G. S 


3,050a 


Sabbath Home. _ 


Church. 


U. S. G. S 


2,796 


Scottville 


Postoffice.. .—_..... . . 


U. S. G. S 


2,950a 


Silas Creek_. . ... _ _. ... 


Postoffice- -. 




2,740a 


Solitude . 


Village. 


U. S. G. S.-. 


3,000a 


Sutherland- 


Village 


U. S. G. S 


3,150a 


Thaxton 


Postoffice. _ . 


U. S. G. S.... 


3,700a 


The Peak 


Mountain.. . . 


U. S. G. S 


5,195 


Transon 


Postoffice.. -. . ... 


U. S. G. S 


3,000a 


Three Top . 


Mountain ._ .. .. 


U. S. G. S. 


5,029 


Trout 


Postoffice . . 


U. S. G. S 


2,900a 


Walnut Hill. ._ 


Mountain. .. 


U. S. G. S 


2,700a 


Weasel . _ . . 


Village. 


U. S. G. S 


2,790 


Weaversford 


Postoffice. _. 




2,500a 


Wheeler _ _ 


Village . 


U. S. G. S 


3,290a 











AVERY COUNTY 



Banners Elk 

Beech Mountain 

Beech Creek 

Cranberry 

Crossnore 

Darkridge 

Elk Park (Hotel) 

Frank 

Gragg . 

Grandfather Mountain . 

Grandfather Mountain, triangulation 
station . 

Grandmother 

Hanging Rock 

Hughes 

Hunters Chapel 

Ingalls 

Linville 

Linville 

Minneapolis 

Montezuma 

Newland 



Postoffice . . .. 


U. S. G. S 


Mountain _ . 


U. S. G. S 


Postoffice . .. _. .. 


U. S. G. S 


Postoffice . 


(E. T. & W. N. C. R. R. 
\Mont 




Postoffice . 


U. S. G. S 


Postoffice ... _ . 




Postoffice 


N. C. G. S 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


Mountain _ 


(U. S. G. S 

\Guyot 1 .. .. 




Triangulation station 


U. S. G. S.. 




(U. S. G. S 


Mountain 


\Toner 




Mountain ... . _ 


U. S. G. S 

Toner 


Postoffice 


Church .. 


U. S. G. S... 


Postoffice . . 


U. S. G. S 


Cave.. .. 

Postoffice.. . _ 

Postoffice .. 


U. S. G. S 

Weather Bur. _. 

U. S. G. S 


Postoflicc. 


U. S. G. S 


Postofficc 


(V. S. G. S 

^Montgomery. _ - 





3,700a 

5,522 

2,630a 

3,250 

3,146 

3,400a 

3,000a 

3,250 

3,100a 

2,890a 

5,964 

5,897 

5,964 

4,686 

5,787 

5,237 

1,716 

2,855 

2,S00a 

3,350a 

3,800 

3,400a 

3,882 

3,695 

3,695 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



63 



Location of Station 



Old Fields of Toe (Newland postoffice) 

Pineola 

Plumtree 

Senia 

Spear 

Sugar Mountain 

Valley 



Description of Station 



Village. .- 

Postoffice 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 

Mountain 

Postoffice. 



Authority 



Elevation 
in Feet 



U. S. G. S.._. 

Montgomery 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S._._. 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S..._ 
(U. S. G. S.„. 

|Yeates 

U. S. G. S.._. 



3,695 

3,695 

3,900a 

2,839 

3,400a 

2,839 

5,289 

5,282 

4,000a 



BEAUFORT COUNTY 



Acre 

Alligoods, at road crossing. 

Bath 

Beckwith 

Belhaven 

Belhaven, near station 

Bishop Cross. 

Bishop Cross, near station. 

Bunyan, near station 

Chocowinity 

Gilead 

Hall Swamp, at station 

Haslin Corner _ 

Haslin School 

Indian Creek 

Latham 

Leggett's Crossroads 

Lower Pungo School 

Mineola 

Pantego 

Pantego, near station 

Pike Road 

Pinetown 

Pinetown, near station 

Pungo 

River Road Station 

Rover. 

Slatestone, at station 

Stallings Crossroads 

Terra Ceia 

Upper Pungo School 

Walla Watta, at station 

Washington 

Washington, at courthouse 

Wharton, near station , 

Wilkinson 

Woolard Crossroads 



Station 

Station 

Postoffice 

Village 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Station 

Station 

Station 

Postoffice 

Village 

Station 

Hamlet 

Hamlet 

Postoffice (Pungo). 

Hamlet 

Crossroads 

School 

Hamlet 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Station 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice J. 

Station 

Village 

Station 

Hamlet 

Postoffice 

School 

Station 

Town... 

Town.. 

Station 

Station 

Crossroads 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
S. R. R.— . 



N. S. R. R._ 
U. S. G. S... 
N. S. R. R.. 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
N. S. R. R.. 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Wil. & Weldon. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



s._ 
s._ 



34 
38 

9 
185 

4 

4 

5 
12 
14 
40 
36 
37 

3 
10 

3 
17 
33 

7 
25 

6 
11 
19 
43 
43 

3 
21 
36 
40 
44 
18 
11 
34 

8 
11 
19 
11 
61 



BERTIE COUNTY 



Black Rock 


Village 

Postoffice . _ _ _ _ 

Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 


30 


Kelford 


93 


Lewiston __ _ . . 


76 


Quitsna ... 


Postoffice _ _ _ 

Postoffice _ 


29 


Roxobel ... . _ 


97 









64 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



BLADEN COUNTY 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Abbottsburg .._.__.. 


Postoffice 

Town .. 


S. A. L 


106 




(S. A. L 


105 


Bladenboro . _ . 


|Car. C. R. R 

JS. A. L 

\Car. C. R. R 

S. A. L._ 




Brown Marsh _ __ _ 


Station.. 


110 
100 


Brown Marsh Swamp... . _ _ 


Station . _._ _. __ _ 


100 
65 


Clarkton 


Postoffice 


S. A. L..._ 


104 


Council,.. ________ _ _ 


Postoffice .. ._ _ 


S. A. L.__ 


70 


Cypress Creek 


Village. _. .... 


A. C. L 


49 


Jerome__ . 


Postoffice 


A. C. L 


194 




Station .. 


/S. A. L 


65 


Marlville - - _. _ 


ICar. C. R. R 






Postoffice 


65 




JS. A. L 


120 


Rosindale.. ._ . . .. 


\Car. C. R. R 






Postoffice 


127 


White Oak 


A. C. L. 


46 











BRUNSWICK COUNTY 



Malmo 

Northwest 

Phoenix 

Southport. 



Village 

Station.. _ 
Postoffice 
Postoffice 



A. C. L 

S. A. L 

S. A. L 

Weather Bur 



66 
46 
40 
34 



BUNCOMBE COUNTY 



Acton 

Alexander 

Alexander 

Alexander, in front of station 

Alexander, near station 

Alto 

Arden 

Asheville, in front of station 

Asheville, near station 

Asheville, at Square 

Asheville, at postoffice 

Asheville, highway bridge over 

French Broad 

Asheville 

Asheville 

Avery 

Avery Creek 

Azalea 

Azalea, at switch 

Balsam Gap 

Barnardsville 

Beau Catcher Mountain (Beaumont) 

Beaverdam Gap 

Beech 

Bee Tree _ 

Big Bald 

Big Craggy. _ _ 

Biltmore, in front of station 

Biltmore, platform at station 



Postoffice 

Mountain 

Station 

Station 

Station 

Village 

Postoffice 

City. 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

Village 

Village 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mountain gap 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain gap 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 



U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S ,. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S _. 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Weather Bur 

Die. of Elev, 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fU. S. C. & G. S 

\Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



2,000a 

6,447 

1,792 

1,791 

1,795 

2,400a 

2,250a 

1,984 

1,985 

2,340 

2,208 

1,981 

2,250 

2,250 

2,175 

2,255 

2,053 

2,056 

5,000a 

2,185a 

3,200a 

3,500 

2,350a 

5,500a 

5,540 

6,068 

6,090 

1,992 

1,993 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



65 



Location of Station 



Biltmore, office of Biltmore Estate... 
Biltmore 

Black Knob 

Black Mountain 

Black Mountain, in front of station. 

Blackstocks Knob. 

Brown Knob 

Buena vista - 

Bullhead Mountain _. 

Busbee. 

Busbee 

Candler 

Canto 

Carriers Springs 

CedarclifT 

Chestnut Mountain 

Coxcomb .' 

Craggy D ome 

Craggy Pinnacle 

Dea ver View 

Democrat 

Dill's Knob 

Dunsmore 

Dunsmore, near ford.!. 

Dunsmore Mountain 

Elk Mountain 

Emma 

Fairview. .. 

Frosty Knob 

Gem 

Glady 

Glen Inglis 

Grant ville 

Grassy Knob 

Graybeard Mountain 

Great Pisgah 

Gudgers Mills 

Hamburg Mountain 

Hanlon Mountain 

High Top 

Hominy 

Inanda.. 

Juno 

Jupiter 

Leicester 

Little Butt 

Little Snowball Mountain 

Lovelace Knob 

Luther 

5 



Description of Station 



Postomce. 
Postomce. 

Mountain. 

Mountain. 
Postoffice. 



Mountain. 

Mountain. 
Station 



Mountain. 

Mountain- 
Station 

Village 

Postoffice. 

Village 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 



Mountain. 

Mountain. 

Mountain. 

Mountain. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 

Village 

Village 

Mountain. 



Mountain. 

Village 

Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Village 

Village 

Mountain- 



Mountain. 

Mountain. 

Village 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 



Mountain. 

Station 

Village 

Village 

Village 

Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Village 



Authority 



U. S. G. S 

Weather Bur 

Geo. of N. C 

U. S. G. S.. 

Toner 

U. S. G. S .... 

(U. S. G. S 

s Guyot 

(U. S. C. & G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(Guyot 

\.U. S. G. S ..... 

Yeates 

S. R. R 

S. R. R .... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. C.G. S., Kerr's Map 
U. S. G. S..-. 
('Yeates. 



Guyot 

U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S..._ 
/U. S. G. S... 

\Guyot 

U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.-_ 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.... 
U. S. G. S.... 

(Yeates 

\U. S. G. S... 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.. . 
U. S. G. S.... 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S... 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S... 
Guyot. 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.— . 

Geo. of N. C 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S- 



Elevation 
in Feet 



1,994 

2,150 

4,249 

4,300a 

6,476 

2,367 

6,386 

6,380 

6,378 

3,760 

2,233 

5,935 

5,958 

3,700 

2,279a 

2,125a 

2,250a 

2,139 

3,850 

3,069 

5,410 

5,426 

5,400a 

6,105 

5,494 

5,945 

3,130 

2,119 

3,790a 

2,800 

2,387 

2,700a 

3,149 

3,190 

2,030 

2,250a 

4,676 

2,500a 

2,400a 

2,056 

2,050a 

2,710 

5,500 

5,448 

5,749 

5,757 

1,875 

2,910 

3,430 

4,300a 

4,380 

2,125 

2,150a 

2,100a. 

2,100a. 

2,106 

3,300a. 

4,824 

4,315 

2,200a 



Q6 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Lyttle's Peak 

Mascot 

Minehole Gap 

Montfcrd, in front of station. 

Mount Snowball.— 

Newfound. __, 

Olivette, in front of station, _. 

Pendleton Mill 

Pine 

Pinnacle 



Pisgah, Mount. 



Pisgah Mountain, triangulation 

* station 

Potato Knob 

Potato Top 

Richland Knob 

Rich Mountain 

Rockyface Mountain 

Run Knob 

Sandy Bottom 



Sandy Mush, near Union Church. 
Sandymush Bald 



Sandymush Bald, triangulation 

station 

Sanes Pinnacle 

Shell Knob 

Skyland, in front of station 

Smathers.-- 

Smathers View Mountain 

Snowball Mountain 

Spivey Mountain 

Stocksville 

Sulphur Springs 

Swannanoa 



Swannanoa Gap- 
Swannanoa Gap. 



Swannanoa Tunnel- 



Terrell, in front of station. 

Turnpike 

Warren 

Weaverville 

Wells 

Wilson Knob,. .• 



Yeates Knob__ 
Young Pisgah. 



Description of Station 



Mountain _. 

Village 

Mountain gap 

Station on Southern Ry 

M ountain 

Village 

Station on Southern Ry.. 

Hamlet 

M ountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Triangulation station 

Mountain 

M ountain 

M ountain 

M ountain 

Mountain 

M ountain . 

Village 

Postoffice 

Mountain . 

Triangulation station 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Village 

Mountain 

M ountain 

Mountain 

Pcstomce 

Station ... 

Pcstomce 

Mountain 

Mountain gap 

Tunnel on Southern Ry. 

Station 

Station... 

Mill 

Postoffice 

Mill 

Mountain .._. 

Mountain 

Mountain 



Authority 



Kerr's Map 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U.S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

'(U. S. G. S 

|U. S. C. &G. S. 
[Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S .... 

/U. S. G. S 

\Yeates 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

fU. S. G. S 

\Yeates 

U. S. G. S 

(8. R. R 

JToner 

[U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S—.t... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 



BURKE COUNTY 



Elevation 
in Feet 



,359 

,100a 

,555 

,968 

,400a 

,200a 

,895 

,990a 



,693 
,749 
,713 

,757 



5,749 

6,419 

6,393 

4,979 

3,535 

4,540 

3,800 

2,012 

2,250a 

5,168 

5,168 



,168 

,272 

,520 

,254 

,400a 

,203 

,494 

,331 

,250a 

,100 

,222 

,625 

,660 

,522 

,490 

,638 

,521 

,524 

,259 

,250a 

,300a 

,275 

,200a 

,001 

,975 

,017 



Amherst College 

Arneys Store 

Baton. 

Bonn .". 



Hamlet 

Hamlet 

Hamlet.. 

C. & G. S. station 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. &G. S 



1,019 
1,111 
1,238 

2,908 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



67 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


4 

Benn Knob .. . ___. 


Mountain 


fU. S. G. S 

\N.C.G.S., Kerr's Map. 
U. S. G. S 


2,894 


Bollins Knob 


M ountain 


2,908 
2,200 


Bridgewater, in front of station. 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


1,096 


Brindlet own 


Village .._ 




1,350 


Burke-Catawba Line 


Southern Railway crossing 
Hamlet __ 


U. S. G. S 


1,170 


Burkmont. _. 


U. S. G. S 


2,598 


Butler Knob.. 


Mountain. 


U. S. G. S 


2,062 


Calvin, in front of station 


Station. 


U. S. G. S 


1,060 


Chesterfield . 


Hamlet . 


U. S. G. S 


1,088 


Chestnut Mountain 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


3,173 


Cold Mountain .. 


Mountain __ 


U. S. G. S 


3,830 


Connelly's Gap. 


Mountain gap 


W; N. C. R. R 


1,269 


Connelly's Springs, in front of station 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S .... . 


1,194 


Cranberry Knob 


Mountain. 


U. S. G. S . 


4,223 


Deal's Knob 


Mountain 


Geo. of N. C 


2,922 


Devil Shoal Ford 


Crossing Catawba River__ 
Hamlet 


U. S. G. S 


945 


Dogwood 


U. S. G. S 


1,219 


Dogwood Stump Mountain . ._ 


Mountain .. . 


U. S. G. S 


2,546 


DrexeL. 


Postoffice. 


U. S. G. S 


1,191 


Friendship Church 


Church 


U. S. G. S 


1,145 


Glen Alpine, in front of station 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


1,210 


Glen Alpine, Hennessee & Co. Store 


Postoffice _ 


U. S. G. S 


1,214 


Glen Alpine Springs 


Resort 


U. S. G. S 


1,480 


Halls Knob 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S ... 


1,850a 


Hawksbill 


Mountain.. 


(V. S. G. S 

\Geo. of N. C 


4,030 




Mountain 


4,090 


Hickory Nut Mountain 


U. S. G. S.-_ 


2,512 


Hildebran, road crossing at station 


Postoffice... 


U. S. G. S 


1,148 


Hobart r 


Hamlet.. _ 


U. S. G. S 


1,309 


Hog Mountain 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


2,048 


Horse Mountain Gap 


Mountain gap 


U. S. G. S 


2,018 


Hunting Creek... . .. 


Railroad bridge and sta... 
Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


1,050 


Ironmonger 


U. S. G. S 


1,823 


Joy.. .. .. 


Hamlet. 


U. S. G. S 


1,091 


Linvilles Store 


Store 


U. S. G. S.. 


1,364 


Little 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


1,500a 


Long Arm Mountain 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


4,350 


Millers Mill 


Mill 


U. S. G. S 


1,000a 


Morganton 


Town 


S. R. R.— 


1,111 


Morganton 


Town 


Weather Bur 


1,135 


Morganton, in front of station 


Town 


U. S. G. S . 


1,110 


Morganton, at county courthouse 


Town.. 


U. S. G. S 

W. N. C. R. R 


1,181 


Morganton 


Town 


1,140 


Muttenz 


Hamlet _- 


U. S. G. S 


1,296 


Parks Mountain.. 


Mountain •_. 


U. S. G. S... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


4,066 


Penelope 


Hamlet _ _ 


1,170 


Piedmont Springs 


Hamlet 


1,217 


Pilot Mountain. 


Mountain. 


2,050a 


Pine Mountain. 


Mountain 

Mountain 


1,821 


Pond Ridge 


U. S. G. S 

Geo. of N. C 


3,546 


Propst's Knob 


M ountain 


3,022 


Rainbow Mountain 


Mountain. 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fN.C.G.S., Kerr's Map 
\U. S. G. S 


2,895 


Rector Knob... 


Mountain ._ .. ._ 


2,153 


Rollins.. 


Hamlet 


1,307 


Shortoff M ountain 


Mountain ^ _ 


3,105 




Railroad bridge 


3,127 


Silver Creek 


U. S. G. S ..... 


1,026 


Silver Creek Knob 


Mountain _ 


/U. S. C. & G. S. 

\U. S. G. S 


2,849 






2,838 



68 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Table Rock 


Mountain ._ ._ 


Geo. of N. C . 


3,918 


Table Rock 


Hamlet 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


1,268 


Table Rock Mountain, triangulation 
station. .. 


Triangulation station 

Postoffice _ _ _ 


3,909 


Valdese, in front of station 


U. S. G. S 


1,202 


Walker Knob . _ ._ 


Mountain .. 


U. S. G, S 


2,919 


Whites Knob.. 


Mountain. __ ._ 


U. S. G. S 


1,800a 


Wilkes . 


Church. . 


U. S. G. S. 


1 , 130a 


Windingstair Knob. _ 


Mountain .... 


U. S. G. S 


3,473 











CABARRUS COUNTY 



Coddle 

Concord 

Concord, in front of station 

Concord, at county courthouse. 

Flows 

Glass, in front of station 

Glass, near postoffice 

Harrisburg, in front of station.. 

Mount Pleasant 

Rocky River Bridge 



Hamlet. 
Town... 

Town- 



Village 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Pcstcffice. 
Bridge 



N. C. G. S.._. 
U. S. G. S..__ . 
U. S. G. S._... 
U. S. G. S.— . 
U. S. G. S.— . 
U. S. G. S...L 
U. S. G. S..__ . 
Weather Bur . . 
U. S. G. S—.. 



860a 

604 

606 

705 

678 

772 

768 

610 

650 

556 



CALDWELL COUNTY 



Buffalo Cove 

Bullinger Mountain. 

Cedar Valley 

Chestnut Mountain. 
Chestnut Mountain- 
Chestnut Mountain- 
Cold Mountain 

Cox Knob 

Devil Shoal Ford— . 

Downsville 

Draco 

Emanuel Church 

Gamewell 

Globe 



Grandfather Mountain. 



Grandfather Mountain, triangulation 
station .. 



Granite Falls. 



Gunpowder 

Hartland 

Headquarters Mountain. 

Hibriten 

Hibriten, Mount 

High Knob 



Hudson- 



Hugh Day Gap. 

Kings Creek 

Kirby Gap 



Postoffice 

Mountain 

Village 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Crossing Catawba River- 
Village 

Village 

Church 

Village 

Postoffice 



Mountain. 



Triangulation station. 
Postoffice 



Village 

Mountain. 

Village 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 

Postoffice. 



Mountain gap. 

Postoffice 

Mountain gap. 



U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. SL- 
IT. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. Si. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 



U. S. G. S- 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S- 

fU. S. G. S. 
\Guyot 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C. & L. crossing. 



U. S. G. S. 

U. S. G. S. 



U. S. C. &G. S.-. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C. & N. W. R. R, 
Montgomery 



Montgomery. 



,425a 
,595 
,250 
,760 
,555 
,173 
,830 
,430 
945 
,350a. 
,500a 
,250a 
,077 
,325a. 
,964 
,897 

,964 
,211 
,211 
970- 
,194 
,135 
,310 
,265 
,686 
,272 
,272 
,687 
,250a. 
,789 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



69 



Location of Station 



Lenoir 

Lenoir, at county courthouse 

Lenoir. 

Lenoir 

Lick Mountain 

Little Buck Mountain 

Lovelady 

Moses Knob. 

Patterson 

Petra. 

Pilot Mountain 

Rocky Knob.. 

Setzer Gap 

Union 

Upton 

Wolf Pen Mountain 

Yadkin Valley . 



Description of Station 



Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 

Village 



Mountain 

Postoffice 

Village 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain gap. 

Church 

Potsoffice 

Mountain 

Postoffice. 



Authority 



Weather Bur 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

C. & L. N. G. R. R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

C. & L. N. G. R. R. 
U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. iS.'. 

U. S. G. S- 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S.. 



Elevation 
in Feet 



1,186 

1,182 

1,133 

1,186 

1,990 

1,890 

1,206 

1,259 

2,330 

1,307 

1,000a 

1,486 

3,283 

1,342 

1,350a 

1,420a 

2,137 

1,300a 



CAMDEN COUNTY 



Belcross ._ 


Postoffice 


N. S. R. R.. 


7 


Camden .. 


Postoffice . _ 


N. S. R. R 


10 











CARTERET COUNTY 



Beaufort r 

Bogue 

Cape Lookout 

Hollywood 

Morehead City, just east of station.. 

Morehead City, rail at station 

Morehead City, corner 8th and Aren 

dell Streets 

Newport, in front of station 

Wildwood 



Town 

Postoffice 

Signal Station 

Village. 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 



Weather Bur . . 
A. C. L 

Weather Bur . 

U. S. Sig. Ser 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S._— 

U. S. G. S 



12 

62 
15 
15 

22 

7 

12 

17 
19 
20 



CASWELL COUNTY 



Pelham. 




S. R. R 

PA. L. R. R. 



739 
742 



CATAWBA COUNTY 



Anderson 

Baker Mountain- 
Bandy 

Bethel Church... 

Blackburn 

Boseman 

Brittain's Mill... 
Bumgarners Mill 



Mountain 
Mountain 
Village. .. 
Church... 
Village... 
Village. .. 
Mill...... 

Village. .. 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



1,547 
1,812 
1,033 
1,100a 
1,034 
875a 
975 
1,100a 



70 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Catawba ._ . 


Postoffice. . 


U. S. G. S... 


844 


Catawba-. _. __ 


Postoffice- 


W. N. C. R. R... 


1,294 


Catawba, in front of station.. . 


Postoffice .. _. _ 


U. S. G. S 


832 


Catawba, at J. U. Long's Store . _ 


Postoffice- . 


U. S. G. S 


871 


Catawba-Burke line__ . . . . 


Southern R. R. crossing.. 
Southern R. R. crossing. . 


U. S. G. S 


1,170 


Catawba River 


U. S. G. S 


800 


Catfish.. . 


U. S. G. S 


1,020 


Chronicle . 


Village .. ._ 


U. S. G. S 


1,010a 


Claremont, N. E. corner of station 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


969 


Claremont, at station ._ 


Postoffice . ... _ 


U. S. G. S 


967 


Conover, road crossing at station 


Postoffice . 


u; s. g. s 


1,059 


Conover . 


Postoffice l-_ 


U. S. G. S 


1,070 


Corinth 


Church... .. 


U. S. G. S 


1 , 150a 


Drumsville 


Hamlet 




940a 


Ebenezer Church . 


Church _. . 


U. S. G. S 


1,242 


Edith 


Village .. 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


1,049 


Etowah Mill _• 


Mill 


975a 


Fairground _. 


Church .. ... .. 


U. S. G. S 


1,000a 


Flemming 


Village ... 




910a 


Fullbright Mill 


Mill 


U. S. G. S 


975a 


Grace Church 


Church ... 


U. S. G. S 


960a 


Harpers 


Mill 


U. S. G. S 


910a 


Hibriten Mountain, triangulation sta. 


Triangulation station.. ._ 
Town 


U. S. G. S 


2,265 


Hickory, in front of station 


U. S. G. S 


1,163 


Hickory 


Town . 


U. S. G. S 


1,175 


Hickory, First National Bank... 


Town. 


U. S. G. S 


1,163 


Hickory . 


Town 


C. &L. N. G. R. R 

U. S. G. S.— -. 


1,222 


Hooper's Mill 


Mil) 


910 


Jacob's Fork 


Village 


U. S. G. S 


900a 


Klines Mill 


Mill 


U. S. G. S. 


900a 


Links ^ 


Mill 


U. S. G. S 


975a 


Linn . . 


Mountain _ ._ 


U.'S. G. S 


1,300a 


Long Creek.. . 


Ry. bridge, east end 
Hamlet .. 


U. S. G. S.j 


986 


Louise _. .. 


U. S. G. S 


960 


Maiden.. 


Postoffice . 


Chester & Lenoir R. R._ 
U. S. G. S 


875 


Maiden, near'station _ 


Postoffice .. 


891 


Malt Grove Church . 


Church... .. .... ._ 


U. S. G. S 


925 


Marvin Church.. .. 


Church. 


U. S. G. S 


1,050a 


Meyers .. ... 


Mill 


U. S. G. S 


900a 


Monbo - . 


Postoffice .__ . 




750a 


Mountain Church. ... . .. 


Church ._ . 


U. S. G. S 


1,100a 


Mountain Creek 


Village 


875a 


Mount Grove . 


Church _ _. . .. 


U. S. G. S.... 


925a 


Mount Olive. .. 


Church . - __ 


U. S. G. S 


1,000a 


Mull Grove. . . 


Hamlet.. -.. 


U. S. G. S .v. 


989 


Myer's Mill. . 


Mill 


U. S. G. S.._. 


900 


Nebo Church 


Church _ ... 


U. S. G. S 


1,150 


New Church 




U. S. G. S 


1,150 


Newton, in front of station 


Postoffice ..--.. 


U. S. G. S 


1,016 


Newton, at county courthouse 


Postoffice- 


U. S. G. S 


995 


Newton 


Postoffice . _■_ __ ._ 


C. & L. N. G. R, R 


1,070 


Oxford Ford 


Village 


1,050a 


Oxford Ford 


Crossing Catawba River. _ 
Church. ._ __ 


U. S. G. S 


829 


Pisgah 


U. S. G. S 


1,000a 


Plateau 1 . ._ . . 


Village.. _ .... _. _ 
Store. • 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


1,025 


Probst . . 


1,160a 


Rehoboth 


Church 


910a 


Rowes 


Mill 


1,050a 


Saint Peter's 1 


Church . 


1,065 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



71 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Saint Stephen 


Church.-. ._ -. 


U. S. G. S 


1.200a 


Setzer _ 


Station .. _ _ _ 


fU. S. G. S 

\S. R. R 


976 






966 


Shawnee. . - 


U. S. G. S. — 


800a 


Sherrills.. .. . . _ 


Mill 


U. S. G. S ... 


970 


Sherrills Ford 


Postoffice 




960a 


Sparkling Catawba Springs 




U. S. G. S 


1,050a 


Wagners 


Mill 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


950a 


Webb . 


Church - _. 


800a 


Whitener . 


Village- _ . - _ 


900a 


Wilsons . . . 


Mill 


TJ. S. G. S -. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


1,000a 


Wisnants _'_ ._ 


Store 


1,050a 


Zion 


Church... . 


1,000a 











CHATHAM COUNTY 



Goldston _ -_ -_ _ 


Postoffice 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 

(S. A. L 

|R. & A. R. R 


419 


Gulf 


Postoffice 


275 


Merry Oaks.- - . _ 


Postoffice 


247 




Postoffice .. 


245 


Moncure . . _ . __. 


[S. A. L 

-JR. & A. R. R 

[Weather Bur 


.176 
145 




Pcstoffice. 


145 


Ore Hill . 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
Weather Bur._ __ 


495 


Pittsboro _.. ,_ 


Postoffice. 


480 


Providence . . - _. _ 


Station. _. 




425 


Richmond _.. . _'___._ 


Station . _. __ 

Village. 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 

U. S. G. S 


467 


Rose. _ -.. 


136 


Siler City j 


Postoffice - . 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 


590 







CHEROKEE COUNTY 



Andrews 


Town 


S. R. R 


1,750a 


Beaver Dam Bald . 


Mountain. _ 


U. S. G. S 


4,280 


Coalville - 


Village . 


U. S. G. S 


1,710a 


Cobbs 


Village. . . 


U. S. G. S ...-,--_- 


1,800a 


Culberson . __ . _ . _ _■ 


Postoffice ... 


U. S. G. S 


1,646 


Guy 


Village 


U. S. G. S 


2,000a 


Hiwassee . . . ._ .-_. . _ 


Postoffice... . 


U. S. G. S.. 


1,375a 


Hothouse.. ----- _ 


Village 


U. S. G. S 


1,900a 


Kinsey . '_. . - - . 


Postoffice.. 


U. S. G. S -• 


1,550a 


Konahetah . . . 


Mountain. 


N. C. G. S., Kerr's Map. 
U. S. G. S 


4,498 


McDaniels Bald ._ .. 


Mountain. 


4,662 


Marble 


Postoffice.. 


U. S. G. S 


1,710a 




Postoffice 


fS. R. R 


1,540 


Murphy 


V Weather Bur . 






Village . 


1,614 


Nina 


U. S. G. S 


1,400a 


Ogreeta 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


1,450a 


Pack Mount __. . . 


Mountain. 


U. S. G. S 


3,499 


Panther Knob _ _. 


Mountain . 


U. S. G. S.._. 


2,287 


Patrick _ ._ 


Postoffice... .. . 


U. S. G. S . .. 


1,650a 


Peachtree Knob... _i ._ 


Mountain ._ 

Village . . 


U. S. G. S . 


4,200a 


Peachtree Knob . 


U. S. G. S 


1,700a 


Postell 


Postoffice.. .. 


U. S. G. S 


1,900a 


Ranger . _ . 


Postoffice.. . ... 


U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 


1 , 600a 


Tomotla ... . .. 


Postoffice . . . _ 


1,600a 



72 



Altitudes in .North Carolina 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Topton 


Postoffice. -. 


S. R. R . 


2,850a 


Unaka .. 


Postoffice ... 


U. S. G. S-. 


1,675a 


Valley town . .. 


Village 


Toner . ._ 


1,783 


Vests . .. 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S._._ 


1 , 600a 


Winfrey Gap.. 


Mountain gap... 


Kerr's Map 


3,493 












CHOWAN COUNTY 






Amboy 


Village 

Village.. _ ... ... __ _ _ 

Village ... . 

Village. . .. .._ 

Town.. 


U. S. G. S 


33 


Chowan 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S... 

(Weather Bur 

•jU. S. G. S 

(n. s. r. r - 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


26 


Cisco... . .. 

Dwight 


24 
49 


Edenton 


30 
16 


Gliden . 


Postoffice.. ... _ . 


5 

36 


Hancock.. .. _ _ 


Hamlet . 


15 


Icaria _ . 


Village. 


U. S. G. S 


25 


Mavaton . . 


Hamlet. . ... 

Village. .. .__ 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S. 


40 


Mege .. 


31 


Rockyhock _ 


Village . 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U.-S. G. S 


28 


Ryland, at postoffice.. . 


Postoffice 


41 


Signpine. -.-_-. _ 


Hamlet.. . 


35 


Small Crossroads. . __ _. 


Hamlet . 


31 


Somerset .. . . . __ . 


Village.. . _ 


11 


Tulu 


Postoffice ... . 

Postoffice 


42 


Tyner 


48 










CLAY COUNTY 


Barnett.. . . 


Mountain .. 


Guyot .. 


5,028 


Beal's Knob .... 


Mountain . . 


Geo. of N. C 


4,516 


Boteler Peak . 


Mountain.. . ... 


U. S. G. S 


4,900a 


Brasstown .. _ _ ._ 


Postoffice .... _ ._ . _ 


U. S. G. S 


1,650a 


Chunky Gal 


Mountain . 


(U. S. G. S 

\Guyot 

U. S. G. S 


4,600a 


Clarence 


Village .. . 


4,986 
1,900a 


Compass Bald _ _. . . 


Mountain 


Guyot_. 


3,296 


Corundum . _ . 


Village.. -.----_._ 


U. S. G. S 


3,300a 


Crit 


Village.. 

Mountain _______ __ 

Village. ._ 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


1,900a 


Davy Mountain 


2,958 


Elf 




2,000a 


Hayesville 


Postoffice . 

Village 

Village _ ._ 


U. S. G. S 


1,893 


Irena.. ._ •_. . 


U. S. G. S 


2,050a 


Ledford.. ._ . _ __ 


U. S. G. S 


1,800a 


Little Bald 


Mountain. . . . . 


U. S. G. S 


5,030 


Mayflower.. 


Village 


U. S. G. S 


1,900a 


Medlock Bald 


Mountain 


(U. S. G. S 

\N.CG.S., Kerr's Map 
U. S. G. S 


5,230 


Ogden.. 


Postoffice ... 


5,258 
1,850a 


Pinelog. .. 


Village. 


U."S. G. S 


1,950a 


Shcwbird _ 


Village 


U. S. G. S 


1,900a 


Shooting Creek.. 


Postoffice 




2,130a 


Standing Indian 


Mountain .. 


fU. S. C. &G. S 

\Guyot_ 

U. S. G. S.._.._ 


5,495 


Twine 


Postoffice _ 


5,840 
1,8 90a 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



73 



Location of Station 



Tusquitee 

Tusquitee Bald... 

Tusquitee Gap 

Vineyard.. 

Warne-.- 

Weatherman Bald 



Description of Station 



Village 

Mountain 

Mountain gap 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain 



Authority 



U. S. G. S 

{Yeates 
Guyot 
U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fU. S. G. S 

\Geo. of N. C- 



Elevation 
in Feet 



2,050a 

5,291 

5,314 

5,200a 

3,800a 

4,900a 

1,800a 

4,700a 

5,000 



CLEVELAND COUNTY 



Abe's Mount 

Baker Bridge 

Beams Mill 

Benn Knob 

Carpenter Knob 

Covington Mountain 

Crocker 

Dixon Ford 

Dixon Gap 

Earl, near station 

Fallston..- 

Grah am Bridge 

Grover 

Hodge 

Kings Mountain 

Kings Mountain, triangulation sta... 

Lattimore. 

Mooresboro 

Old Sheep Knob 

Painter Knob 

Patterson Springs, at station.. 

Sandy Plains 

Shelby 

Shelby, at county courthouse.. . 

Shelby 

Shelby 

Stepps Gap 

Stubbs.L 

Turner Crossroads 

Waco 

Ware Bridge 



Mountain 

Hamlet 

Hamlet 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Hamlet 

Hamlet 

Mountain gap 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Bridge 

Postoffice... 

Village 

Postoffice 

Triangulation station 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Hamlet 

Town., 

Town 

Town 

Town 

Mountain Gap 

Hamlet 

Hamlet 

Postoffice 

Bridge 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N.C.G.S., Kerr's Map 

U. S. G. S..._ 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S- - 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fU. S. G. S 

\S. R. R 

[A. & R. A. L. R. R. .._ 

U. S. G. S T 

S. A. L 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S... 

S. A. L.. 

U. S. G. S 

Car. C. R. R 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S : 

U. S. G. S 



950a 

814 

1,001 

2,908 

2,894 

1,619 

2,038 

954 

886 

943 

850 

1,029 

603 

856 

880 

1,135 

979 

952 

952 

1,705 

945 

970 

1,497 

2,323 

904 

961 

863 

895 

875 

875 

1,040 

737 

985 

917 

642 



COLUMBUS COUNTY 



Armour... . . 


Postoffice . _ _ 

Station... 
Village 


S. A. L. 


50 


Brinkley . _ __ 


A. C. L. 


51 


Byrdsville . _. _ 


A. C. L 

A. C. L 


58 


Cerro Gordo. . ... ... 


Postoffice ... ... . ._ 

Postoffice . ._ 


93 


Chadbourn . ._ . .. 


A. C. L 


106 



74 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Cronly 

Fair Bluff. 

Flemington 

Freeman 

Livingstone Creek 

Waccamaw 

Waccamaw Lake.. 
Whiteville 



Description of Station 



Village 

Postoffice 

Station 

Postoffice "... 

Railroad crossing 

Station 

Railroad crossing 
Postoffice 



Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


S. A. L 


19 


A. C. L 


69 


A. C. L 


65 


A. C. L 


55 


A. C. L 


18 


A. C. L 


65 


A. C. L 


46 


A. C. L. 


59 



CRAVEN COUNTY 



Askin 


Postoffice .... 


U. S. G. S 


18 


Bellair 


Hamlet. 


U. S. G. S 


23 


Chip 


Hamlet.. ... 


U. S. G. S 


11 


Clark, road crossing at station 


Postoffice _ 


U. S. G. S 


31 


Cove 


Postoffice. .. 


U. S. G. S 


47 


Cove Creek 


Creek... 


N. C. G. S 


50 


Croatan, in front of station 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S _'_■__ 


29 


De Bruhles . . 


Station 


A. C. L 


25 


Dover. 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


63 


Fort Barnwell 


Postoffice . 


U. S. G. S 


40a 


Havelock, in front of station .. 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


23 


James City 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


la 


Jasper 


Hamlet ._ 


U. S. G. S 


38a 


Lima. 


Hamlet.. 


U. S. G. S 


18 


Maplecypress 


Hamlet. .. 


U. S. G. S 

Weather Bur.. ._ 


22 


New Bern 


Town 


12 


New Bern, N. W. corner Broad and 
Craven Streets 


Town 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S... 


15 


New Bern, corner Queen and Hancock 
Streets 


Town . . 


12 


New Bern, at county courthouse 


Town. _ 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


15 


New Bern, Wm. Ellis' dwelling 


Town 


9 


New Bern, Government Yard 


Town . . 


U. S. G. S 


2 


New Bern. 


Town 

Town . 

Ferry . .. 

Village _ 

Postoffice. . .- _ 

Trestle- 


A. C. L 


12 


New Bern.. 


A. & N. C. R. R 

U. S. G. S 


12 


Pettiford's Ferry .. 


2 


Rhems 


U. S. G. S 


25 


Riverdale, at station . 


U. S. G. S 


25 


Scott Creek 


U. S. G. S 


7 


Thurman ._ 


Village ._. 


U. S. G. S.— 

U. S. G. S , 

U. S. G. S * 

U. S. G. S 


27 


Tuscarora, road crossing at station.. 
Vanceboro, near Postoffice .... 
Wasp 


Postoffice __- 

Postoffice .. .. ... 

Hamlet. . .. 


39 
22 
24 






. 



CUMBERLAND COUNTY 



Coopers 

Fayetleville 

Fayetteville :... 

Fayette ville 

Godwin 

Hope Mills 

Hope Mills, at station 
Manchester 



Postoffice 

City 

City 

City 

Village... 
Postoffice 
Postoffice 
Postoffice 



S. R. R 






240 


C. F. & Y. V. 


R. 


R 


100 


Weather Bur. 






170 


A. C. L 






101 


A. C. L 






160 


C. F. & Y. V. 


R. 


R 


117 


A. C. L 






123 


C. F. & Y. V. 


R. 


R 


173 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



75 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Stedman . . ._ . 


PostofEce . _ 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 

A. C. L 

C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
A. C. L 


131 


Taylors Hole Creek . . 


Railroad crossing _. 


116 


Turners Hill 


Railroad crossing . 


217 


Wade 


Postoffice 


141 







CURRITUCK COUNTY 



Gregory.. . . 


Postoffice . . .. 


N. S. R. R . 


11 




Postoffice --. ... 


f Weather Bur. 


9 


Kitty Hawk 


\U.S. Sig. Off. 

N. S. R. R 




Moyock... 


PostofEce. 


22 
8 


Shawboro. .. ... . 


Postoffice . 

PostofEce. .. 


N. S. R. R 


15 


Snowden.. . . . 


N. S. R. R 


10 



DARE COUNTY 



Cape Hatteras . 


Signal station .. 


U. S. Sig. Ser.____ 

/Weather Bur 

\U. S. Sig. Off 


8 


Hatteras. . . 


PostofEce . . . 


11 






20 



DAVIDSON COUNTY 



Abbotts Creek 

Bethany 

Holtsburg, road crossing at station 

Lake , .' 

Leonard's Creek ... 

Lexington, at county courthouse.. 

Lexington 

Linwood, in front of station 

Midway :. 

Rich Fork 

Swearing Creek, Track level 

Thomasville, at ticket office 



Creek at Southern Ry. 

Church 

Village 

Village 

Creek at Southern Ry 

Town 

Town 

PostofEce 

Villa ge 

Creek at Southern Ry 

Creek at Southern Ry 
PcstofEce 



S. R. R 


649 


U. S. G. S.- 


870 


U. S. G. S 


630 


U. S. G. S 


664 


Precise level line... 


676 


U. S. G. S 


810 


N. Car. R. R 


776 


U. S. G. S 


657 


(S. A. L 


202 


1r. &g. r. r 


200 


jS. R. R 


649 


\N. Car. R. R 


649 


Precise level line .. 


677 


U. S. G. S 


850 



DAVIE COUNTY 



Advance . 


PostofEce _ . _ 


S. R. R. .- 


787 


Calahaln.. . 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S-- 


750 


Cana .. ... _ . 


PostofEce.. 


U. S. G. S._ 


750 


Center Church . . _ 


Church _..-- 


U. S. G. S- 


800a 


Clarksville . . . 


Village _. .... 


U. S. G. S— 


875a 


Cornatzer.. . . 


Postoffice . . . 


S. R. R.. 


753 


County Line... ._ 


Hamlet.. 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S. - 


880 


Daysmill.. __.'______ . 


Village __ . . . . _ 


700a 


Dulins ... . 


Village _ i _- 




725a 


Ephesus.. ... . 


Village . - ... 




800a 


Farmington. ... . . 


Postoffice . 


U. S. G. S... 


758 


Felix . 


Village . 

Mill 

Village.. 


U. S. G. S. 


775a 


Hairston 


U. S. G. S 


625a 


Holman_. . 


800a 


Jerusalem _ 


Hamlet..: _ 


U. S. G. S 


787 



76 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Kappa 

Kelley's Mill 

Mocksville 

Nestor 

New Araore.- 

New Union Church 
Pind 

Renshaw Ford 



Description of Station 



Village- 
Mill.... 



Postoffice. 



Village. 
Church. 
Church. 
Village- 
River... 



Authority 



U. S. G. S...__ 
fU. S. G. S.-_ 

Weather Bur . 

S. R. R 



U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 



S._ 

s.. 

s.. 

S.. 

S- 



Elevation 
in Feet 



750a 

650a 

842 

651 

791 

835 

900a 

900 

750a 

654 



DUPLIN COUNTY 



Duplin Roads. 


Railroad crossing. 

Pcstcffice 

Pcstoffice.-. ..... 


A. C. L 


52 


Faison . __ 


A. C. L •_._ 


158 


Kenansville . . . 


Toner 


60 


Magnolia . ._.__. 


Postoffice _. __,._ _ 

Postoffice-. ... 


A. C. L 


139 


RosehilL _ . 


A. C. L 

Weather Bur ... . . _ _ 
A. C. L 


89 


Sloan . .. 


Postoffice, . 


50 


Teacheys. _. .. .. . . 


Postoffice _ 

Postoffice.. 


72 


Wallace . 


A. C. L 

A. C. L 


53 


Warsaw 


Postoffice- ..- -. 


154 



DURHAM COUNTY 



Bahama 

Bennehan 

Durham 

Durham, at county courthouse... 
Durham, First National Bank... 

Durham 

Durham 

East Durham, in front of station 

Farintosh 

Gorman, near church 

Ly ndover 

Nelson 1 

Rougemont 

Trinity College 

Willard ville 



Postoffice 

Station 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

Postoffice 

Station 

Postoffice 

Village 

Village 

Pcstcffice 

College Campus 
Station 



N. & W 

S. A. L 

N. & W 

U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S._„ 

S. R. R 

N. Car. R. R 
U. S. G. S..._ 

N. & W 

U. S. G. S..._ 

N. & W 

U. S. G. S.-. 

N. & W 

Toner 

N. & W 



494 
264 
392 
405 
408 
400 
400 
408 
267 
363 
521 
402 
549 
400 
424 



EDGECOMBE COUNTY 



Bullocks Crossroads.-- 

Conetoe 

Cookley 

Crisp 

Davistown 

Hartsboro, at crossing 

Hartsease 

Kingsboro 

Lancaster 

Leggett 

MoNair Crossing... 

Macclesfield . 



Grcssrcads 
Pcstcffice,- 

Village 

Village 

Villa ge.... 

Station 

Village 

Station 

Village 

Village 

Station 

Postoffice.- 



U. S. G. S 


111 


U. S. G. S 


48 


U. S. G. S 


79 


U. S. G. S 


104 


U. S. G. S 


102a 


U. S. G. S 


111 


U. S. G. S 


102 


U. S. G. S. 


110 


U. S. G. S 


108 


U. S. G. S 


63 


U. S. G. S 


107 


U. S. G. S 


100a 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



77 



Location of Station 



Medora 

Mei cer 

Mildred 

New Bridge 

Old Sparta 

Penelo, at postoffice 

Pinetops . 

Pri nee ville.. . . 

Rocky Mount 

Rocky Mount, near station : 

Rocky Mount, at station 

Runny mede. 

Saint Lewis 

Shiloh Mills 

South Rocky Mount, in front of sta. 

Speed 

Tarboro 

Tarboro, at county ccurthouss 

Tarboro, in fr:nt of station 

Turnage 

Whitakers. .. 

Wiggins Crossroads 

Wrendale - 



Description of Station 



Postoffice. 

Village 

Village 

Bridge..-. 

Village 

Postoffice - 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Postoffi.ee. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Village 



Town 

Postoffice. 

Town 

Town 

Town 

Village 

Postoffice. 
Hamlet.. . 
Hamlet-.. 



Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
A. C. L. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
Weather 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
A. C. L. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 


s 

S -- .. 


117 
J 13 


s 


46 


s 


75 


s... 


43 


s.... 


110 


s 


100 


S '_.._ 


39a 


s 


111 


s 


114 




105 


s 


70a 


S -.- 


114 


s 


45a 


s 


125 


s 


60 


Bur 


50 


s 


52 


s 


71 


s 


115 




121 


s 


105 


s 


69 







FORSYTH COUNTY 



Alspaugh 

Atwood 

Belew Creek... 

Bethania 

Clemmonsville. 
Davis School. . 

Dennis 

Donnaha 

Kernersville 

Muddy Creek.. 
Ogburn 

Rural Hall 

Salem 

Tise 

Tobaccoville... 

Wagoner 

Walkertown 

Winston-Salem 



Village 

Station 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

R. F. D. from Clemmons. 

Station 

R. R. Station 

Postoffice 



Postoffice. 

Station 

Station 



Postoffice. 



City. 



Station 

Postoffice. 

Village 

Postoffice. 



City. 



S. R. R 

C. F. & Y. V. R. R. . 

S. R. R 

S. R. R 

S. R. R 

N. & W 

S. R. R 

N. W. N. C. R. R... 

S. R. R 

S. R. R 

N. & W .. 

C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 

S. R. R 

Weather Bur 

N. W. N. C. R. R.._ 

<(S. R. R 



N. & W 

U. S. G. S 

N. & W 

S. R. R 

N. & W 

N. & W 

N. & W 

U. S. G. S 

Weather Bur 

N. W. N. C. R. R. 

S. R. R -. 



968 
818 
780 
768 
771 
791 
847 
736 

1,016 

1,010 
715 
962 

1,007 
977 

1,000 
884 
878 
884 
858 
884 
934 
999 
882 
982 
858 
884 

1,000 
884 
878 
884 



78 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



FRANKLIN COUNTY 



. Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Anderson . . 


Bridge __ 


U. S. G. S. . 


175a 


Bunn, at postoffice - 


Postoffice _ 


U. S. G. S. . 


295 


Cedar Creek ... 


Creek _ 


S. A. L.._ 


372 




Postoffice _ 


(8. A. L _ 


419 


Franklinton _. . 


1r. & G. R. R . 






Postoffice 


417 


Louisburg . 


fS. A. L._ 

V Weather Bur. _ . __ 


220 




Village.. _ 


375 


Pilot 


U. S. G. S . 


362 " 


Pineridge.. _____ 


School __ __". 


U. S. G. S.._ 


290a 


Privett.. 


Village. _ _ _ 


U. S. G. S.___ 


327 


Stallings 


Village _. 


Toner 


347 


Youngs ville 


Postoffice 


fS. A. L 

\R. &g. r. r 


451 






449 









GASTON COUNTY 



Alexis 

All Healing Springs _._ 

Antioch Church 

Belmont 

Belmont, near station 

Bessemer City 

Boiling Springs, at Baptist Church 

Cherry ville 

Concord Church 

Crowders 

Crowders Mountain. 

Dallas 

Dallas, Main Street station 

Gastonia _. 

Gastonia 

Gastonia 

Gastonia, at Railroad crossing.. 

Gastonia, in public square 

Gastonia 

Hardins, near station _ 

Hickory Grove Church 

Highshoals 

Kings Mountain 

Landers Chapel 

Lowell 

Lowell, near station 

Lucia 

Mayesworth, at road crossing 

Mountain Island. 

•Mount Holly 

Philipsburg 

Pinnacle 

Ridge 

Ridge, in front of station 

Sherrar's Gap 

South Point Church 

Stanley 



Postoffice. 

Village 

Church 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 

Town 



Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 

Church 

Station 



Mountain. 

Postoffice. 

Postoffice. 

Town 

Town. 

Town 

Town 

Town 

Town 

Station 

Church 



Postoffice. 



Mountain 

Hamlet 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Village 

Village 

Postoffice 

Village 

Mountain 

Station 

Station 

Mountain gap. 

Church 

Postoffice 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Toner 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. &.____' 

U. S. G. S ...... 

U. S. C. & G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

C. & L. N. R. R..1 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

A. & R. A. L. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S... 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S...... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S..... 

S. A. L 

Car. C. R. R.I 

N. C.G. S., Kerr's Map. 

U. S. G. S 

N. C.G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
S. R. R..— 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 



850a 
849 
687 
677 
908 
900 
877 
909 
970 
760 
1,606 
1,624 
891 
9.4 
785 
832 
832 
814 
808 
825 
806 
843 
801 
1,001 
1,001 
1,692 
905 
745a 
770 
819 
608 
1,380a 
C21 
820a 
1,705 
872 
791 
1,090 
714 
852 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



79 



Location of Station 



Stepp's Gap 

Triangle 

Vantine 



Description of Station 



Mountain gap 

Village 

Village 



Authority 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



Elevation 
in Feet 



1,040 
824 
943 



GATES COUNTY 



Acorn 

Ballard Crossroads 

Beckford Junction 

Bosley.. 

Buckland 

Buckland School 

Carter 

Eason Crossroads 

Eure 

Eure Church 

Flat Branch Church 

Folly ... 

Gatesville, at county courthouse 

Harold Church_ 

Hobbsville 

Horsepen Pocosin 

Joppa Church 

Merchant Mills 

Mintonsville 

Piny Grove Church 

Powell Crossroads 

Riddick Oiossroads 

Roduco 1 

Sandy Cross ■ 

Sarem 

Sarem Grove Church 

Savage 

Selwin 

Story's Crossroads 

Sunbury 

Topsy... 

Trotville 

Vivian, 

Walton Crossroads 

Wiggins Crossroads 

Willow 



Village 

Hamlet 

Junction on Railroad 

PostofEc^ 

Hamlet 

School 

Village 

Village. 

Postoffice 

Church 

Church 

Crossroads 

Postoffice 

Church 

Postoffice 

Poccsin 

Church 

Village 

Village 

Church.. . 

Hamlet 

Crorsroads 

Postoffice 

Village 

Village 

Church 

Postoffice 

Villa ge 

Crossroads 

Postoffice 

Village 

Postoffice 

Village 

Hamlet 

Village 

Village 



U. S. G. S 
U. S. G. S 
U. S. G. S 
U. S. G. S 
U. S. G. S 
U. S. G. S 
U. S. G..S 
U. S. G. S 
U. S. G. S 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S 
U. S. G. S 
U. S. G. S 
U. S. G. S 
U. S. G. S 
U. S. G. S, 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S, 
U. S. G. S, 
U. S. G. S 
U. S. G. S 
U. S. G. S, 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S, 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



38 

23 

37 

34 

32 

32 

20 

36 

22 

29 

35 

37 

27 

24 

40 

28 

51 

10a 

28 

41 

22 

30 

35a 

52 

34 

40 

31 

34 

28 

38 

33 

39 

30 

30 

30 

36 



GRAHAM COUNTY 



Brock.. 

Cedartop 

Cheoah 

Cheowah Maximum 

Christie's Peak 

Funnel Top 

Haw Knob 

Hog Mountain 

Hooper Bald 

Huckleberry Knob.. 



Postoffice. 
Mountain 
Postoffice. 

Mountain 

Mountain 
Mountain 
Mountain 
Mountain 
Mountain 

Mountain 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

u. s. g. s..:..-.. 

fU. S. G. S 

|Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Geo. of N. C... 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(U. S. G. S 

\Guyot 



1,800a 

4,000a 

2,300a 

5,065 

4,996 

5,239 

3,200a 

4,924 

5,200 

5,500a 

5,500 

5,482 



80 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Japan 

Joanna Bald.. ... 

"Johnson 

McDaniels Bald- 
Raven Top.. 

Robbinsville 

Santeetlah 

Shallott Bald— . 
Stecoah. 



Tatham Gap. 



Tulula 

Tuskeegee. 

Wauchecha Bald- 
Welch 

White Oak Knob. 
Yellow Creek 



Description of Station 



Postoffice. 
Mountain. 

Village 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Postoffiee. 
Village— . 
Mountain. 
Postoffice. 

Mountain. 

Village 

Postoffice. 
Mountain. 



Mountain. 
Postoffice. 



Authority 



U. S. G. S.._. 
U. S. G. S.„: 

U. S. G. S.._. 

u. s. g. s. ;. 

U. S. G. S.__. 
U. S. G. S-. 
U. S. G. S.-_. 
U. S. G. S.... 
U. S. G. S.„. 
jTJ. S. G. S... 

\Guyot 

U. S. G. S.._. 
U. S. G. S.._. 
U. S. G. S.... 
U. S. G. S.._. 
Geo. of N. C 
U. S. G. S.„. 



Elevation 
in Feet 



1,700a 

4,708 

1,800a 

4,662 

3,400a 

2,150a 

1,900a 

5,400 

2,150a 

3,500a 

3,639 

2,500a 

1,900a 

4,400a 

1,650a 

4,301 

3,700a 



GRANVILLE COUNTY 



Bullock. 

Clay 

Cozart 

Creedmoor 

Dickerson. 

Gela 

Greens . 

Gregory 

Hester. ._ 

Lewis 

Lewis, near station 

Lyons.. 

Oxford 

Oxford, near stati n__ .__. 

Oxford, Crawford and Broad Streets 

Providence, at station 

Providence 

Stem. 

Stovall— ■_ ... 

Stovall, near station 

Tar River 

Wilkins 



Postoffice 

Village 

Village... 
Postoffice 
Village. __ 
Village. __ 
Station. .. 
Station... 
Postoffice 
Station... 
Station... 

Postoffice. 

Town 

Town 

Town 

Station, .. 
Station. .. 

Postoffice. 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 

Postoffice. 
Village 




429 

426 

358 

332 

385 

440 

483 

330 

478 

384 

523 

544 

381 

386 

455 

461 

476 

425 

431 

462 

476 

473 

478 , 

398 

327 

357 

360 



GREENE COUNTY 



Arba 

Calvert School.... 

Castoria 

Fieldsboro 

Glenfield, near station 
Glenfield Crossroads„- 



Village. 
School.. 
Village- 
Village. 
Station. 
Hamlet 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



116 
39 

107 
92 

90 






Altitudes in ISTorth Carolina 



81 



Location of Station 



Grimsley Church 

Jerusalem Church 

Lindell 

Lizzie 

Maury 

Or mondsville 

Ridge Spring 

Snow Hill, at county courthouse 

Snow Hill, in front of station 

Speights Bridge 

Suggs Siding 

Willowgreen 



Description of Station 



Church 

Church 

Village 

Hamlet: 

Postoffice 

Village 

Village 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Railroad Siding 
Village 



Authority 



Elevation 
in Feet 



U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S-. 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S'."_ 
/U. S. G. S. 
\U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S- 
U. S. G. 8.1 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S,_ 
U. S. G. S._ 



84 

111 

110 

74 

78 

72 

31 

36 

64 

74 

94 

102 

76 



GUILFORD COUNTY 



Battle Ground. - _. . 


Postoffice. 


/C. F. & Y. V. R. R. -. 

1u. S. G. S 

(8. R. R 


863 




Postoffice . ... 

Railroad Bridge 

Postoffice _ 


865 
800 


Brown Summit - . 

Buffalo Creek.. . ._ _ ._ 


\P. A. L. R. R 

S. R. R 


803 
796 


Climax . 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R 

N. C. Precise level line.. 
(S. R. R 


821 


Deep River. .. _■ ._ 


Track of Southern Ry 

Postoffice.. . . . . 


751 

886 


Friendship _ 


\N. W. N. C. R. R 

U. S. G. S 




Gibsonville, at ticket office ... 


Postoffice.. . __ _ _ ___ 

City 


892 
720 


Greensboro. _ 


Weather Bur... . 


843 


Greensboro . . _ 


City 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
R. & D. R. R._ 


836 


Greensboro ..... 


City..! 


831 


Greensboro. 


City 


N. Car. R. R 

U. S. G. S._- 


430 


Greensboro, in front of station.. 


City 1 


836 


Greensboro, courthouse . 


City 


U. S. G. S 


839 


High Point 


Town 


N. Car. R. R..._ 


943 


High Point, in front of station 


Town . 


U. S. G. S 


935 


Jamestown, in front of station 


Postoffice. . 


U. S. G. S._._ 


775 


Jamestown. ..... 


Postoffice... 

Postoffice . 


S. R. R 


887 


Jamestown . _ _ 


N. Car. R. R..._ 


821 


Julian.. .- .. . ... 


Postoffice.. . . 

Postoffice. .. 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
fU. S. G. S .... 


770 




747 


McLeansville _ . .... 


\U. S. G. S 






Village, -. . ... 


743 


Morehead. . 


S. R. R 


815 


Oak Ridge.. .. ...... .. 


Postoffice .. 


Weather Bur... . . 


885 


Pleasant Garden . 


Postoffice- . .. . ._ 

Postoffice .. ... . . ._ 

Postoffice 


C. F..& Y. V. R. R. 
U. S. G. S 


837 


Pomona, in front of station ... 


868 


Stokesdale . . _ .. .... 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
U. S. G. S 


949 


Stokesdale, in front of station... . ._ 


Postoffice . 

Postoffice. .. ..... 


948 


Summerfield.- ... 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
U. S. G. S 


873 


Summerfield, in front of station. 


Postoffice ._ 


872 











HALIFAX COUNTY 



Boiling ... . 


Station. _ . _ 

Postoffice. .. ...... 

Station .. 

Postoffice.- 


S. A. L. 


205 


Enfield 


A. C. L 


99 


Gaston _. . 


(S. A. L ... 

\R. &G. R. R 

A. C. L 


150 


Halifax 


152 
101 



82 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Hobgood 

Littleton 

Ruggles 

Scotland Neck 

Summit 

Tillery 

Weldon 



Description of Station 



Postofnce 

Postofnce 

Station... 
Postofnce 
Village. -. 
Postofnce 

Town 



Authority 



Wil. & Weldon.. 
(S. A. L 

\r. &G. R. R.. 
[Weather Bur... 
A. C. L 

Wil. & Weldon. 

A. C. L 

S. A. L ... 

/Wil. & Weldon. 

A. C. L 

A. C. L 

S. A. L ... 

R. & G. R. R.. 

Weather Bur... 



Elevation 
in Feet 



83 

376 

380 

380 

84 

99 

103 

305 

101 

'70 

67 

77 

72 

81 



HARNETT COUNTY 



Dunn 

Mingo River.. 
Rock Branch. 
Spout Springs 
Stony River.. 



Postofnce 

Railroad crossing 

Station 

Postofnce 

Railroad crossing 



A. C. L 

A. C. L 

C. F. & Y. V. R. R 

A. C. L 

A. C. L 



HAYWOOD COUNTY 



210 
200 
316 
332 
183 



Balsam Gap 

Bear Pen Gap 

Bent Knee Knob 

Big Bald.. _. 

Big Butt . 

Big Cataluchee... 

Brother Plott 

Brushy 

Caney Fork Bald 

Canton 

Cataloochee 

Clyde 

Cold Mountain 

Cold Spring Knob 

Cold Spring Mountain 
Crabtree 

Crabtree Bald 

Cruso 

Double Spring 

Double Spring Gap 

Enos Plolts Balsam 

Ferguson 

Fines Creek 

Forks of Pigeon 

Frying Pan Knob 

Frying Pan Mountain. 

Green Knob 

Guy ot 



Mountain gap 
Mountain gap 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postofnce 

Postofnce. 

Postofnce 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postofnce 

Mountain 

Postofhce 

Mountain 

Mountain gap. 

Mountain 

Postofhce 

Village 

Village 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 



U. S. G. S 

Mont 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.. 

N. C. G. S., Kerr's Map 

Guyot. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

(V. S. G. S 

\Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot *_ 

U. S. G. S 

/U. S. G. S 

\N. C. G. S., Kerr's Map 

U. S. G. S._ 

Toner 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S '.. 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 



3,347 

2,872 

4,000 

5,340 

4,582 

5,700a 

6,159 

6,246 

5,600a 

5,926 

2,587 

2,200a 

2,460 

6,000 

6,063 

6,010 

5,915 

2,450a 

5,280 

5,336 

2,900a 

6,380 

4,000 

6,097 

2,510 

2,600 

2,701 

5,200a 

5,450 

5,150 

6,636 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



83 



Location of Station 



Haynes Knob 

Hebo 

High Knob 

Hominy Gap 

Hy man Knob.' 

Indian Knob 

Jonathan BalcL. 

Jonathan Knob 

Jones Knob 

Junaluska Mountain 

Laurel Patch Mountain 

Lavinia 

Lenoir Creek, near mouth 

Lickstone Bald _. 

Lickstone Mountain 

Little Bald Mountain 

Lone Bald _ _ 

Luftee Knob 

Mount Guyot 

Mount Sterling 

Nebbs Knob 

Nibb's Knob 

Old Field Mountain 

Panther Knob 

Palm 

Pant 

Perry Knob 

Peru ... 

Pigeon River ... 

Pigeon River. 

Pine Rocks 

Pisgah Mountain, triangulation sta 

Plott 

Plott's Old Field 

Purchase Knob 

Raven Knob 

Reinhart Knob 

Richland Balsam Mountain 

Richland Balsam, triangulation sta 

Rockstand Knob 

Rough Butt Bald 

Sam Knob. 

Sandymush, triangulation station .. 
Sharp Top 

Shining Rock 

Smathers View Mountain 

Snowbird 

Soco Bald 

Sonoma 

Split M ountain 

Springdale 

Stairs 

Starling, Mount 



Description of Station 



Mountain 

Mountain.. 

Mountain.. 

Mountain gap. 

Mountain. 

Mountain _•. 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain. 

Village 

Creek 

Mountain. 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

M ountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain .. 

Village 

Village 

Mountain 

Village. 

Bridge 

River 

Mountain 

Triangulation station 

Postoffice 

M ountain 

M ountain 

Mountain 

M ountain 

Mountain 

Triangulation station 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Triangulation station 
Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

M ountain 

Hamlet 

Village 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 



Authority 



U. S. G. S 

fGuyot 

\U. S. G. S.— 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S., Kerr's Map. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S., Kerr's Map. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.... 

fGuyot 

\U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fU. S. G. S 

\Toner 

U. S. G. S 

Yeates 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.. 

Toner 

U. S. G. S 

(U. S. C. & G. S... 

<j Guyot 

[Yeates 

U. S. G. S.— 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

TJ. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

/Toner 

\U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fU. S. G. S 

(Yeates 

U. S. G. S-. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S... 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S., Kerr's Map 



Elevation 
in Feet 



3,500a 
4,468 
4,300a 
4,900a 
2,678 
6,400a 
4,600 
5,867 
5,200a 
6,209 
2,223 
5,518 
2,930 
2,736 
5,741 
5,707 
5,926 
5,330 
6,016 
5,700a 
6,220 
6,636 
5,000 
1,150 
5,300 
5,100 
5,359 
2,500 
2,700 
5,026 
2,750a 
2,487 
2,580 
5,000a 
5,749 
776 
5,200 
5,000a 
6,260 
5,800a 
6,370 
6,425 
6,556 
6,540 
6,002 
6,010 
6,130 
5,168 
5,100a 
5,988 
6,040 
4,203 
4,263 
5,400a 
5,635 
2,700a 
2,600a 
2,890a 
5,000 
5,852 



84 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Steestachee Bald- 
Sugar Top 

Teague 



Tennessee Bald- 



Thermometer Knob 

Tuscola 

Water Rock Knob 

Waterville 

Way nesville 

Waynesville, near station. 

Waynesville 

Wesner Bald 

Western Bald Mountain... 
Wolf Pen Knob 



Description of Station 



Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Postoffice. 

Mountain. 

Mountain. 

Village 

Mountain. 



Town 

Town 

Town 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 



Authority 



U. S. G. S.__. 
U. S. G. S.._. 
U. S. G. S.— 

(Yeates 

\U. S. G. S... 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S.... 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.._. 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S.— 
Weather Bur. 
U. S. G. S._._ 
Guyot 



Elevation 
in Feet 



,700 

,930 

,000a 

,458 

,622 

,157 

,594 

,399 

,300a 

,635 

,637 

,756 

,570 

,692 

,200a 



HENDERSON COUNTY 



Angeline 

Bat Cave, near postoffice 

Bear Wallow Mountain 

Beaverdam Gap 

Big Bald 

Black Mountain 

Brickton 

Chestnut Mountain 

Chickasaw Knobs 

Cold Butt 

Couch Mountain 

Edneyville, near postoffice 

Flat Rock, near station 

Fletcher, at station 

Fletcher, at postoffice 

Grassy Mountain 

Green River 

Gypsy 

Hammond's Knob 

Harts Knob 

Hebron 

Henderson-Transylvania line 

Hendersonville. 

Hendersonville.. 

Hendersonville, near station. 
Hendersonville, at town hall- 
Hickory Nut Gap 

High Top 

Hillgirt 

Horse Shoe.. 

Horseshoe 

Hungry 

Johnson Knob 

Jumpoff Mountain 

Mills Mountain 

Mills River 

Naples, at switch stand 



Hamlet 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain gap... 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Village 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Station 

Hamlet 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Boundary stone 

Town 

Town 

Town 

Town 

Mountain gap.. 

Mountain. 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Hamlet 

Postoffice 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. & G. S 


2,050a 

1,472 

4,245 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


3,500 
5,540 
3,952 


U. S. G. S 


2,094 


U. S. G. S 


3,069 


U. S. G. S 


2,686 


U. S. G. S 

Yeates .. . 


4,000a 
3,330 


U. S. G. S 


2,247 


(U. S. G. S..1 

[Weather Bur . 


2,199 
2,214 


U. S. G. S 


2,091 


U. S. G. S 


2,112 


Geo. of N. C 


3,078 


U. S. G. S 


2,200a 


U. S. G. S 


2,173 


Geo. of N. C 


2,978 


Geo. of N. C 


3,053 


U. S. G. S 


2,966 


U. S. G. S 


2,199 


S. R. R 


2,200a 


N. C.G.S., Kerr's Map_ 
U. S. G. S 


2,167 
2,125 


U. S. G. S 


2,153 


U. S. G. S 


3,000a 


Geo. of N. C 


3,482 


U. S. G. S 


2,123 


U. S. G. S 


2,100a 


U. S. G. S 


2,775 


Geo. of N. C 


3,006 


U. S. G. S 


4,540 


(Yeates . 

\U. S. G. S 


3,175 
3,141 


U. S. G. S 


2,761 


U. S. G. S 


2,077 


U. S. G. S 


2,078 



Altitudes in ISTorth Carolina 



85 



Location of Station 



Osteen 

Pink Bed 

Pinnacle Mountain 

Queen Creek Mountain 

Reedy Patch Gap 

Rugby 

Shell Knob 

Stamp Field 

Stone Mountain 

Stony Mountain 

Turkey Knob 

Underwood 

Yale 

Zirconia, near station.. 



Description of Station 



Village 

Hamlet 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain gap 

Hamlet.. 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Hamlet 

Postoffice 



Authority 



U. S. G. S.__. 
U. S. G. S.~. 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.__. 
Car. C. R. R 
U. S. G. S.-. 
U. S. G. S.__. 
U. S. G. S.__. 
U. S. G. S.__. 
U. S. G. S.~. 
U. S. G. S.„. 

fYeates 

\U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S.__. 
U. S. G. S.__. 



Elevation 
in Feet 



2,190 

2,200a 

3,662 

3,650 

2,242 

2,100a 

4,520 

2,600a 

3,647 

3,000a 

3,600a 

3,203 

3,300 

2,200a 

2,084 



HERTFORD COUNTY 



Ahoskie, near station.. _______ 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S — . 


53 


Bartonsville. _ . __ 


Hamlet 


U. S. G. S __ 


35a 


Bethlehem . __ _ 


Village 


U. S. G. S 


48 


Brantley Grove Church. ... 


Church . . 


U. S. G. S 


44 


California. .. _ . 


Hamlet 


U. S. G. S 


51 


Cofield 


Postoffice .. 


U. S. G. S 


43 


Como, at postoffice 


Postoffice. _ _ 


U. S. G. S..J 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S _. 

U. S. G. S — 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


73 


Harrellsville, near postoffice. . 


Postoffice. 


65 


Lloyd Crossroads. . _ . 


Hamlet... ... 


62 


Mount Pleasant Church. 


Church 


72 


Newsome _ . _ _ . 


Hamlet . . . _ 


76 


Oak-willow. . . 


Hamlet 


48 


Pilands Crossroads . 


Hamlet 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


39 


Riddicksville.. ... 


Village _ 


34 


Thomas Bridge .. . _ 

Tunis 


Bridge. ... 

Postoffice . . 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


10 
10a 


Union ...... . 


Village .. ._ 


54 


Winton, at county courthouse. 


Postoffice .._ 


45 









HOKE COUNTY 



Argyle 



Postoffice 



(S. A. L 

\Car. C. R. R. 



175 
175 





HYDE COUNTY 






Ocracoke ...... 


Lighthouse . 


Toner 


75 






IREDELL COUNTY 



Amity 

Arthur's Mill.... 

Banton 

Barium Srpings 



Village 

Mill 

Village 

Postoffice. 



U. S. G. S. 



U. S. G. S. 



1,000a 
1,000 
1,050a 
955a 



86 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Bethesda Church 


Church _ 


U. S. G. S. 


800a 


Bethlehem Church.. 


Church _ 


TJ. S. G. S... 


975a 


Cedarhill 


Church 


U. S. G. S... 


900a 


Clio 


Village 


U. S. G. S. . 


900a 


Coolspring 


Village 




825a 


Davidson's Mill _. 


Hamlet 


U. S. G. S- 


810a 


Eads Knob 




U. S. G. S... 


1,600 


Ellis Mill 


Mill 


U. S. G. S 


705 


Elmwood 


Postoffice 




840 


Elmwood, at station 


Postoffice.. 


U. S. G. S._ 


837 


El m wood 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


850 


Eufola 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


775 


Eupeptic Springs 


Village 


U. S. G. S 


850 


Evalin .. 


Village 


U. S. G. S 


1,100 


Fifth Creek Church 


Church .._ 


U. S. G. S 


925a 


Fitch Knob 


Mountain 


TJ. S. G. S.-_ 


1,800a 


Graham's Mill... 


Mill ..._ 


U. S. G. S 


720a 


Granite Hill 






950a 


Hagan's Mill. 


Mill 


U. S. G. S.... 


780 


Harmon's Mill 


Mill 


U. S. G. S 


930a 


Harmony 


Postoffice .-■_ 




978a 


Houstonville 


Postoffice _ 


U. S. G. S 


800 


Jennings 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


900a 


Kelley's Mill 


Mill 


U. S. G. S 


950a 


Keslers Mill 


Mill 


U. S. G. S 


775a 


Kreagers 


Mill 


U. S. G. S 


820a 


Longford 


Village 




805 


McCoys Store 


Store . 


U. S. G. S 


900 


May hew 


Village 




860a 




Postoffice.. 


(V. S. G. S 


913 


Moores ville 


\n. C. G. S 






Mill ._ 


913 


Morrison's Mill 


U. S. G. S 


875a 




Postoffice 


(V. S. G. S 


851 


Mount Mourne 


\S. R. R 






Postoffice 


857 


Newhope 


U. S. G. S 


1,105 


New Sterling . 


Church ._ 


U. S. G. S 


1,025 


New Sterling 


Village _ 


U. S. G. S 


1,004 


Nicholsons Mill 


Village, 


U. S. G. S 


800a 


Olin... 


Postoffice 


TJ. S. G. S 


870a 


Perth . . 


Village 




900a 


Plott's 


Village ._ 




781 


Riverhill . . 


Village 




800a 


Scotts .. 


Postoffice _ 




1,060a 


Settle 


Village 


* 


960a 


Shiloh 


Church ._ 


U. S. G. S 


960 


Shins ville 


Village 




900a 


Sigma 




U. S. G. S 


800a 


Sloans 


Mill 


U. S. G. S 


825a 


Statesville, in front of station 


Town . 


U. S. G. S 


921 


Statesville . 


Town 


U. S. G\ S 


935 


Statesville 


Town 


W. N. C. R. R 


955 


Statesville, at county courthouse 


Town 


TJ. S. G. S 


925 


Summers 


Mill 


U. S. G. S 


920a 


Sweet Home 


Village. 


U. S. G. S 


850a 


Tabor. 


Church ._ 


U. S. G. S 


900a 


Troutmans.. 


Postoffice 


fU. S. G. S._... 

\S. R. R 


955 




Postoffice 


955 


Turnersburg.. 




750a 


Vance 1 


Village 


U. S. G. S 


900a 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



87 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Watts 


Mill 


U. S. G. S 


795 


Weisner.. 


Hamlet . .. 


U. S. G. S..-_ 


900a 


Whites Mill 


Mill 


U. S. G. S 


760a 


Williamsburg . 


Hamlet.. . .. . . 


U. S. G. S 


998 











JACKSON COUNTY 



Addie 


Postoffice . ... . 


U. S. G. S 

Guyot... -. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S _ 

S. R. R.— _ 


2,252 


Amos Plotts Balsam . 


Mountain . _ 

Mountain . _ 

Mountain .. _ 

Postoffice 

Mountain gap 


6,278 


Bald Knob 

Bald Rock 


4,824 
4,150 


Balsam. _ . 


3,338 


Balsam Gap . 


U. S. G. S... 


3,347 


Barker's Creek . . . 


Postoffice _ .. _ _ 


U. S. G. S 


2,050 


Bell Coney Mountain . 


Mountain _ 


U. S. G. S...__ 


4,349 


Bessie . 


Postoffice _ 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


3,600a 


Beta . ... . .. 


Postoffice- _ 

Postoffice 


2,158 


Bigridge .. 


U. S. G. S.... 

U. S. G. S 


4,400a 


Big Spring .. ... 




1,950a 


Black Mountain 


Mountain _ 


U. S. G. S 


5,300a 


Black Mountain. _ 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


4,930 




Mountain _ 


fU. S. G. S 


5,854 


Black Rock .. 


\N.CG.S., Kerr's Map 
U. S. G. S.. 




Black Rock.. . . 


Mountain 


5,215 
4,355 


Brother Plott 


Mountain . 


Guyot.. . ._ -. _ 


6,246 


Caney Fork Bald.. 


Mountain . 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


5,926 


Cashiers .. .. . .... 


Postoffice. . 


3,550a 


Cedarcliff . . ___ 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


4,824 


Charley Bald .... 


Mountain. ... _ . 
Mountain _ 

Mountain 


U. S. G. S fc _ 

Guyot. 


5,530 


Chimney Peak _. . 


6,234 




(U. S. G. S 


4,625 


Chimney Top . . 


iGuyot... _ 






Mountain 


4,573 


Corbins Knob __ 


U. S. G. S 


4,445 


Coward Bald . ._ 


Mountain.. . 


U. S. G. S 


5,100a 


Cowarts . 


Postoffice— 


U. S. G. S 


2,600a 


Cowee Bald 


Mountain 

Tunnel... 


U. S. G. S 


4,979 


Cowee Tunnel . 


U. S. G. S.-_ 


2,000 


Cullowhee .. 


Postoffice. 


Yeates.. . 


2,066 


Cullowhee Mountain 


Mountain . . 


U. S. G. S 


4,411 


Devil's Court House. . 


Mountain - 


U. S. G. S 


4,931 


Dillsboro . . . 


Postoffice.-. .. _ 


S. R. R 


2,006 


Dix Mountain ... 


Mountain.. .. 


U. S. G. S 


3,664 


Double Knob. 


Mountain ._ . 


U. S. G. S 


4,412 


Doubletop Mountain 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


5,540 


East Laporte.. ... 


Postoffice 

Postoffice. 


U. S. G. S 


2,186 


Erastus.. .... 


U. S. G. S 


3,300a 


Fairfield Lake (water surface). 


Lake. 


U. S. G. S 


3,148 


Fallcliff 


Postoffice .. 


U. S. G. S 


2,500a 


Fernhurst . .. 


Village 


U. S. G. S 

fU. S. C. &G. S 

\Guyot . . 

U. S. G. S 


2,700a 


Fodderstack (or Terrapin) 


Mountain _ 


4,510 


Georgetown . 


Village 


4,609 
3,250a 


Glassy Rock __ 


Mountain _ 

Postoffice . 

Station . 

Mountain . 

Postoffice _ _ 


U. S. G. S 


4,500a 


Glenville 


U. S. G. S 


3,250a 


Hall....... 


S. R. R 


2,571 


Hardy, Mount . . 


U. S. C. &G. S 

U. S. G. S 


6,102 


Harris . 


2,250a 



88 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Hickory Nut . . 


Mountain..'.- _ . 


U. S. G. S 


4,266 




Mountain .. 


(U. S. G. S 


4,950 


Hogback ._ _. 


(Yeates--- .. 






Mountain.. .... . 


4,731 


Hornyhead Mountain _. . 


U. S. G. S 


4,060 


Horse Cave . ... 


Hamlet.. _ .. 


Weather Bur 


2,800 


Kirby Knob . _ 


Mountain _ ... 


U. S. G. S 


4,410 


Jones Knob . . ..... 


Mountain. ._ 


U. S. G. S 


6,209 


Laurel Knob . _ _ 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


4,416 


Laurel-patch Mountain. .. . ._ 


Mountain __ 


U. S. G. S 


5,518 


Little Hogback _ 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


4,511 


Lone Bald. _. .. 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S . 


5,500a 


Lone Bald .. 


Mountain . ._ 


U. S. G. S 


6,016 


Lone Balsam 


Mountain .. 


Guyot .. 


5,898 


Norton. . . .. 


Postoffice _ _ 




3,600a 


Old Bald Mountain . 


Mountain ._ 


Guyot ._ 


5,786 


Oscar 1 . . .. . 


Village. ... . ... 

Village. . 

Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


2,200 


Painter . . 


U. S. G. S 


2,105 


Panther Knob... .. . 


U. S. G. S _ 

Guyot ._ 

Guyot _. . 

U. S. G. S 


4,376 


Panther Knob. . 


Mountain _. 


5,359 


Perry Knob.. . . 


Mountain 


5,026 


Pilot Mountain 


Mountain 


4,059 


Plott Balsam. . . 


Mountain. . .. 


U. S. G. S 


5,345 


Quallatown 




U. S. G. S 


2,250a 


Rattlesnake Den. .. _ ._ 


Mountain . 


N. C. G. S., Kerr's Map 
U. S. G. S 


4,697 


Rattlesnake Knob... . . . . 


Mountain. .. . . . 


3,500a 


Reinhart Knob _-.._.. 


Mountain . 


U. S. G. S 


5,800a 


Richland Balsam Mountain 


Mountain. 


fU. S. C. &G. S 

*j Guyot .: _ . 


6,370 
6,425 




Triangulation station.. 
Postoffice 


1 Yeates . . 


6,556 


Richland Balsam, triangulation sta._ 
Rich Mountain . . 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


6,540 

5,368 


Rocky Face... . . 


Mountain ... 


Guyot. ... . 


6,031 


Rocky Mountain 


Mountain _______ 


U. S. G. S 


4,427 


Rough Butt Bald 


Mountain . 


U. S. G. S 


6,010 


Round Mountain.. . ._ .. 


Mountain. . . . . 


U. S. G. S 


4,220 


Rye Mountain . . 


Mountain. . . 


U. S. G. S 


4,542 


Sapphire .... __ 


Postoffice - . _ 


U. S. G. S 


3,800a 


Sassafras Mountain _.__•_. 


Mountain __ _ .. 


U. S. G. S 


4,347 


Scotts Creek _. . 




U. S. G. S 


2,450 


Sheep Cliff .... 


Mountain. _ 


U. S. G. S 


4,653 


Sheep Knob. . _ 


Mountain. 


U. S. G. S 


4,784 


Shortoff Mountain 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


5,054 


Snaggy Bald .. ._.. 


Mountain . 


U. S. G. S 


5,538 


Speedwell-. . _ - . 


Postoffice .. . _ 


U. S. G. S 


2.250 


Steestachee Bald.. . _ _. 


Mountain. 


U. S. G. S . 


5,700 


Sylva.. 


Postoffice ... . 


S. R. R 


2,063 




Mountain 


J Yeates. .... 


6,458 


Tennessee Bald.. .. 


\U. S. G. S 






Mountain . . . 


5,622 


Terrapin Mountain. . 


U. S. G. S 


4,510 


Tuckaseigee 


Postoffice.. . .. ... 


U. S. G. S 


2,184 


Turkey Knob . . 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


4,540 


Watauga Gap 


Mountain gap . 


Guyot . . 


3,280 


Water Rock Knob.. .. .^.. 


Mountain. 


U. S. G. S 


6,399 




Postoffice . .. 


fS. R. R 


1,979 


Webster... ... .. _ 


<JU. S. G. S 


2,188 




Mountain. . . 


[Toner 


2,203 


Wesner Bald.. . _. 


U. S. G. S 


5,570 


Wessah Knob . . 


Mountain 


f Guyot 

\U. S. G. S 


4,576 


Whiteside Cove. . 1 . _ 


Village 


4,979 
3,000a 






Altitudes in North Carolina 



89 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Whiteside Mountain 


Mountain _ 


fu. S. G. s : 

\U. S. C. & G. S. -. . 


4,930 




Postofficc 

Mountain .. 


4,931 


Wilmot 


S. R. R „ 


1,881 ' 


Yellow Mountain ... ________ 


fu. S. G. S 

[Guyot 


( 5,145 

\ 5,240 

5,108 









JOHNSTON COUNTY 



Antioch . 


Church . 


U. S. G. S._ - 


160 


Archer 


Village.. 


U. S. G. S 


338 




Postoffice.. ... . _ 


(A. C. L 


169 


Bagley 


\U. S. G. S 




ChapeL- . 


170 


Barber 


U. S. G. S 


190 


Beasley (Bentonville Postoffice)- . . 


Village. 


U. S. G. S 


163 


Beasley Store . 


Hamlet. ... 


U. S. G. S 

(A. C. L 


184 


Postoffice . 


244 


Benson . 


\U. S. G. S 






Postoffice ... ..__.. 


243 


Bentonville _.._ _ _ __ 


U. S. G. S 


163 


Bethel Church 


Church. . . _ ... 


U. S. G. S 


191 


Beulahtown _. .... 


Hamlet ... 


U. S. G. S 


169 


Big Branch- _ _ 


Railroad crossing. . . 


A. C. L .__•__ 


160 


Black Creek.. 


Railroad crossing. 

Crossroads . 


A. C. L 


102 


Blackmon's Crossroads.. 


U. S. G. S 


198 


Buffalo Creek . . 


Railroad crossing.. _______ 


A. C. L 


133 




Postoffice.. 


fU. S. G. S 


345 


Clayton .... .... 


Is. R. R 


347 




Church -_ ._ . . 


(N. Car. R. R 


347 


Corinth Church . 


U. S. G. S 


176 


Durham Corners . .. 


Hamlet _ 


U. S. G. S 


221 


Emit 


Village . .. 


U. S. G. S 


287 


Ezra.. .. .. .... .... 


Village 


U.S.. G. S 


239 


Flowers Store _____ 


Hamlet __ .. __ 


U. S. G. S 


191 




Postoffice 


(A. C. L 


206 


Four Oaks .. .. 


\U. S. G. S 






Church .. 


211 


Galilee Church. . . 


U. S. G. S. 


165 


Glenwood Crossroads. 


Crossroads _. 


U. S. G. S. 


197 


Hannah Creek . . ... 


Railroad crossing 


A. C. L 


130 


Hares Crossroads. . 


Crossroads . . 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


263 


Harper. .. . 


Hamlet.. .. ____ . _ 


184 


Heflin 


Village. . .. 


280 


Hickory Crossroads. . .. .. 


Crossroads. _ _. .. _. 


225 


Holts Pond 


Pond 




116 


Hopewell Church .. 


Church 


U. S. G. S - 

fU. S. G. S _ 


210 




Station ... 

Crossroads. 


192 


Jerome . ... 


\A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 




Johnson Crossroads 


205 
220 


Kenly .. . 


Postoffice. . . 


220 


Kenly, at postoffice 


Postoffice 


204 


Lee Bridge. .. 


Bridge. ... 


U. S. G. S.-__ 


115 


Little Creek . .... 


Railroad crossing ._ _ 


A. C. L 

A. C. L 


163 


Little River. .... 


Railroad crossing. -. _. 
School 


125 


Long Branch School. .. . 


U. S. G. S.._ 


185a 


McKoy 


Hamlet .... 


U. S. G. S... 


211 


Micro . 


Postoffice . 


U. S. G. S._. 


192 


Mill Creek Church 


Church.. . . 


U. S. G. S 


165 


Moore Crossroads . 


Crossroads. . 


U. S. G. S 


807 


Neuse River... ... . . . _ 


Railroad bridge. . _ . 


U. S. G. S. track level.. 


140 



90 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


New Zealand Church 


Church.. ...'. _ 


U. S. G. S.~ 


191 


Oak Forest . .. .. 


Village 


U. S. G. S. . 


193 


Oliver 


Station 


U. S. G. S 


169 


Oliver Grove Church 


Church. ._ 


U. S. G. S 


198 


Overshot ... 


Hamlet . .. 


U. S. G. S... 


174 


Parker Bridge. _ 


Bridge... . 


U. S. G. S 


133 


Peacocks Crossroads.. . 


Hamlet 


U. S. G. S.-. 


201 


Pine Level, at station . 


Postoffice.. 


U. S. G. S 


168 


Preston ._ 


Village 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. Car. R. R 


233 


Princeton 


Postoffice 


153 


Princeton 


Postoffice 


160 


Princeton, at station... . _ 


Postoffice. 


U. S. G. S 


151 


Radford Crossroads... 


Crossroads.. . 


U. S. G. S 


200 


Rayns Crossroads.. 


Crossroads 


U. S. G. S._ 

U. S. G. S 

Weather Bur. 


145 


Selma 


Postoffice 


178 


Selma. 


Postoffice 

Postoffice . _ 


225 


Selma, at Webb Street 


U. S. G. S 


177 


Selma, Railroad crossing 


Postoffice .._ 

Postoffice _ 

Postoffice 

Hamlet. 

Crossroads 

Store 


U. S. G. S 


176 


Smithfield 


A. C. L 


151 


Smithfield, at county courthouse 


U. S. G. S 


146 


Spilona.._ 


U. S. G. S 


226 


Strickland Crossroads. 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


149 


Tarts 


188 


Wentworth 


School. 

Railroad crossing 

Hamlet 


U. S. G. S 


195 


White Oak Creek 


A. C. L 


145 


Whitley Place 


U. S. G. S 


150a 


Wilsons Mills, near station 


Postoffice- 

Crossroads 


U. S. G. S 


228 


Woods 


U. S. G. S 


212 









JONES COUNTY 



Caswell, road crossing at station 


Station . 

Village .. .. 

Bridge 

Postoffice 

Village.. . ..... ... 

Crossroads.. . .. 


U. S. G. S 


46 


Comfort__ . . 


U. S. G. S 


51 


Free Bridge 


U. S. G. S... 


37 


Maysville 


A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(A. C. L 


42 


Olivers, near church 


46 


Phillips Crossroads 


49 




Postoffice .. - 


13 


Polloksville 


\U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 




Ravenswood . 


Station 

Postoffice _ 

Village. 


20a 
40 


Trenton, at county courthouse 

Whitford 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


28 
26 






V 





LEE COUNTY 



Colon 

Cumnock 

Jonesboro 

Lemon Springs 

Osgood 

Sanford 

Swanns 



Postoffice 
Postoffice 
Postoffice 
Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 
Station.. . 



S. A. L 

C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 

S. A. L 

(R. & A. R. R 

S. A. L 

'c. F. & Y. V. R, R 

R. & A. R. R 

S. A. L.... 

C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 



335 
252 
419 
387 
246 
255 
321 
359 
320 
368 
311 



Altitudes in ISToeth Carolina 



91 



LENOIR COUNTY 



Location of Station 



Bear Creek 

Beulah Church 

Closs 

Dawson 

Falling Creek 

Falling Creek Station 

Fields 

Fountain Hill 

Georgetown 

Graingers 

Hines Junction 

Kinstoh, at courthouse 

Kinston, at Caswell Monument 

Kinston, in front A. C. L. sta 

Kinston, at Caswell Street crossing 

Kinston, rail at station... 

Kinston 

LaGrange, at ticket office 

Mewborns Crossroads 

Oakdale School 

Sharon Church 

Wheat Swamp Church 

Worth School 



Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Creek 


A. & N. C. R. R 

U. S. G. S 


77 


Church. 


113 


Village 


U. S. G. S 


30a 


Station.. .... _ . ._ 


U. S. G. S 

(U. S. G. S 

\N. C. G. S .. 


100 


Postoffice _ 


52 


Station .. ._ 


54 


U. S. G. S 


54 


Station . . _ 


U. S. G. S 


109 


Village. 


U. S. G. S 


40 


Village .. ._ . 


U. S. G. S 


79 


Station _ 


(Wil. & Weldon 


70 


\U. S. G. S 




Station ... 


74 


U. S. G. S.„. 


49 


Town. _ . 


U. S. G. S 


44 


Town ... 


U. S. G. S 


43 


Town 


U. S. G. S ... 


42 


Town 


U. S. G. S 


43 


Town .. 


U. S. G. S 


• 45 


Town.. 


A. & N. C. R. R 

U. S. G. S 


45 


Postoffice 


108 


Crossroads. 


U. S. G. S 


78 


School ... 


U. S. G. S 


68 


Church .. 


U. S. G. S 


71 


Church 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


114 


School 


80 









LINCOLN COUNTY 



Asbury Church 

Beattie Ford 

Beattie's Ford 

Cedar Church 

Ccstner's Mill. 

Crouse 

Denver 

Derr 

Dora 

Double Chimney School 

Flay 

Hagles Mill 

Henry 

HokesMill 

Hoyles Store 

Hulls Crossroads 

Indian Creek (track level) 

Iron Station, Methodist Church yard 

Johnstown 

Kidsville . 

Killian's Mill 

Laboratory 

Lincolnton, at courthouse 

Lincolnton 



Church 

Ford 

Station 

Hamlet 

Hamlet 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Hamlet 

School 

Vi llage 

Mill. 

Postoffice 

Mill., 

Hamlet 

Village 

Creek near Lincolnton. 

Postoffice 

Hamlet 

Village. 

Mill 

Village 

Postoffice 



Postoffice. 



U. S. 

u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 



G. S._ 
G. S.. 
G. S.. 
G. S.. 
G. S.. 
G. S.. 



U.S. 

u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 
u. s. 

S. A. 

u. s. 
u. s. 



G. S.. 
G. S._ 
G. S.. 
G. S- 
G. S~ 
G. S.. 
G. S.. 
G. S.. 

L 

G. S.. 
G. S.. 



U. S. 

u. s. 
u. s. 

'S. A 
S. R 
Car. 



G. S 

G. S 

G. S.-_. 

L 

. R 

C. R. R. 



U. S. C. & G. S. 



968 
710 
710 
1,000a 
750a 
856 
950a 
920a 
1,033 
1,005 
1,051 
1,100a 
1,102 
850a 
819 
1,090a 
776 
896 
794 
850a 
800a 
861 
868 
866 
860 
866 
940 
944 



92 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Lowesville _ _ 


Village. _ ... 

Church . .. 


U. S. G. S— 


785 


Macedonia . 


U. S. G. S 


1 , 100a 


Macedonia Church .. 


Church . 


U. S. G. S 


1,160 


Mount Vernon Church . 


Church _ . . . _ 


U. S. G. S.-_ 


1,160 


Mount Vernon Church _ 


Church. . __ . _ _ _ 


U. S. G. S.-._ 


962 


Mullins Store 


Store. . ... .- _ 


U. S. G. S 


920a 


Pinegrove School 


School. . 


U. S. G. S.-- . 


863 


Pisgah Church 


Church. .- - - _ ._ 


U. S. G. S 


911 


Reepsville.. _ _ 


Postoffice.. 


U. S. G. S—_ 


961 


Rudisils _ _ _ 


Store ------ 


U. S. G. S 


1,000a 


Salem Church _ _ _ 


Church.. -- _ 


U. S. G. S 


904 


Sanders.. - 


Mill 


U. S. G. S 


950a 


Smiths Store __ __ 


Hamlet 


U. S. G. S 


994 


Southside. -_ 


Village _- -. -. 


U. S. G. S 


880 


Trinity School 


School. 


U. S. G. S 


878 











Mcdowell county 



Big Laurel Gap 

Black Knob 

Broad River 

Buck Creek Gap 

Byers Fork 

Bynum 

Catawba River 

Catawba River Bridge 

Conley Bald 

Conoway Knob 

Cross 

Demming 

Dendron 

Dish Knob 

Dysortville 

French Mountain 

Gillespie Gap 

Glenwood 

Grassy Knob 

Greenlee 

High Ridge. 

High Top 

Humpback 

Ida 

Jackson - Knob 

Ki rksey 

Licklog Tunnel __-- 

Little Pisgah 

McElroy Tunnel 

Mackey Mountain 

Margaret Peak 

Marion, in front of station 

Marion, at county courthouse 

Marion. 

Marion __? 

Morgant Peak 



Mountain gap. 
Mountain 



Ford of River 

Mountain Gap 

Village 

Village 

Between Marion and Old 

Fort 

Bridge 

Mountain 

M ountai n 

Mountain 

Village 

Station 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain gap 

Station 

M ountain 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S._... 
Geo. of N. C 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S- 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S.. 



Station. 
Tunnel- 



Mountain. 



Mountain 

M ountain 

Mountain 

Village 

Tunnel 

M ountain 

Tunnel on Southern Ry. 

M ountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mountain. 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

O. R. & C. R. R. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S.— _*:_ 
Geo. of N. C.-_ 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Toner 

U. S. C. & G. Si. 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

W. N. C. It. R. 
Weather Bur... 
U. S. G. S 



700a 

300a 

249 

516 

200a 

533 

650a 

396 

018 

200 

144 

600a 

350a 

753 

800 

262 

200a 

800 

258 

171 

285 

287 

341 

300a 

300 

179 

000a 

223 

268 

443 

437 

330 

100a 

500a 

391 

437 

425 

425 

500 



Altitudes in ]SToeth Carolina 



93 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Mount Ida 


Mountain . 

Station ._.___. . _ . . 

Postoffice... . . 

Postoffice. ... ... 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


2,000 


Mud Cut 


2,152 


Nebo, in front of station . 

Nebo - . - 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


1,283 

1,297 


Old Fort, at ticket office 


Postoffice ... . 


U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 


1,437 


Old Fort 


Postoffice 

Village . _ . . -_ 


1,436 


Patten 




1,210a 


Pinnacle.. 


Mountain . . 


U. S. G. S 


5,693 


Pond Ridge . . 


Mountain ._ .... 


U. S. G. S 


3,546 


Providence- - . . 


Church _ 


U. S. G. S 


1,320a 


Rockpass 


Hamlet. 


U. S. G. S 


1,198 


Round Knob 


Station _. . . . 




1,830 


Round Knob, near hotel - 


Station.. -. . .. ._ 


S. R. R. _ 

U. S. G. S.„_ 


1,828 


Round Mountain _- _ .. 


Mountain... _. . _ 


3,500a 


Sinclair . ... _.-.__ 


Mill . 


U. S. G. S 


1,197 


Stone Mountain. _ _ _ -- - 


Mountain . . _ 


U. S. G. S— 


3 , 700a 


Turkey __ . .. . 


Mountain _ . .... 


U. S. G. S 


1,900a 


Vein Mountain . - 


Postoffice. ... . _ . . 


U. S. G. S... 


1 , 600a 


Whitehouse .. __ . 






1 , 350a 


Wildcat Knob .. 


Mountain. _ . . 


U. S. G. S... 


2 , 600a 


Wood 


Mountain. ... . . __ 


U. S. G. S.._. 


3,500 


Woodlawn, \^ mile from postoffice . 


Postoffice ... .. 


U. S. G. S 


1,394 


Zion . 


Church ■- 


U. S. G. S.~ 


1,475 











MACON COUNTY 



Albert, Mount 

Ammons Knob 

Aquone 

Beach Bald 

Black Bald 

Black Gap 

Black Mountain 

Black Mountain 

Black Rock 

Burnington 

Burningtown Bald 

Burningtown Gap 

Cartoogajay 

Cedarcliff 

Cherry 

Copper Bald 

Corbin Knob 

Corbins Knob 

Cowee Bald 

Cullasaja 

Davis Bald 

Dobson Mount 

Dog 

Duvall 

Ellijay 

Etna 

Fish Hawk Mountain.. 
Flatwood Gap 

Fodderstack Mountain 



Mountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain gap. 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Village 

Mountain 

Mountain gap 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain gap 

Mountain 



(V. S. G. S 

\Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

/U. S. G. S 

\Guyot 

U.*S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

N.C.G.S., Kerr's Map 
U. S. G. S 



5,207 

5,254 

3,916a 

2,950a 

5,100a 

5,100 

4,000 

3,735 

4,930 

4,355 

2,100a 

5,200a 

5,243 

3,700a 

5,064 

4,824 

4,600a 

5,400a 

4,300a 

4,445 

4,979 

2,100a 

4,500a 

3,500a 

4,000a 

2,750a 

2,200a 

1,950a 

4,684 

1,475 

4,807 

4,280 



94 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 

* 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Franklin __ ------ 


Postoffice-.. -. . 

Mountain _ 


U. S. G. S 


2,099 


Higdon Mountain .. _. . - 


U. S. G. S 


4,045 


Hidgonville ----- 


Postoffice.. 


U. S. G. S 


2,100a 


Highlands. - 


Postoffice - - 


U. S. G. S 


3,817 




Mountain . .. 


J Yeates 


4,731 


Hogback 


\U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 




Jarrett Knob 


Mountain 


4,950 
4,500a 


Jarrett's Gap... 


Mountain gap . .. .. 


N.C.G.S., Kerr's Map_ 
U. S. G. S... 


2,931 


Jones Knob 


Mountain.. .. _. 


4,600 


Junaluska Gap- 


Mountain gap 


U. S. G. S.— 

U. S. G. S 


3,700a 


Kirby Knob 


Mountain ... _ 


4,410 


Knoll 


Village 


U. S. G. S 


2,520a 


Kyle _ . . 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S .- 


3,150a 


Lamb - . 


Mountain . _. .. 


U. S. G. S 


4,600a 


Leathefman 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


2,150a 


Lesle Knob 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


3,500a 


Little Bald Mountain _. 


Mountain . 


U. S. C. &G. S.— 


5,217 


Little Fishawk Mountain.. .. 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


4,706 


Lisle Knob- 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


3,600a 


Lookout 


Postoffice. . _ 


U. S. G. S.— .' 

U. S. G. S 


3,250a 


Millshoal 




2,250a 


Nantahala 


Mountain gap... 


Guyot 


4,158 


Nigger Head 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


4,900a 


Nolen 


Mountain 


Guyot 


5,094 


Nona 


Mountain _. .. . 


Guyot 


5,042 


Nonah 


Village _ 


U. S. G. S 


2,250a 


Old Rocky Mountain... 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S - 


4,825 


Onion Mountain 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


3,500a 


Otto- 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


2,150a 


Parrish 


Postoffice.. 


U. S. G. S 


2,000a 


Penland Bald 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S _"_:_ 


5,000a 


Pickens Nose _. 


Mountain _ 


(U. S. G. S _... 

\U. S. C. &G. S 

U. S. G. S. — 


4,822 


Pineland 


Village 


4,910 
2,200a 


Pinnacle Mountain 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


5,020a 


Rabun Gap 


Mountain gap 


Guyot 


2,168 


Raven Knob 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


4,700a 


Redmarble Gap 


Mountain 


(U. S. G. S 

I^Guyot _ 


2,800a 




Mountain 


2,686 


Ridgepole 


U. S. G. S 


5,008 


Roanes Mill 


Village . 


TJ. S. G. S 


2,450a 


Rocky Bald 


Mountain 


Toner 


5,323 


Rocky Face... 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


4,500a 


Run Knob 


Mountain . 


U. S. G. S 


4,300 


Satulah Mountain 


Mountain. 


u. s. g. s.— : 


4,490 


Scaly 


Postoffice.- . 


U. S. G. S 


3,600a 


Scaly Mountain 


Mountain 


fU. S. G. S -.._ 

In. C. G. S., Kerr's Map 

JTJ. S. G. S 

\N. C. G. S., Kerr's Map 
U. S. G. S 


4,769 


Shortoff 


Mountain. . .. 


4,835 
5,000a 


Shortoff 


Postoffice .. 


5,039 
3,700a 


Shortoff Mountain.. 


Mountain . . ._ 


U. S. G. S 


5,054 


Slagle 


Village 


U. S. G. S 


3,400a 




M ountain _ 


jGuyot . . .. _ 


5,528 


Standing Indian ._.. 


\U. S. G. S 






Mountain ._ 


5,562 


Tellico Bald 


U. S. G. S 


5,200a 


Toketah . ._ 

Tremont 


Mountain _ 

Mountain 

Mountain ... 

Mountain gap 


N. C. G. S., Kerr's Map. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 


5,373 
3,700a 


Turkey Knob .. .. . 


4,540 


Watauga Gap..-. 


3,280 



Altitudes in JNTorth Carolina 



95 



Location of Station 



WayahBald 

Wesser Bald 

Wildes Store 

Wine Spring Bald 
Wests Mill 

Yellow Mountain. 



Description of Station 



Mountain 

Mountain 
Village..: 
Mountain 
Postoffice. 

Mountain 



Authority 



(V. S. G. S. 

\Guyot 

U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S.. 
fU. S. G. S. 
\v. S. G. S. 
[Guyot 



Elevation 
in Feet 



5,400a 

5,494 

4,800a 

2,150a 

5,500a 

2,000a 

5,132 

5,240 

5,108 



MADISON COUNTY 



Allanstand 

Alleghany 

Bailey, in front of station 

Bailey, 1 mile west of station 

Barnard, in front of station 

Barnard, A- mile northwest of station 

Bear Wallow Mountain 

Bible.. 

Big Butt 

Big Laurel 

Big Pine 

Bluff 

Bluff Mountain . 

Briggsville 

Buckner 

California Creek. L 

Camp Creek Bald _ 

Cedarcliff 

Chambee Mountain 

Chestnut M ountain 

Duel Hill 

English 

Faust 

Friezeland 

Grapevine 

Grassy Land. 

Halewood 

Hebo 

Hickory Nut Knob 

High Bluff 

Hot Springs. 

Ivy, near postoffice 

Joe_ 

Kind. 

Laurelton 

Little Creek 

Little Pinecreek 

Locust Gap 

Luck 

Lynch 

Marshall, at county courthouse 

Marshall, in front of station 

Marshall 

Mars Hill 



Postoffice 

Village 

Station 

Station 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Hamlet 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Village 

Postoffice 

Village.. 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Station 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Village 

Mountain 

Village 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain . 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Village 

Village 

Village 

Mountain gap 

Postoffice 

Village 

Postoffice- 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice. 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Yeates ... 

U. S. G. S 

/Guyot 

\U. S. G. S.-_ 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S..._. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

W. N. C. R. R 
U. S. G. S 



2,000a 

2,700a 

1,727 

1,729 

1,532 

1,528 

4,658 

2,100a 

4,889 

2,103 

2,500 

2,150a 

4,640 

2,300a 

2,400a 

3,000 

4,780 

4,300a 

4,500 

6,234 

1,950a 

3,400a 

3,150a 

2,500 

2,200a 

3,884 

2,200a 

4,468 

4,300a 

4,600a 

4,703 

1,325 

2,085 

2,650a 

2,000a 

2,600a 

2,850 

1,700a 

3,000a 

3,100a 

2,200a 

1,645 

1,644 

1,647 

2,300a 



96 



Altitudes in JSTorth Carolina 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 




Mountain.. _ _ A __ 

Ridge. 


(V. S. G. S 


4,660 


Max Patch Mountain _ 


(Yeates. _. 


4,700 


Mill Ridge.. ... 


TJ. S. G. S... 


2,763 




Mountain 


TJ. S. G. S. 


4,400a 


Outlook..' .. . __ _ ... ._ 


Village 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


1,800a 


Paintfork - _____________ 


Postoffice.. .. 


2,250a 


Paint Rock _ _ _ _ 


Mountain.. 


Toner. 


1,261 


Paint Rock, in front of station___ 


Postoffice _ _ 


U. S. G. S 


1,266 


Paint Rock, at end of bridge.. 


Postoffice _ . 


U. S. G. S 


1,257 


Putnam 


Village. 


TJ. S. G. S 


1,500a 


Ray .. 


Village.. 


U. S. G. S... 


2,300a 


Rich Mountain. . . __ 


Mountain _ 


TJ. S. G. S 


3,643 


River Bluff 


Mountain. 


U. S. G. S... 


2,326 


Rollins..- . __ -_ -. - 


Station ___ _. 


U. S. G. S 


1,668 


Sandy, in front of station.. ... 


Station... _ 


U. S. G. S 


1,462 


Sandymush Bald, triangulation sta._ 


Triangulation station.. _ 
Village . 


U. S. G. S 


5,168 


Sexton .. ._ _... _____ 


U. S. G. S 


1,850a 


Slaty Knob _ _______ 


Mountain _ . 


U. S. G. S 


2,790 


Spring Creek ______ _ _ 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


2,236 


Stackhouse, in front of station. 


Postoffice _ 


U. S. G. S 


1,418 


Sugarloaf Knob.. ____ 


Mountain. 


TJ. S. G. S 


4,540 


True Lone _. . . . 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S 


4,300a 


Trust 


Postoffice... . . .. 


U. S. G. S. 


2,500a 


Walnut Mountain... 


Mountain 


Toner. 


4,335 


Walnut Run 


Village __.... 


U. S. G. S 


2,150 


White Rock 


Postoffice _. . 


U. S. G. S 


1,800a 











MARTIN COUNTY 



Ballard 

Conoho 

Everetts, near station 

Goldpoint 

Goose Nest 

Hamilton 

Hassell 

Oak City, near station 

Parmele, near station 

Parmele 

Williamston, at county courthouse 



Hamlet... 

Village 

Postoffice 
Village 

Station... 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 
Postoffice 
Postoffice 
Postoffice 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

/U. S. G. S 

\Wil. & Weldon 

U. S. G. S 

U. S- G. S 

Wil. & Weldon 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Wil. & Weldon.. 
U. S. G. S 



50 

84 
66 
74 
84 
81 
73 
76 
79 
84 
74 
75 
60 



MECKLENBURG COUNTY 



Amity Church 

Arlington. 

Beattie Ford 

Bristow 

Carmel Church 

Center Church 

Charlotte 

Charlotte, at county courthouse 

Charlotte 



Church 
Village- 
Ford. _. 
Village- 
Church 
Church 
City... 
City.... 

City.... 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

Weather Bur 

U. S. Sig. Office. 
N. C. G. S 



765 
642 
710 
694 
702 
657 
725 
759 
747 
773 
838 
707 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



97 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Coopers Store 

Cowans Ford 


Hamlet... ._ 

Village . 

Town . ... 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S-. 

Toner. _ . 


637 
811 


Davidson _ 


850 


Derita, near Postoffice 


Postofficel 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


816 


Di xie 


Hamlet .. . 


748 


Ebenezer Church 


Church . _ _ _ _ _ _ 


U. S. G. S 


709 


Griffith 


Station. ... . . . _ 


S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


721 


Hebron . . _ . 


Station _. . _ 


662 


Hopewell. 


Village. .. 


741 


Huntersville, in front of station 


Postoffice.. 


811 


Huntersville, near postoffice- - 


Postoffice .... 


814 


Juneau 


Village 


N. C. G. S 


718 


Juneau, in front of station . 


Village ... ... 


U. S. G. S 


739 


Kendrick Crossroads 


Hamlet.. -_. 


U. S. G. S 


636 


Matthews . 


Postoffice .. ._ . _ 


S. A. L 


716 


Matthews, in front of station 


Postoffice -.. . 


U. S. G. S 


731 


Moore ChapeL-. . .. 


Church.- -__-. _ 


U. S. G. S 


745 


Mulberry Church . .. 


Hamlet . . ._ - - 


U. S. G. S 


777 


Newell, near postoffice — 


Postoffice.. -______" 


U. S. G. S 


757 


Newell, in front of station. 


Postoffice.. _! . . . 


U. S. G. S 


761 


Pineville .. .. 


Postoffice.,. .-- 


S. R. R. 


575 


Pineville, near postoffice 


Postoffice -- .. . 


U. S. G. S 


571 


Pineville. .... . .. 


Postoffice ._ - - . 


C. C. &A. R. R 

U. S. G. S 


575 


Robinsons Store . . . . ._ 


Hamlet-- . . 


697 


Sardis.. .. . _ 


Village.. ... 


S. A. L 


707 


Sardis, in front of station 


Village . 


U. S. G. S 


718 


Sharon... .. . . 


Church. . 


U. S. G. S 


715a 


Shopton . . . . . . 


Village .. ._ 


U. S. G. S 


728 


Uncas . . .. ... 


Village .. . . . 


U. S. G. S 


765 











MITCHELL COUNTY 



Bakersville 

Bakersville, at county courthouse 

Bandana 

Beauty Spot Mountain 

Beech Knob 

Big Yellow Mountain 

Bright Yellow 

Brummett 

Bullocrape Gap 

Crabtree 

Crabtree Mountain 

Cranberry Gap 

Chalk M ountain 

Clarissa 

Cloudland 

Dellinger's Gap 

Doe Hill Mountain 

Elsie 

Estatoe 

Ewart 

Fork Mountain 

Glen Ayre 

Grassy Ridge Bald 

Hawk 

Hawk- 

Herrell 

7 



Town 

Town 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain gap 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain gap 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Village 

Mountain gap. 

Mountain 

Hamlet 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Village 1... 



N. C. G. S— 
U. S. G. S.-. 
U. S. G. S... 

Yeates 

N. C. G. S... 
TJ. S. G. S— 
U. S. G. S.-. 
U. S. G. S-. 
Montgomery 
TJ. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S-. 

Mont 

TJ. S. G. S-. 
U. S. G. S.-. 
N. C. G. S... 
U. S. G. S.... 
U. S. G. S-. 
U. S. G. S-. 
U. S. G. S-. 
U. S. G. S.__. 
U. S. G. S.... 
U. S. G. S-. 
U. S. G. S-. 
U. S. G. S-. 
U. S. G. S-. 
U. S. G. S-. 



2,550a 

2,470 

2,650a 

4,254 

5,067 

5,500a 

5,300a 

2,400a 

3,882 

4,100 

3,960 

3,500 

3,558 

2,650a 

6,261 

3,389 

4,217 

2,630 

2,700a 

2,600 

4,500a 

3,172 

6,226 

4,700a 

2,900a 

2,375 



98 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Humpback Mountain 

Huntdale 

Indian Grave Gap 

Iron Mountain Gap... 

Ivy Gap 

Jackson Knob 

Kawana 

Ledger 

Linville Gap 

Little Yellow 

Loggy 

Magnetic City 

McCaudles Gap ... 

Mica. 

Old Fields 

Otter Knobs 

Peak, The 

Penland 

Pestle.."... 

Phenoy 

Pisgah Gap 

Poplar 

Pumpkin Patch 

Redhill 

Relief 

Roan High Bluff 

Roan High Knob 

Roan Mountain 

Spruce Pine 

The Peak 

Toecane. 

Unaka Mountain 

Woods Knob 

Yellow Mountain 



Description of Station 



Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain gap 
Mountain gap 
Mountain gap 

Mountain 

Village 

Postoffice 

Mountain gap 

Mountain 

Village 

Postoffice 

Mountain gap 

Postoffice 

Hamlet 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain gap 

Postoffice .. 

Mountain 

Village 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice. 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 



Authority 



U. S. G. S..._. 
U. S. G. S.— . 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S._... 
U. S. G. S.-_. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S.___. 
U. S. G. S.-_. 
Montgomery.. 
U. S. G. S.-~. 
U. S. G. S..__. 
U. S. G. S.,._. 
/U. S. G. S-. 
^Montgomery 
U. S. G. S.„_. 
U. S. G. S.— . 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Yeates 

U. S. G. S 

Geo. of N. C 
U. S. G. S.— . 

Yeates 

U. S. G. S.„_ . 
U. S. G. S.— . 
U. S. G. S.— . 
U. S. G. S.-.. 

(Yeates.-- 

\Guyot- 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

/Yeates 

\U. S. G. S-. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



Elevation 

in Feet 



4,179 

2,033 

3,100a 

3,725 

3,150a 

3,223 

3,775a 

2,733 

4,087 

5,400a 

3,800a 

2,800a 

4,087 

4,285 

2,657 

3,600a 

3,695 

3,866 

2,500a 

4,348 

2,850a 

3,437 

2,000a 

4,263 

2,424 

2,026 

6,287 

6,313 

6,297 

6,306 

2,511 

3,866 

2,244 

5,233 

5,258 

4,248 

5,330 



MONTGOMERY COUNTY 




MOORE COUNTY 



Aberdeen . 


Postoffice 


S. A. L 


351 




Postoffice 


fS. A. L 


312 


Cameron . 


1 R. & A. A. L. R. R 

fs. A. L 






Postoffice. ; 


309 
301 


Keyser 


1r. & A. R. R 

jS. A. L 

1 R. & A. R. R 




Manly 


Postoffice 


286 
437 




Postoffice 


450 




js. A. L 


519 


Southern Pines . .. 


\ Weather Bur 






Postoffice 


400 


Vass 


S. A. L 


317 











Altitudes in North Carolina 



99 



NASH COUNTY 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Battleboro 


Town 


A. C. L 


120 


Dry Wells 


Village.. 


U. S. G. S..._ 


320 


Easonburg 


Village 


U. S. G. S.-_ 


126 


Eatmon 


Hamlet 


U. S. G. S 


202 


Finch. . . 


Village 


U. S. G. S 


246 


Frazier Crossroads . . _ 


Crossroads _ 


U. S. G. S 


275 


Glover. 


Hamlet 


U. S. G. S 


284 


Gold Valley.. I... 


Crossroads 


U. S. G. S 


272 


Halifax Crossing 


Crossing 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


143 


Hunts. 


Hamlet 


287 


Lamm Crossroads 


Hamlet... " 


245 


Nashville, near station 


Postoffice _ 


U. S. G. S 


189 


Oakland 


Village 


U. S. G. S.— 


241 


Rogers Crossroads _ 


Hamlet 


U. S. G. S 


287 


Samaria . 


Village 


U. S. G. S 


250a 


Sandy Crossroads. _. . 


Hamlet _ 


U. S. G. S 


202 


Sharpsburg . 


Postoffice _ 


/A. c. l 

\U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


134 


Snells Crossroads 


Hamlet. _ 


140 

200 


Spring Hope, near station.. 


Postoffice _ 


261 


Stanhope. 


Hamlet ._ 


283 


Strickland 


Bridge .. .. 


U. S. G. S 


178 


Taylor Crossroads .. 


Crossroads. _ 


U. S. G. S 


198 


Union Hope . _ 


Hamlet 


U. S. G. S 


330 


White Oak Church. 


Church 


U. S. G. S 


207 


Winstead 


Crossroads 


U. S. G. S 


171 










NEW HANOVER COUNTY 


Baymead. .. 


Village 


A. C. L 


51 




Postoffice 


(A. C. L... 


20 


Castle Hayne _. 


\Wil. N. & N. R. R. .„ 
A. C. L 




Kirkland . 


Station _ 


26 

58 




Station 


(a. c. l 


15 


Navassa 


\S. A. L 






Station . 


10 


Point Peter 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
Weather Bur 


6 


Wil mingt on .. 


City 


8 


Wilmington, at old depot 


City 

City 


S. A. L 


10 


Wilmington, at Union Station . 


A. C. L 


29 


Wrightsboro . . 


Station 


A. C. L 


34 










NORTHAMPTON COUNTY 


Conway .. 


Postoffice 


S. A. L 


106 


Garys 


Station 


S. A. L 


132 


Garysburg 


Postoffice 


A. C. L 

S. A. L. 

S. A. L..._ 


145 


Gumberry 


Postoffice 


132 


Margarettsville 


PostofEce 


58 


Pendleton. . 


Postoffice 


S. A. L 


76 


Pleasant Hill 


Postoffice 


A. C. L 


119 


Potecasi 


PostofEce _ 

Postoffice.-. 


S. A. L... 


72 


Rich Square 


S. A. L 


77 


Seaboard 


Postoffice 


S. A. L 


131 


Severn 


Postoffice 


S. A. L... 


64 


Woodland .. 


Postoffice 


S. A. L......... 


72 











100 



Altitudes in JSTorth Carolina 



ONSLOW COUNTY 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Dixon . -_ 


Postoffice 


A. C. L 

A. C. L 


63 


Folkstone.. .. 


PostofficP- 


70 


Hollyridge . _- 


PostofEce. _ 


A. C. L 


66 


Jacksonville 


Postoffice . . . ._ 


A. C. L 


15 


Northeast _ . _ 


Station .. .. _. 


A. O. L 


45 


Verona.. _ 


Postoffice _ 


A. C. L 


51 


White Oak 


Station.. . 


A. C. L 


46 











ORANGE COUNTY 



Blackwood, at road crossing 


Postoffice . . 


U. S. G. S 

Weather Bur. .. .. 


485 


Chapel Hill 


Town... . . 

Town .. _ __. 

Town _ .. .. 

Postoffice . . _ 


500 


Chapel Hill 


Toner. . 


570 


Chapel Hill, at Memorial Hall _ 


U. S. G. S 


502 


Efland, mile post 37 


U. S. G. S 


662 


Eno River . . 

Eno River 


River east of Hillsboro ... 
River west of Hillsboro 

Town. 


U. S. G. S., track level. 
U. S. G. S., track level _ 

U. S. G. S 


530 

575 


Hillsboro, northwest corner of court- 
house. . 


542 


Hillsboro .. _. . . 


Town __ _ _ 


N. C. R. R 


539 


Oconeechee, at switch point__ 


Station on Southern Ry. . 
Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


568 


University, northwest of station 

University, in front of station 


U. S. G. S— ■_ 


471 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


470 











PASQUOTANK COUNTY 



Elizabeth City . 


Town .. . .. 


N. S. R. R . 


8 


Elizabeth City Junction 


Junction on R. R. . 


N. S. R. R 


5 


Nixonton . . . 


U. S. G. S 

N. S. R. R 


8 


Okisko ... 


Postoffice 


12 


Pasquotank __ - 


Village -i- _ 


N. S. R. R 


15 











PENDER COUNTY 



Annandale 

Atkinson 

Burgaw 

Currie 

Cypress Lake 

Edgecombe 

Hampstead 

Montague 

Rocky Point 

Scotts Hill... 

South Washington 

Willard 

Woodside 



Station... 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice 
Postoffice 
Station... 
Station... 
Postoffice 
Postoffice 
Postoffice 
Postoffice 
Village... 
Postoffice 
Station... 



A. C. L 




45 


C. F. & Y. V. R. 


R 


64 


A. C. L 




57 


C. F. & Y. V. R. 


R 


33 


A. C. L 




50 


A. C. L 




66 


A. C. L 




56 


C. F. & Y. V. R, 


R 


40 


A. C. L 




40 


A. C. L 




42 


A. C. L 




60 


A. C. L 




51 


A. C. L 


51 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



101 



PERQUIMANS COUNTY 



Location of Station 



Beach Spring 

Belvidere 

Bethel 

Burgess 

Chapanoke 

Chapanoke, at postoffice 

Dur ants Neck 

Eva 

Hertford, at station 

Hertford, at county courthouse 

Hickory Crossroads 

Jacocks. .- 

Leigh Nixon _ 

New Hope (Durants Neck postoffice) 
Nicanor 

Winfall 

Woodville 

Yeopim 



Description of Station 



Station 

Postoffice-. 

Village.' 

Postoffice.. 
Postoffice.. 
Postoffice.. 
Postoffice.. 

Village 

Town 

Town 

Hamlet 

Village 

Crossroads 

Village 

Station 

Postoffice.. 

Village 

Station 



Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


U. S. G. S 


12 


U. S. G. S 


14 


U. S. G. S. 


15 


U. S. G. S 


13 


N. S. R. R . 


12 


U. S. G. S 


10 


U. S. G. S 


9 


U. S. G. S 


15 


N. S. R. R 


13 


U. S. G. S 


15 


U. S. G. S 


20 


U. S. G. S 


7 


U. S. G. S 


15 


U. S. G. S 


9 


U. S. G. S 


12 


fN. S. R. R 

\U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fN. S. R. R 

\U. S. G. S 


16 
16 
5 
18 
15 



PERSON COUNTY 



Holloway. 
Roxboro... 
Woodsdale 



Village. .. 
Postoffice 
Village... 



PITT COUNTY 



S. R. R 

/Weather Bur 

\N. & W 

N. & W 



357a 
600 
650 
467 



Alwood. _ .. ..... .. 


Village _. 


U. S. G. S 


42 


Ayden.. . .. ... 


Postoffice _ _ 


S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


63 


Ayden, near station.. ..... 


Postoffice 


63 


Bethel, near station . . 


Postoffice . 


69 


Blackjack.. . 


Village. . 


U. S. G. S. 


43 


Bullard Crossroads 


Crossroads.. . . 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


74 


Bruce -- ... 


Postoffice .. 


72 


Calico - . -. .__.._ . _ 


Hamlet ._ 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


42 


California ... .... ..... 


Village 


80 


Cox Crossing.. ... . 


Hamlet.. ._ 


64 


Coxville. ... . . 


Village. .. . . . ... 


39a 


Elmira Crossroads . . 


Crossroads .. _ 


48 


Falkland . _. _ .. 


Postoffice. .. .... 


76 


Farmville.. _________ 


Postoffice.. . 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Weather Bur. . 


82 


Farmville, at station . ... ... _ _ 


Postoffice... 


86 


Fountain (Reba) .. .. 


Postoffice.. . . _ _ 


110 


Frog Level . . ..... 


Hamlet. .. 


81 


Galloway Crossroads. . _ 

Gardnerville. ..... . ... 


Crossroads- _ _ 
Hamlet 


59 
33 


Greenville. ... ... 


Town.. . 


75 


Greenville, at county courthouse. 


Town 


U. S. G. S 

fA. C. L 


64 




Postoffice _ 


27 


Grifton .. 


\U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 




Grimesland 


Postoffice 


28 
44 






102 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 




Village 


(U. S. G. S 


69 


Grindool 


\Wil. & Weldon ._ 






Postoffice _ 


60 


Hanrahan 


U. S. G. S 


63 


Hollands 




U. S. G. S.— 


25 


House. 


Postoffice... 


U. S. G. S 


31 


Johnsons Mills 


Mill... 


U. S. G. S 


31 


Littlefield 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


65a 


Marlboro 


Hamlet 


U. S. G. S 


80 


Oakley 


Village 


U. S. G. S 


64 


Pactolus 


Postoffice 


Wil. & Weldon 


22 


Pactolus, near station 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


21 


Quinerly 


Hamlet... 


U. S. G. S.... 


30a 


Reba (Fountain postoffice) 


Hamlet 


U. S. G. S 


110 


Renoton 




U. S. G. S 


65 


Roundtree 


Hamlet 


U. S. G. S._- 


67 


Shelmeidine . 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S.— 


40a 


Standard 


Village _ 


U. S. G. S 


74 


Staton 


Station 


U. S. G. S 


42 


Stokes 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


56 


Toddy.... 


Hamlet _ 


U. S. G. S 


89 


Tugwell 


Village _ 


U. S. G. S 


82 


Whichard 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


46 


Winterville, near station 


Postoffice 


72 









POLK COUNTY 



Columbus, at courthouse 

Columbus 

Green River... 

Lynn 

Melrose 

Melrose, in front of station 

Mill Spring 

Poplar Grove 

Rockliff, in front of station 

Saluda 

Saluda, in front of station 

Sandy Plains 

Stamp Field 

Sugarloaf Mountain 

Tryon 

Tryon, near postoffice 

Tryon, at road crossing 

Tryon, at State line crossing 

Tryon Mountain 

Tryon Mountain, at northeast summit 
White Oak 



Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 

Village 

Postoffice. 

Station 

Station 

Postoffice. 

Village 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 

Hamlet 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice.. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 



U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S., Kerr's Map. 



S.. 



Weather Bur. 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S-. 
U. S. G. S.... 
U. S. G. S.„. 

S. R. R. 

U. S. G 
U. S. G 
U. S. G. S-. 
U. S. C. &G 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S .* 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. & G. S. 
U. S. C. & G. S. 
U. S. G..S 



S.. 



1,109a 

1,145 

2,300a 

1,500 

1,700a 

1,485 

1,017a 

934 
1,407 
2,150a 
2,074 
1,018 
2,600a 
3,978 
1,050a 
1,075 
1,185 
1,058 
3,249 
3,090 
2,900a 



RANDOLPH COUNTY 



Ashboro 


Town... 


S. R. R 


860 


Brown 


Village 


R. &G. R. R 


355 


Bunch 


Village 


S. R. R 


858 


Cedar Falls 


Postoffice _ 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
A. C. L... . 


503 


Farmer . _._ 


Postoffice _ 


54 



Altitudes in JNorth Carolina 



103 



Location of Station 



Franklin ville 

Glenola 

Liberty 

Millboro 

Randleman.. 

Ramseur 

Sophia __ 

Spero 

Staley. 

Trinity __ 



Description of Station 



Postoffice 
Postoffice 
Postoffice 
Postoffice 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice 
Postoffice 
Postoffice 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice 



Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 

S. R. R 


463 

805 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
S. R. R 


785 
753 
717 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
S. R. R 


442 
789 


S. R. R 


735 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 

S. R. R 


724 
871 



RICHMOND COUNTY 



Ellerbe 

Hamlet 

Hoffman.. 

Horse Pen Branch 

Rockingham 



Postoffice 

Town. 

PostofEce 

Railroad crossing 

Postoffice 



S. R. R 

(Gannett 

<JS. A. L 

I R. & A. R. R. 

MS. A. L 

\R. & A. R. R. 
S. A. L 



S. A. L._ 



Car. C. R. R.. 
Weather Bur.. 



253 
331 
325 
331 
427 
335 
270 
211 
274 
210 
210 



ROBESON COUNTY 



Allenton 


Postoffice. 


S. A. L... 


131 


Alma 


Postoffice. _ _ 


S. A. L .. 


182 


Buies . 


Postoffice 


A. C. L 


182 


Elrod . 


Postoffice. _ 


A. C. L 


163 


Floral College. _ 


Village . _ . 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
(8. A. L 


133 


Lumber Bridge 


Postoffice. _ 


192 




Postoffice _ 


120 


Lumberton . 


jCar. C. R. R 

[ Weather Bur . . 


135 




Postoffice. . _ 


102 


Maxton 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
(S. A. L 


198 


McNatts 


Station. 


190 




Village 

Postoffice 

Postoffice.. _ 


158 


Mossneck 


(Car. C. R. R 

A. C. L 

S. A. L 

S. A. L 

A. C. L _ 

/S. A. L ._ 

\Car. C. R. R 

C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
A. C. L... 




Parkton _________ 


159 

187 


Pates . ... 


175 


Pembroke 


Postoffice 


170 


Pembroke, at railroad crossing. _ ___ 
Redbanks 


Postoffice _._ 

Village _ 

Postoffice... 


175 
176 


Red Springs ._ 


176 
204 


Rennert 


Postoffice 


187 


Rowland 


PostofEce 

Postoffice... .. 

Postoffice . . _ 


A. C. L. 


145 


Shannon.. . _. 

Wakulla 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 


205 
208 









104 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



ROCKINGHAM COUNTY 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Beaver Island .. . . 


Station. .. 


N. & W 


554 


Benaja _ . _. __ 


Postofnce _. 


S. R. R 


678 


Carter. _ .. .. . 


Station _. .. _ 


N. & W 


574 


Ellisboro ._ ___ 


Station .. ... ... 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
U. S. G. S 


827 


Ellisboro, in front of station .. 


Station.. ... . __ _ 


825 


Leaksville _ . _. 


Postofnce 


U. S. G. S 


700 


Madison.. _ _ _ . 


Postofnce 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
U. S. G. S 


568 


Madison, in front of station. .. 


Postofnce. . _ _ 


577 


Madison _. . 


Postofnce... . . 


N. & W 


559 


Mayodan 


Postoffice. ... 


N. & W 


556 


Mayodan, in front of station 


Postofnce 


U. S. G. S 


585 


Price- 


Postofnce ... . . 


N. & W 


986 


Price, in front of station.. 


Postofnce .. _ 


U. S. G. S 


1,005 




Town 


(S. R. R 


826 


Reidsville ___-_. 


IP. A. L. R. R 

JS. R. R 






Postoffice . 


- 831 

707 


Ruffin 


\P. A. L. R. R 

N. & W 




Stoneville.. . 


Postcffice . 


710 
800 


Stoneville, in front of station . 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S... 


818 











ROWAN COUNTY 



Alpha 

Bear Poplar 

Bespage Church. 
Blackwell's Mill. 
Carroll Mill 



China Grove- 



China Grove, in front of station 

China Grove, at China Grove Bank- 
Cleveland 

Cleveland, at station 

Cleveland 

Concordia Church 

Edmeston _. 

Enoch ville 

Files Mill 

Gold Hill 

Hart . 

Kineaid 

Landis, in front of station 

Majolica, in front of station 

Mill Bridge 

Miranda 

Mount Hope 

Mount Vernon 

Mount Ulla . 

Oakland 

Omega 

Parks 

Pastons Mill 

Phi 

Pleasant Hill 

Prospect 



Village 

Postoffice. 

Church 

Station 

Mill 



Postoffice. 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Church 



Village 

Mill 

Postoffice. 

Village 

Station 

Postoffice. 

Station 

Village 

Village 

Church 

Church 

Postoffice. 

Village 

Village 

Mill 

Mill 

Village 

Church 

Church.... 



U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 

U. S. G. S.. 

N. C. G. S. 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S._. 

S.R. R 

U. S. G. S..'. 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 



U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S.. 
S.R. R...._ 

U. S. G. S.. 
N. C. G. S. 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S- 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



780a 



800a 

850a 

775a 

867 

857a 

821 

823 

791 

789 . 

801 

1,000 
850a 
597 
675a 
775 
860 
710 
870 
745 
800 
900a 
840a 
810a 
850a 
810a 
850a 
825a 
820 
750a 

1,000a 
860a 



Altitudes in -LSTorth Carolina 



105 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Providence . - 


Church 


U. S. G. S 


850a 


Roselle, in front of station .. ._ 


Station . 


U. S. G. S 


852 


RusselL- .- 






850a 


Saint Luke's --...- . _____ 


Church _ 


U. S. G. S—_ 


900a 


Salisbury, in front of station 


Town ._ .. 

Town . 


U. S. G. S 


749 


Salisbury, at county courthouse 


U. S. G. S 


764 


Salisbury, opposite cotton mills.. 


Town ... __ __ . . 


U. S. G. S 


750 




Town _ __ 


IN. Car. R. R 


760 


Salisbury _ 


\ Weather Bur . _ __ 






Church 


760 


Sandyridge __ 


U. S. G. S 


900a 


South River . . _____ 


Village. 




650a 


Sumner, in front of station __ _ 


Station.. ._ 


U. S. G. S 


802 


Third Creek 


Church _ .. 


U. S. G. ______ 


800a 


Verble _ -- 


Village. _ __ . ____ _ 




850a 


Watsonville __ . 


Hamlet _. 


U. S. G. S 


835 


Woodleaf _ _ ___ 


Postoffice ... 




800a 


Young Mountain.. ._- _ . 


Mountain. 


U. S. G. S..-_ 


1,092 


Zeb 






810a 











RUTHERFORD COUNTY 



Ayr 

Bill's Mountain.. 
Black Mountain. 
Bostic 

Camel Knob 



Carlton Knob. 



Ellenboro.. 

Forest City. 

Fork Mountain 

Fort 

Gambles Store 1 

Golden 

Henrietta Mills (Henrietta). 

Hogpen Mountain 

Huckleberry Mountain 

Islandf ord 

Lone Mountain 

Margaret Peak 

i 
Marlin Knob 

j Mclntyre 

Oakey Knob 

\oid Rumbling Bald 

Pinnacle Mountain 

Rutherf ordton 

Shoal 



Silver Creek Knob- 

"hermal City 

Wdl 

V. ase 

Yung's Mountain. 



Village 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain. 

Mountain. 

Postomce. 
Postomce. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 

Hamlet 

Village : 

Village 

Mountain- 
Mountain. 

Village 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 



Mountain. 
Mountain- 
Mountain. 
Postomce_ 
Mountain- 
Mountain. 
Postomce. 



Mountain, 
Mountain- 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S. 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. &G. S 

N. C. G. S., Kerr's Map 

S. A. L 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



S. A. L 

U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. &G. S._ 

S. A. L 

U. S.'G. S 

U. S. C. & G. S. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



950a 
2,450a 
2,614 

739 
2,124 
2,284 
2,284 
1,060 
1,040 
1,750 
1,750a 
1,154 
1,200a 

806 
1,900a 
2,108 

780 
1,650a 
2,500a 
2,100a 
1,000a 
2,200a 
2,700a 
3,832 
1,096 
2,350a 
2,849 
2,838 

996 
1,150a 
2,100a 
2,700a 



106 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



SAMPSON COUNTY 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Autryville 


Town . 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
U. S. G. S... 


113 


Beaman Crossroads.- 


Crossroads 


178 


Beaver Dam Church 


Church... . . 


U. S. G. S.____ 


185 


Bellevoir 


School . 


U. S. G. S. . 


171 


Blackmans Mills 


Village.. 


U. S. G. S . 


194 


Brewers 


Store.. .. . 


U. S. G. S 


170 


Brown's... 


Church . .. 


U. S. G. S 


167a 


Cedar Point 


Church . 




183 


Clinton, at county courthouse... ._ . 


Town. .. 


U. S. G. S 


159 


Elmore School 


Hamlet. 


U. S. G. S 


185 


Enterprise 


School.. 


U. S. G. S 


207 


Garland 


Postoffice 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 

U. S. G. S 


139 


Goodwin 


Church. . 


193 


Goshen Church 


Church . 


U. S. G. S 


184 


Herrings Crossroads 


Crossroads 


U. S. G. S 


189 


Hobton 


Hamlet 


U. S. G. S 


175 


Ivanhoe 


Postomce. 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
U. S. G. S 


32 


Keener 


Postoffice -. . 


173 


Kerr. 


Postoffice.. . . 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 

U. S. G. S.-_ 


86 


Maple Grove School 


School 


201 


McClam 


Crossroads .. 


U. S. G. S.. 


188 


McClam Crossroads.. _ 


Crossroads . 


U. S. G. S 


190 


Mingo 


Village.. 


U. S. G. S 


208 


Newton Grove 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


185 


Oak Grove Church _ 


Church 


U. S. G. S 


189 


Orange, at postoffice 


Postoffice. 


U. S. G. S 


170 


Owen Grove 


Church 


U. S. G. S 


173 


Parkersburg 


Postoffice 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
U. S. G. S 


121 


Pigford School 


School 


153 


Piney Green. 


Church 


U. S. G. S 


190 


Plainview Church 


Church 


U. S. G. S 


176 


Pleasant Union 


Church. - . .. . .. 


U. S. G. S 


185 


Red Hill. ...-. 


Hamlet - _ 


U. S. G. S 


170 


Roseboro 


Postoffice --. --..._ 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R 

U. S. G. S-. 


134 


Rosin Hill 


Hamlet 


175 


Salemburg... 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
U. S. G. S 


167 


Sanders Bridge.. 


Bridge . . .. 


105 


Timothy. 


Village . 


195 


Tomahawk 


Postoffice _ 


99 


White Oak.... 


Church-. 


160 


Wilsons Store _. 


Hamlet . . 


U. S. G. S 


189 











SCOTLAND COUNTY 



Hasty 


Postoffice.. 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
C. F. & Y. V. R. R, 
S. A. L 


197 


Johns 


Postoffice 


179 


Laurel Hill. 


Postoffice.-. 


250 


Laurinburg 


Town . 


(S. A. L 

\Car. C. R. R 


218 




Postoffice. .. 


230 


Old Hundred 


S. A. L 


337 











STANLY COUNTY 






Albemarle 


Postoffice. 


J Toner. .. 

\S. R. R 


f)0 




Village 


67 


Lipe.. ... .:. . . ... . 




25a 









Altitudes in JNTokth Carolina 



107 



STOKES COUNTY 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Dalton 


Postoffice _ 


C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 

U. S. G. S 


900 


Danbury 

Cahill 


Postoffice ._ 

Station ... 

Station. .. . _. 


836 


N. & W 


579 


Fulp 


N. & W 


799 


Germanton 


Postoffice.. 


(V. S. G. S 

1 C. F. & Y. V. R. R. ... 
Jc. F. & Y. V. R. R. ... 

\U. S. C. &G. S 

N. C. G. S., Kerr's Map 
C. F. & Y. V. R. R. 
N. & W 


676 


King . . .- 


Postoffice . . 


677 
1,115 


Moore's Knob . .... 


Mountain . _____ 


1,692 
2,585 


Pinnacle . . 


Postoffice _. -_ 


1,088 


Pine Hall 


Postoffice 


579 


Saxon ... 


Village .. 


Weather Bur 


900 


Spach .. 


Station 


N. & W 


674 


Stultz 


Station _ _ 

Postoffice 


N. & W 


589 


Walnut Cove 


(C. F. & Y. V. R. R. _.l 
\n. & w 


625 




621 









SURRY COUNTY 



Ararat 

Belo 

Butcher . 

Cody 

Copeland 

Crutchfield 

Devotion 

Dobson 

Edwardsville 

Elkin 

Fisher Peak 

Goodspring 

Haystack 

Ladonia 

Kapp's Mill 

McCanns Store... 

McLaurin 

Morris Store 

Moser 

Mount Airy 

Pilot Mountain... 

Pilot Mountain... 

Rich Hill 

Rockford 

Rusk. 

Shoals 

Siloam 

Skull Camp 

State Road 

Stott Knob 

Turner Mountain 
Venable 



Postoffice 
Postoffice 
Hamlet... 
Village. .. 
Village 

Postoffice 

Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Village... 
Postoffice. 
Mountain 
Postoffice. 
Village. _. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Hamlet--. 

Station.-- 

Hamlet..- 
Village — 

Town 

Mountain 

Mountain 
Mountain 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain 
Postoffice. 
Mountain 
Mountain 
Village 



C. F. & Y. V. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

/U. S. G. S 

\S. R. R.__ 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(S. A. L 

\Car. C. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

fC. F. & Y. V. R. R. ... 

U. S. G. S 

Weather Bur 

tj; S. G. s 

U. S. C. &G. S 

C. F. & Y. V. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

S. R. R 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



,300a 
,100a 
,050a 
,100a 

840 

837 
,650a 
,257 
,100a 

874 
,609 
,250a 
,200a 
,300a 
,100a 
,233 

238 

238 
,500 
,080a 
,015 
,020 
,048 
,486 
,413 
,101 
,260 

813 
,000a 

769 

788 
,100a 
,310 
,800a 
,100a 
,150a 



108 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



SWAIN COUNTY 



Location of Station 



Almond 

Andrews Bald.: 

Bear Knob 

Bee Knob 

Big Bald 

Birdtown 

Black Rock 

Bryson City 

Buckley Mount 

Bushnell 

Chambers 

Charleston 

Cherokee 

Chimneytop 

Clingman's Dome... 
Cold Spring Knob... 

Collins Mountain 

Cowee Bald 

Dorsey 

Eagle Top Mountain 

Ekanetelee Gap 

Fairfax 

Forney 

Governors Island 

Guyot 

Henry, Mount 

Hewitts 

High Rocks 

Indian Gap 

Jarretts 

Judson 

Laurel Top 

LeConte 

Lowrey Bald...- 

Mingus - - 

Nantahala 

Needmore 

Newton Bald 

Oconalufty 

Oconalufty 

Peck's Peak 

Proctor 

Rattlesnake Cliff 

Rattlesnake Knob... 
Sharptop Mountain- 
Shuck Stack 

Swain 

Three Brothers 

Thunderhead 

Thunder Knob 

Wayside . 

Welch Bald 

Wesser 

West Peak 

Whittier 

Wolf Knob 



Description of Station 



Postofnce. 
Mountain_ 
Mountain- 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Postomce. 
Mountain. 



Postoffice. 



Mountain..... 

Postomce 

Postomce 

Station 

Postomce 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postomce 

Mountain 

Mountain gap. 

Village 

Postomce 

Village 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postomce 

Mountain 

Mountain gap. 

Village 

Postomce 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postomce 

Postomce 

Mountain 

Postomce 

Tunnel 

Mountain 

Postomce 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Village 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Pcstoffice 

Mountain 

Postomce 

Mountain 

Postomce 

Mountain 



Authority 



S. R. R. 

Yeates.. 



S._ 

s.. 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Toner 

(S. R. R 

JU. S. G. S'.... 
[Weather Bur . 

Guyot 

S. R. R._. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 

Yeates 

U. S. G. S._ 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 

Toner 

U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S.. 

Guyot 

Guyot 

S. R. R.__._ 

Yeates 

Toner 

S. R. R 

S. R. R.— . 

Toner 

Toner 

U. S. G. S.- 
Guy ot 

S. R. R 

U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 



Toner 

Tcner v 

U. S. G. S. — . 
U. S. G. S.— . 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

Guyot 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

Kerr's Map... 
U. S. G. S.— . 
Geo. of N. C. 

S. R, R 

U. S. G. S.-_. 



Ele\ 
in 


ation 
Feet 


1 


560a 


5 


795 


5 


100a 


3 


700a 


5 


400a 


1 


900a 


4 


364 


1 


740 


1 


753 


2 


000 


6 


599 


1 


500 


1 


135 


1 


751 


2 


000a 


5 


500a 


6 


616 


4 


800a 


6 


188 


4 


979 


1 


550a 


5 


433 


3 


900a 


1 


700a 


1 


450a 


1 


750a 


6 


636 


6 


373 


1 


920a 


5 


232 


5 


317 


2 


030a 


1 


530 


5 


922 


5 


694 


4 


400a 


5 


696 


2 


060a 


1 


800a 


5 


400a 


2 


000a 


1 


942 


6 


232 


2 


100a 


4 


950 


3 


500a 


3 


516 


4 


100 


1 


700a 


5 


907 


5 


520 


5 


682 


1 


500a 


5 


087 


1 


650a 


6 


568 


1 


872 


4 


900a 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



109 



TRANSYLVANIA COUNTY 



Location of Station 



Bald Knob 

Bald Rock 

Balsam Grove 

Big Bald 

Black Mountain 

Bracken Knob '.. 

Brevard, entrance to courthouse. 

Brevard 

Buckwheat Knob 

Calhoun 

Cane Brake, at State line 

Cedar Mountain 



Cedar Rock. 



Claw Hammer 

Clotho . 

Cold Mountain 

Cox Store 

Davidsons River, at postomce. 

Devil's Courthouse 



East Fork 

Ecust a 

Fodderstack 

Frying Pan Mountain. 
Funnel Top Mountain. 

Galloway 

Grange. T 



Great Hogback- 



Indian Camp 

Joshua Mountain . 

Kagle Mountain 

Little Bald Mountain 

Lake Toxaway (water surface). 

Loftis 

Looking Glass Mountain 

Nancy 

Panther Tail 

Penrose 

Pilot Mountain 

Pink Beds 



Rich Mountain. 



Rich Mountain.. 

Rocky Knob 

Rosman 

Sassafras 

Sassafras Gap 

Sharp Mountain. 

Sitton Knob 

Slicken Gap 



Tennessee Bald- 



Description of Station 



Mountain- 
Mountain. 
Postomce_. 
Mountain- 
Mountain. 
Mountain. 
Postomce. 
Postoffice. 
Mountain- 
Village 

Hamlet 

Postomce_ 

Mountain- 
Mountain. 

Village 

Mountain. 
Hamlet___ 
Postomce. 



Tennessee Bald 

Three Forks Mountain 

Toxaway Lake (water surface). 
Transylvania-Henderson line.. 



Mountain. 

Village 

Village 

Mountain. 
Mountain- 
Mountain. 

Village 

Hamlet.-- 



Mountain. 

Mountain. 
Mountain- 
Mountain. 
Mountain- 
Lake 

Village 

Mountain. 
Mountain. 



Postofhce_ 
Mountain- 



Mountain. 



Mountain 

Mountain 

Postomce 

Mountain 

Mountain gap_ 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain gap_ 

Mountain 



Mountain ... 

Mountain 

Lake 

Boundary stone- 



Authority 



Elevation 
in Feet 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

'U. S. G. S 

jYeates 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. C. &G. S._. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

/Guyot 

\U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(U. S. C. & G. S. 

(Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

u. s. g: s 

U. S. G. S 

U, S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

(U. S. G. S 

jYeates 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S., Kerr's Map 

fYeates 

\U. S. G. S 

Guyot 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 



4,824 

4,150 

2,900a 

5,340 

4,310 

3,530 

2,227 

2,230 

4,010 

2,143 

1,253 

2,700a 

4,111 

4,263 

4,500a 

2,250a 

4,627 

2,686 

2,101 

6,049 

5,816 

2,275 

2,100a 

3,083 

5,450 

4,360 

2,000a 

2,098 

4,780 

4,792 

3,364 

3,163 

3,687 

5,330 

2,998 

2,800a 

4,000 

3,013 

4,516 

2,100a 

5,151 

3,277 

3,779 

3,526 

4,017 

4,000 

2,180 

3,548 

2,774 

3,383 

3,000 

2,873 

6,458 

5,622 

4,600 

3,740 

2,998 

2,199 






110 



Altitudes in Worth Carolina 



union county 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Beaverdam .. 


Village.. 


S. A. L.. 


543 


Indian Trail 


Postoffice 


S. A. L. 


690 


Indian Trail, in front of station _ 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S... 


696 


Marshville... . .. . 


Postoffice.. 


S. A. L. 


554 




Town 


(S. A. L 


576 


Monroe. 


^Car. C. R. R. 


586 




Pcstcffice 


Weather Bur 


586 


Stout 


S. A. L. 


654 


Union-Anson line .. 


• 


S. A. L.. 


456 


Waxhaw 


Postoffice. 


S. A. L.. 


645 


Weddington Church 


Church 


U. S. G. S._ 


725 














VANCE COUNTY 



Greystone. 


Postoffice 


S. A. L 


490 


Henderson 


Town _. 


(S. A. L 

JR. &G. R. R 

1 Weather Bur 


505 
505 




Postoffice. ...... 


490 


Kittrell 


(S. A. L 

1r. &G. R. R 


410 




Postoffice 


417 




ja. a. l 


478 


Middleburg 


\R. & G. R. R 

S. A. L 




Watkins 


Village . 


461 
410 











WAKE COUNTY 



Apex 

Auburn, in front of station 

Caraleigh Junction, at switch point. _ 

Cary, rail at crossing... 

Cary, in front of station 

Forestville... 

Forestville, at station 

Garner, at ticket office... 

Hartsville 

Method, in front of station 

Millbrook 

Millbrook, at station 

Millbrook 

Morrisville, in front of station 

M orris ville 

Neuse, at station 

Neuse. _ 

New Hill 

Raleigh, cornerstone of Capitol 

Raleigh 

Wake 

Wyatt 



Postoffice 

Postoffice 
Junction. 
Postoffice 
Postoffice. 
Station... 
Station... 
Postoffice 
Village... 
Postoffice. 
Station... 
Station... 
Station... 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 
Postoffice. 

Postoffice. 

City 

City 

Station. .. 
Village 



S. A. L 

R. & A. A. L. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

R. & A. A. L. R. R.. 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

S. A. L... 

U. S. G. S 1 

R. &G. R. R.. 

U. S. G. S 

N. Car. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

R. &G. R. R 

S. A. L 

R. & A. R. R 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

R. & A. R, R 

Weather Bur 

S. A. L 

R. &G. R. R 

S. A. L 



504 

508 

336 

355 

501 

496 

358 

374 

383 

283 

446 

296 

312 

304 

300 

308 

281 

270 

330 

332 

362 

317 

316 

388 

386 

384 . 

273 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



111 



WARREN COUNTY 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 




Postoffice 


(S. A. L 


383 


Macon -- 


\R. &G. R. R 

S. A. L 




Manson 


Postoffice 


376 

428 




Postoffice 


fS. A. L... 


415 


Ridgeway 


\R. & G. R. R 

S. A. L ..... 




Vaughan 


Postoffice 


415 
347 


Warren Plains - -- - 


Postoffice . .- .- ... 

Postoffice ... 


S. A. L 

fS. A. L _ 


453 




451 


Warrenton 


\R. & G. R. R ._ 








451 



WASHINGTON COUNTY 



Mackeys Ferry Postoffice. 

Roper PostofBce. 

Scuppernong Lake_ 

Sixteen Mile Siding Siding on Railroad. 

Wenona Station. 



N. S. R. R. 
N. S. R. R. 

Toner 

U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S._ 



4 
13 
30 
16 
19 



WATAUGA COUNTY 



Aho 

Amantha 

Bald of Rich Mountain- 
Bamboo 

Beech Mountain '_ 

Blowing Rock 

Boone 

Buck 

Buckeye Knob 

Bull Ruffin 

Cook Gap 

Deck Hill 

Deep Gap 

Deerfield 

Dugger 

Dutch Creek 



Dyer Knob. 
Elk Knob... 
Fairview 



Flat Top. 



Foscoe 

Grandfather. 



Grandfather Mountain. 



Grandfather Mountain, triangulation 

station 

Green Park 

Hanging Rock _ 

Hattie 

Hodges Gap... 

Horton 

Howard Knob 



Village 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Postoffice.. 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice .. 

M ountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain gap 

Station 

Mountain gap 

Village. 

Mountain 

Creek at Valle Crucis 

Church 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Hamlet 



Mountain. 

Village 

Village 



Mountain. 



Triangulation station. 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Village 

Mountain gap_. 

Postoffice 

Mountain 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



U. S. G. S.- 
Kerr's Map. 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 
U. S. G. S... 



Montgomery. 
U. S. G. S.... 
U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.— 
(U. S. G. S... 

|Guyot 

U. S. G. S.— 
U. S. G. S.„. 
(U. S. G. S.„ 
(Guyot 



U. S. G. S.. 



Kelsy.. I Village. 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S.. 



3,900a 

2,820a 

5,369 

3,300a 

5,500 

4,090 

3,382 

5,500a 

4,400a 

4,100a 

3,349 

3,200a 

4,500 

3,200a 

3,700 

2,732 

3,300a 

5,555 

3,300a 

4,595 

4,537 

3,100a 

3,700a 

5,964 

5,897 

5,964 

3,800a 

5,237 

2,800a 

3,376 

3,100a 

4,451 

3,500a 



112 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Leander _ 

Mabel 

Mast 

Meat Camp 

Middlecane 

Moretz 

Nettle Knob 

N orris 

Old Field Bald 

Penley 

Reese 

Rich Mountain Bald 

Rocky Mountain 

Rutherwood 

Saint Jude 

Sampson 

Sands 

Shulls Mills - 

Sil verstone 

Smoke Mountain 

Snake Mountain, triangulation sta. 

Soda Hill 

Solo 

State Line Gap 

Sugar Grove 

Sugarloaf 

Sweetwater * 

Swift Ford Branch 

Tom Knob 

Tracy __ _. 

Triplett _. 

Valle Crucis 

Vilas 

Virgil 

Watauga Falls 

Yarnall Knob 

Yuma 

Zionville 



Description of Station 



Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Village 

Mountain 

Village 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Village 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Mountain 

Triangulation station. 

Village. -_ 

Village 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

M ountain 

Postoffice 

Creek 

Mountain 

Village 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Postoffice . 

Postoffice 



Authority 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 

Yeates 

U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. EL. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S- 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S- 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S._ 



Elevation 
in Feet 



2,750a 

3,800a 

2,890a 

3,400a 

1,500a 

3,100a 

4,000 

3,290a 

4,939 

2,400a 

3,110a 

5,369 

4,078 

3,300a 

2,700a 

4,716 

3,250a 

3,000 

3,500a 

5,694 

5,594 

3,350a 

3,290a 

3,700a 

2,775a 

4,705 

2,830a 

1 ,399 

4,293 

3,390a 

1,850a 

2,720a 

2,850a 

2,750a 

2,630a 

3,900a 

3,-*00a 

3,300a 



WAYNE COUNTY 



Academy Crossroads 

Asylum, in front of station 

Bests, in front of station 

Dudley 

Eureka, at postoffice 

Faro 

Fremont 

Fremont, at postoffice 

Goldsboro, at county courthouse 
Goldsboro, in front of station 

G oldsboro 

Hollands Crossroads 

Jordan's Store 

Little River 

Mount Olive 

Pikeville 



Crossroads 

Station 

Station 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

City 

City 

City 

Crossroads 

Store 

River at Southern Ry 
Postoffice 

Postoffice 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S I. 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

N. Car. R, R.._ 
Weather Bur . . . 

U. S. G. S.. 

U. S. G. S 

Precise level line 

A. C. L.— 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S 



146 
74 
121 
180 
126 
124 
143 
147 
110 
109 
102 
102 
150 
160 
77 
157 
135 
136 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



113 



Location of Station 


Description 


of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Pinkney .. 


Village. . 

Station _ _ _ 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S., Precise level 
line, .-- .. ... 


148 


Rose. .... . _ . . 






Village . . . _ 
Store... • 


135 


Starlight ... 


TJ. S. G. S 


167 


Thornton Store .. 


U. S. G. S 


190 









WILKES COUNTY 



Abshers 

Benham 

Boomer 

Brier Creek 

Clingman 

Darby 

Dellaphane 

Dockery 

Dunkirk 

Elkville 

Halls Mills 

Little Grandfather. 

Lomax 

Lovelace 

Lucile 

Millers Creek 

Moravian Falls 

Mulberry 

New Castle 

Osbornville 

Ozark 

Parks 

Poore's Knob 

Purlear 

Reddies River 

Ring Fire Knob... 

Roaring Gap 

Roaring Gap- 

Roaring River 

Ronda 

Round Mountain-. 
Stone Mountain... 

Stony Hill 

Swift Ford Branch 
Tompkins Knob... 

Traphill 

Wells Knob 

Wilkesboro... 

Whittington 

Yellow Hill 

Zimmerman 



Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Village 

Postoffice 

Village 

Postoffice 

Church 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Village 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Mountain gap 

Village 

Postoffice 

Postoffice 

Village 

Mountain 

Hamlet 

Creek 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Mountain 

Postoffice 

Village 

Mountain 

Hamlet 



U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


1,420a 
1,200a 
1,450a 


U. S. G. S 


1,165 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


1,150a 
900 


U. S. G. S 


1,100a 


U. S. G. S 


1,180a 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


1,625 
1,100a 


U. S. G. S 

N. C. G. S., Kerr's Map. 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


1,350a 
3,783 
1,300a 
890a 
950a 
1,220a 


U. S. G. S 


1,250a 


U. S. G. S 


1,300a 


U. S. G. S 

U. S. G. S 


850a 
1,100a 


U. S. G. S 


1 , 100a 


U. S. G. S.-.- 


1,400a 


U. S. C. & G. S 


2,680 


U. S. G. S.— 


1,470a 


U. S. G. S 


1,090a 


U. S. G. S 


1,300a 


N.C.G.S., Kerr's Map_ 
U. S. G. S... 


2,914 
1,400a 


S. R. R 


918 


S. R. R. 


912 


U. S. G. S 


1,320a 


Yeates 


3,879 


U. S. G. S 


1,280a 


U. S. G. S 


1,399 


N. C. G. S 


4,055 


U. S. G. S 


1,150a 


U. S. G. S 


1,810 


S. R. R 


959 


U. S. G. S.. 


1,150a 


U. S. G. S 


1,300a 


U. S. G. S.— 


1,100a 



WILSON COUNTY 



Barnes Store _ 


Village ._ 

Postoffice- - - - _ 

Postoffice .. _ 

Village. .-_-..- 


U. S. G. S 


196a 


Black Creek _ _ 


A. C. L....... 


137 


Black Creek, at Postoffice . . 


U. S. G. S 


127 


Boyett .. 


U. S. G. S 


205 



114 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Bridgersville 

Cefare 

Cliftonville 

Connor. 

Contentnea 

Elm City 

Elm City, near station 

Filmore 

Finch Mill 

Hawra.-. 

Homes Mill 

Lamm 

Lucama 

Moyton 

Rountree Bridge 

Saratoga 

Stantonsburg 

Sun 

Taylor 

Toisnot 

Wilbanks 

Wilson 

Wilson, at county courthouse 



Description of Station 



Hamlet 

Hamlet 

Village 

Hamlet .. 

Station ._ 

PostofEce 

Postoffice 

Hamlet 

Hamlet 

Hamlet 

Mill on Contentnea Creek 
Village.. 

PostofEce. 

Hamlet. 

Bridge 

Village 

PostofEce 

Village 

Village 

Railroad crossing 

Village 

Town 

Town 



Authority 



U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 

A. C. L 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 

A. C. L.... 

U. S. G. S 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S.. 

A. C. L 

U. S. G. S.1 



Elevation 
in Feet 



122 
270a 
174 
273 

93 
131 
136 
135 
141 
238 
122 
179 
134 
134 

94 

82 
121 

94 

130a 
135a 
130 
124 
133 
145 



YADKIN COUNTY 



Algood 

Boonville 

Buckshoal 

Charity 

Chestnut Ridge 

Cochrum 

Conrads 

Crossroads Church 

East Bend 

Footville 

Forbush 

Fox Knob 

Hamptonville 

Hunts ville 

Jonesville 

Longtown... _. 

Marion Ferry 

Marler 

Martin 

Mount Nebo 

Poindexter 

Republic 

Shore's 

Spillman. 

Yadkinville 

Zion 



Hamlet 

PostofEce 

PostofEce 

Village 

PostofEce 

Village 

Station 

Village 

PostofEce 

Village 

Villa ge 

Mountain 

PostofEce 

Village 

PostofEce 

Village 

Crossing Yadkin River.. 

PostofEce 

Village 

Village 

Village 

Village 

Mill 

Villa ge 

PostofEce 

Hamlet 



U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
N. C. G. S 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. &. 
U. S. G. S.. 



1,000a 
1,067 
900 
1,100a 
1,020a 
990a 
674 
925 
1,048 
1,000a 
1,000a 
1,590 
1,050a 
850a 
1,000a 
910a 
798 
1,020a 
1,010a 
1,100a 
1,100a 
910a 
775a 
950a 
960 
1,050 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



115 



YANCEY COUNTY 



Location of Station 


Description of Station 


Authority 


Elevation 
in Feet 


Bald Creek, y± mile from postoffice 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


2,555 


Bald Mountain __ 


Mountain 


Guyot 


5,550 




Mountain 


J Guyot 


6,671 


Balsam Cone ..... 


\U. S. G. S 






Postoffice 


6,645 


Bee Log 


U. S. G. S. 


2,400a 


Big Bald. 


Mountain ._ 


U. S. G. S 


5,840 


Big Laurel Gap. ... 


Mountain gap... 


U. S. G. S 


3,700a 


Big Tom Wilsons _ 


Hamlet.. .. 


U. S. G. S 


2,949 




Mountain. 


[Guyot. 


6,619 


Black Brothers 


|U. S. G. S 

Toner 


( 6,620 


Black Dome _ 


Mountain 


\ 6,690 

6,707 


Blackstocks Knob ■ 


Mountain. _ 


fU. S. G. S 

■j Guyot 


6,386 
6,380 


Boonford.. 


Postoffice.. 


[U. S. C. & G. S 

U. S. G. S 


6,3-78 
2,382 




Mountain __ __ 

Postoffice . 


JGuyot 


6,348 


Bowlens Pyramid 


\U. S. G. S 

Toner.. 




Burnsville. 


4,962 
2,840 


Burnsville, near county courthouse .. 


Postoffice .. . . _ 


U. S. G. S. 


2,817 


Celo 


Village.. _____ 


U. S. G. S 


2,735 


Cane River . ". 


Postoffice 


U. S. G. S 


2,485 




Mountain __ 


JGuyot 


6,611 


Cattail Peak . . . 


\U. S. G. S 






Mountain ___ 


6,609 


Celo Mountain. ... ______ 


U. S. G. S 


6,351 


Chestnut Mountain . ... .. 


Mountain ....._ 


U. S. G. S 


5,200 


Clingman's Peak 


Mountain. . __ .. _ 


U. S. G. S 


6,611 


Daybook 


Postoffice . 


U. S. G. S 


2,350 


Deer Mountain _ . _ 


Mountain.. .. 


fU. S. G. S 

[Guyot _. 


5,500 




Village 


6,233 


Egypt. . _ 




2,780a 


Elk Wallow Knob 


Mountain. ... 


U. S. G. S 


4,600a 


Elmer ._ 


Village . 


U. S. G. S 


2,500a 


Firescald Mountain. . ._ .. 




U. S. G. S 


4,840 


Flat Top 


Mountain _ 


|U. S. G. S 

(Yeates.- 


4,954 




Postoffice 


4,807 


Flinty 


U. S. G. S. . 


2,400a 


Gaston. ... 


Postoffice. 


Toner. 


575 




Mountain.. 


jGuyot 


6,591 


Gibbs, Mount.. . 


(Yeates . . _ 






Mountain 


6,539 


Grassy Knob .. 


U. S. G. S. . 


4,700a 


Green Mountain.. . ... 


Mountain (summit).. . 
Mountain 


U. S. G. S. 


4,500a 




JGuyot .... 


/ 6,681 

\ 6,610 

6,571 


Hairy Bear ... .. 


[Yeates. 




Mountain 




JGuyot .. ._ 


6,403 


Hallback __ __ 


[Yeates .. .. _ 






Postoffice. . 


6,377 


Higgins ._ 


U. S. G. S... 


2,350a 


High Peak 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S._._ 


4,400a 


Hightop . . 


Mountain .. ._ 


U. S. G. S 


4,351 


Hightop Mountain.. __ _ 


Mountain . _. 


U. S. G. S.-_ 


4,440 


Ivy Gap.. .. ... ... 


Mountain . .. 


U. S. G. S. 


3,150a 


Jack's Creek (mouth) . 


Creek . . 


Yeates 


2,332 


Julius Knob 


Mountain . _. 


Yeates 


3,931 


Kerr Big Bald 


Mountain . 


U. S. G. S. 


5,500a 


Little Butt 


Mountain _. . 




3,300a 


Long Ridge . . ... _. . 


Mountain 


U. S. G. S... 


6,200a 


Micaville _. . ... . 


Postoffice.. . ... ... 


U. S. G. S 


2,504 



116 



Altitudes in North Carolina 



Location of Station 



Mitchell, Mount- 



Moore Gap 

Mount Mitchell, triangulation station 

Ogle Meadow Knobs 



Paint Gap 

Patton Knob 

Peach Orchard Knob 

Pensacola, at Baptist Church- 

Phillips Knob 

Pinnacle 

Potato Hill 

Potato Knob 

Price's Creek. 

Sampson Mountain 

Sevenmile Ridge 

Sharp Top 

Sioux 

Slips Gap 

Wilhite 

Wilson Knob 



Yeates Knob- 



Description of Station 



Mountain. 



Mountain gap 

Triangulation station. 

Mountain 

Postofnce 



Mountain 

PostofEce 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Village 

Mountain 

Mountain 

Mountain 

PostofEce 

Mountain gap_ 

Village 

Mountain 



Mountain. 



Authority 



U. 

u. 



fU. S. G. S. 

|Guyot 

U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 

jYeates 

\U. S. G. S. 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
S. G. S._ 
S. G. S.. 
U. S. G. S._ 
TJ. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. SL. 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S._ 
U. S. G. S.. 



/Guyot 

\U. S. G. S. 



Elevation 
in Feet 



,711 

,582 

,100a 

,711 

,315 

,384 

,000a 

,000 

,500a 

,858 

,390 

,693 

,487 

,419 

,700a 

,826 

,400a 

,500a 

,100a 

,100 

,496 

,200a 

,975 

,001 



PUBLICATIONS 

OF THE 

NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 



BULLETINS 

1. Iron Ores of North Carolina, by Henry B. C. Nitze, 1893. 8°, 239 pp., 20 
pi., and map. Out of print. 

2. Building and Ornamental Stones in North Carolina, by T. L. Watson and 
F. B. Laney in collaboration with George P. Merrill, 1906. 8°, 283 pp., 32 pi., 
2 figs. Postage 25 cents. Cloth-bound copy 50 cents extr'a. 

3. Gold Deposits in North Carolina, by Henry B. C. Nitze and George B. 
Hanna, 1896. 8°, 196 pp., 14 pi., and map. Out of print. 

4. Road Material and Road Construction in North Carolina, by J. A. Holmes 
and William Cain, 1893. 8°, 88 pp. Out of print. 

5. The Forests, Forest Lands, and Forest Products of Eastern North Caro- 
lina, by W. W. Ashe, 1894. 8°, 128 pp., 5 pi. Out of print. 

6. The Timber Trees of North Carolina, by Gifford Pinchot and W. W. Ashe, 
1897. 8°, 227 pp., 22 pi. Out of print. 

7. Forest Fires: Their Destructive Work, Causes and Prevention, by W. W. 
Ashe, 1895. 8°, 66 pp., 1 pi. Postage 5 cents. 

8. Water-powers in North Carolina, by George F. Swain, Joseph A. Holmes, 
and E. W. Myers', 1899. 8°, 362 pp., 16 pi. Out of print. 

9. Monazite and Monazite Deposits in North Carolina, by Henry B. C. Nitze, 
1895. 8°, 47 pp., 5 pi. Out of print. 

10. Gold Mining in North Carolina and other Appalachian States, by Henry 
B. C. Nitze and A. J. Wilkins, 1897. 8°, 164 pp., 10 pi. Out of print. 

11. Corundum and the Basic Magnesian Rocks of Western North Carolina, 
by J. Volney Lewis, 1895. 8°, 107 pp., 6 pi. Out of print. 

12. History of the Gems Found in North Carolina, by George Frederick 
Kunz, 1907. 8°, 60 pp., 15 pi. Out of print. 

13. Clay Deposits and Clay Industries in North Carolina, by Heinrich Ries, 
1897. 8°, 157 pp., 12 pi. Out of print. 

14. The Cultivation of the Diamond-back Terrapin, by R. E. Coker, 1906. 
8°, 67 pp., 23 pi., 2 figs. Out of print. 

. 15. Experiments in Oyster Culture in Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, by 
Robert E. Coker, 1907. 8°, 74 pp., 17 pi., 11 figs. Postage 10 cents. 

16. Shade Trees for North Carolina, by W. W. Ashe, 1908. 8°, 74 pp., 10 pi., 
16 figs. Postage 6 cents. Cloth copies 50 cents extra. 

17. Terracing of Farm Lands, by W. W. Ashe, 1908. 8°, 38 pp., 6 pi., 2 figs. 
Postage 4 cents. 

18. Bibliography of North Carolina Geology, Mineralogy, and Geography, 
with a list of Maps, by Francis Baker Laney and Katherine Hill Wood, 1909. 
8°, 428 pp. Postage 25 cents. Cloth-bound copy, 50 cents extra. 

19. The Tin Deposits of the Carolinas, by Joseph Hyde Pratt and Douglas 
B. Sterrett, 1905. 8°, 64 pp., 8 figs. Postage 4 cents. 



118 PUBLICATIONS 

20. Water-powers of North Carolina: An Appendix to Bulletin 8, 1910. 8°, 
383 pp. Postage 25 cents. 

21. The Gold Hill Mining District of North Carolina, by Francis Baker 
Laney, 1910. 8°, 137 pp., 23 pi., 5 figs. Postage 15 cents. Cloth copies 50 
cents extra. 

22. A Report on the Cid Mining District, Davidson County, N. C, by J. E. 
Pogue, Jr., 1911. 8°, 144 pp., 22 pi., 5 figs. Postage 15 cents. Cloth copies 50 
cents extra. 

23. Forest Conditions in Western North Carolina, by J. S. Holmes, 1911. 
8°, 116 pp., 8 pi. Postage 15 cents. 

24. Loblolly or North Carolina Pine, by W. W. Ashe, Forest Inspector, U. S. 
Forest Service (and former Forester of the North Carolina Geological and 
Economic Survey). Prepared in Cooperation with the Forest Service, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, 1914. 8°, 176 pp., 27 pi., 5 figs. Postage 15 cents. 
Cloth copies 50 cents extra. 

25. Zircon, Monazite, and Other Minerals used in the Production of Chemi- 
cal Compounds Employed in the Manufacture of Lighting Apparatus, by 
Joseph Hyde Pratt, Ph.D., 1916. 8°, 120 pp., 3 pi. Postage 15 cents. Cloth 
copies 50 cents extra. 

26. A Report on the Virgilina Copper District of North Carolina and Vir- 
ginia, by F. B. Laney, Ph.D., 1917. 8°, ... pp., . . . pi., . . . maps. Postage . . 
cents. In press. 

27. The Altitudes of North Carolina, 1917. 8°, 124 pp. Postage 20 cents. 

ECONOMIC PAPERS 

1. The Maple Sugar Industry in Western North Carolina, by W. W. Ashe, 
1897. 8°, 34 pp. Postage 2 cents. 

2. Recent Road Legislation in North Carolina, by J. A. Holmes. Out of 
print. 

3. Talc and Pyrophyllite Deposits in North Carolina, by Joseph Hyde Pratt, 
1900. 8°, 29 pp., 2 maps. Postage 2 cents. 

4. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1900, by Joseph Hyde 
Pratt, 1901. 8°, 36 pp., and map. Postage 2 cents. 

Takes up in some detail Occurrences of Gold, Silver, Lead and Zinc, Copper, Iron Man- 
ganese, Corundum, Granite, Mica, Talc, Pyrophyllite, Graphite, Kaolin, Gem Minerals, 
Monazite, Tungsten, Building Stones, and Coal in North Carolina. 

5. Road Laws of North Carolina, by J. A. Holmes. Out of print. 

6. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1901, by Joseph Hyde 
Pratt, 1902. 8°, 102 pp. Out of print. 

Gives a List of Minerals found in North Carolina ; describes the Treatment of Sulphuret 
Gold Ores, giving localities; takes up the Occurrence of Copper in the Virgilina, Gold Hill, 
and Ore Knob districts ; gives Occurrence and Uses of Corundum ; a List of Garnets, 
describing Localities; the Occurrence, Associated Minerals, Uses and Localities of Mica; the 
Occurrence of North Carolina Feldspar, with Analyses ; an extended description of North 
Carolina Gems and Gem Minerals; Occurrences of Monazite, Barytes, Ocher; describes and 
gives Occurrences of Graphite and Coal ; describes and gives Occurrences of Building Stones, 
including Limestone ; describes and gives Uses for the various forms of Clay ; and under 
the head of "Other Economic Minerals," describes and gives Occurrences of Chromite, 
Asbestos, and Zircon. 

7. Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1902, by Joseph Hyde Pratt, 
1903. 8°, 27 pp. Out of print. 

8. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1903, by Joseph Hyde 
Pratt, 1904. 8°, 74 pp. Postage 4 cents. 

Gives description of Mines worked for Gold in 1903 ; description of Properties worked for 
Copper during 1903, together with assay of ore from Twin-Edwards Mine; Analyses of 
Limonite ore from Wilson Mine; the Occurence of Tin; in some detail the Occurrences 
of Abrasives; Occurrences of Monazite and Zircon; Occurrences and Varieties of Graphite, 
giving Methods of Cleaning; Occurrences of Marble and other forms of Limestone; Analyses 
of Kaolin from Barber Creole, Jackson County, North Carolina. 






PUBLICATIONS 119 

9. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1904, by Joseph Hyde 
Pratt, 1905. 8°, 95 pp. Postage 4 cents. 

Gives Mines Producing Gold and Silver daring 1903 and 1904 and Sources of the Gold 
Produced during 1904; describes the mineral Chromite, giving Analyses of Selected Samples 
of Chromite from Mines in Yancey County ; describes Commercial Varieties of Mica, giving 
the manner in which it occurs in North Carolina, Percentage of Mica in the Dikes, Methods 
of Mining, Assocated Minerals, Localities, Uses; describes the mineral Barytes, giving 
Method of Cleaning and Preparing Barytes for Market; describes the use of Monazite as 
used in connection with the Preparation of the Bunsen Burner, and goes into the use of 
Zircon in connection with the Nernst Lamp, giving a List of the Principal Yttrium Minerals ; 
describes the minerals containing Corundum Gems, Hiddenite and Other Gem Minerals, and 
gives New Occurrences of these Gems ; describes the mineral Graphite and gives new Uses 
for same. 

10. Oyster Culture in North Carolina, by Robert E. Coker, 1905. 8°, 39 pp. 
Out of print. 

11. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1905, by Joseph Hyde 
Pratt, 1906. 8°, 95 pp. Postage 4 cents. 

Describes the mineral Cobalt and the principal minerals that contain Cobalt ; Corundum 
Localities; Monazite and Zircon in considerable detail, giving Analyses of Thorianite; 
describes Tantalum Minerals and gives description of the Tantalum Lamp ; gives brief 
description of Peat Deposits; the manufacture of Sand-lime Brick; Operations of Concen- 
trating Plant in Black Sand. Investigations; gives Laws Relating to Mines, Coal Mines, 
Mining, Mineral Interest in Land, Phosphate Rock, Marl Beds. 

12. Investigations Relative to the Shad Fisheries of North Carolina, by 
John N. Cobb, 1906. 8°, 74 pp., 8 maps. Postage 6 cents. 

13. Report of Committee on Fisheries in North Carolina. Compiled by 
Joseph Hyde Pratt, 1906. 8°, 78 pp. Out of Print. 

14. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1906, by Joseph Hyde 
Pratt, 1907. 8°, 144 pp., 20 pl„ and 5 figs. Postage 10 cents. 

Under the head of "Recent Changes in Gold Mining in North Carolina," gives methods 
of mining, describing Log Washers, Square Sets, Cyanide Plants, etc., and detailed descrip- 
tions of Gold Deposits and Mines are given ; Copper Deposits of Swain County are described ; 
Mica Deposits of Western North Carolina are described, giving Distribution and General 
Character, General Geology, Occurrence, Associated Minerals, Mining and treatment of Mica, 
Origin, together with a description of many of the mines ; Monazite is taken up in consider- 
able detail as to Location and Occurrence, Geology, including classes of Rocks, Age, Associa- 
tions, Weathering, method of Mining and Cleaning, description of Monazite in Original 
Matrix. 

15. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1907, by Joseph Hyde 
Pratt, 1908. 8°, 176 pp., 13 pi., and 4 figs. Postage 15 cents. 

Takes up in detail the Copper and Gold Hill Copper District; a description of the Uses 
of Monazite and its Associated Minerals; descriptions of Ruby, Emerald, Beryl, Hiddenite, 
and Amethyst Localities; a detailed description with Analysis of the Principal Mineral Springs 
of North Carolina ; a description of the Peat Formations in North Carolina, together with 
a detailed account of the Uses of Peat and the Results of an Experiment Conducted by the 
United States Geological Survey on Peat from Elizabeth City, North Carolina. 

. 16. Report of Convention called by Governor R. B. Glenn to Investigate the 
Fishing Industries in North Carolina, compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, State 
Geologist, 1908. 8°, 45 pp. Out of print. 

17. Proceedings of Drainage Convention held at New Bern, North Carolina, 
September 9, 1908. Compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, 1908. 8°, 94 pp. Out of 
print. 

18. Proceedings of Second Annual Drainage Convention held at New Bern, 
North Carolina, November 11 and 12, 1909, compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, 
and containing North Carolina Drainage Law, 1909. 8°, 50 pp. Out of print. 

19. Forest Fires in North Carolina During 1909, by J. S. Holmes, Forester, 
1910. 8°, 52 pp., 9 pi. Out of print. 



120 PUBLICATIONS 

20. Wood-using Industries of North Carolina, by Roger E. Simmons, under 
the direction of J. S. Holmes and H. S. Sackett, 1910. 8°, 74 pp., 6 pi. 
Postage 7 cents. 

21. Proceedings of the Third Annual Drainage Convention, held under 
Auspices of the North Carolina Drainage Association; and the North Carolina 
Drainage Law (codified). Compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, 1911. 8°, 67 pp., 
3 pi. Out of print. 

22. Forest Fires in North Carolina During 1910, by J. S. Holmes, Forester, 

1911. 8°, 48 pp. Out of print. 

23. Mining Industry in North. Carolina During 1908, '09, and '10, by Joseph 
Hyde Pratt and Miss H. M. Berry, 1911. 8°, 134 pp., 1 pi., 27 figs. Postage 
10 cents. Cloth copies 50 cents extra. 

Gives report on Virgilina Copper District of North Carolina and Virginia, by F. B. Laney; 
Detailed report on Mica Deposits of North Carolina, by Douglas B. Sterrett; Detailed report 
on Monazite, by Douglas B. Sterrett; Reports on various Gem Minerals, by Douglas B. 
Sterrett ; Information and Analyses concerning certain Mineral Springs ; Extracts from 
Chance Report of the Dan River and Deep River Coal Fields ; Some notes on the Peat 
Industry, by Professor Charles A. Davis; Extract from report of Arthur Keith on the 
Nantahala Marble; Description of the manufacture of Sand-lime Brick. 

24. Fishing Industry of North Carolina, by Joseph Hyde Pratt, 1911. 8°, 44 
pp. Out of print. 

25. Proceedings of Second Annual Convention of the North Carolina For- 
estry Association, held at Raleigh, North Carolina, February 21, 1912. Forest 
Fires in North Carolina During 1911. Suggested Forestry Legislation. Com- 
piled by J. S. Holmes, Forester, 1912. 8°, 71 pp. Postage 5 cents. 

26. Proceedings of Fourth Annual Drainage Convention, held at Elizabeth 
City, North Carolina, November 15 and 16, 1911, compiled by Joseph Hyde 
Pratt, State Geologist, 1912. 8°, 45 pp. Out of print. 

27. Highway Work in North Carolina, containing a Statistical Report of 
Road Work during 1911 by Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, and Miss 
H. M. Berry, Secretary, 1912. 8°, 145 pp., 11 figs. Postage 20 cents. 

28. Culverts and Small Bridges for Country Roads in North Carolina, by 
C. R. Thomas and T. F. Hickerson, 1912. 8°, 56 pp., 14 figs., 20 pi. Postage 
10 cents. 

29. Report of the Fisheries Convention held at New Bern, N. C, December 
13, 1911, compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, together with a 
Compendium of the Stenographic Notes of the Meetings Held on the two 
trips taken by the Legislative Fish Committee Appointed by the General As- 
sembly of 1909, and the Legislation Recommended by this Cpmmittee, 1912. 
8°, 302 pp. Postage 15 cents. 

30. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the North Carolina Good 
Roads Association held at Charlotte, N. C, August 1 and 2, 1912, in Coopera- 
tion with the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey. Compiled 
by Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, and Miss H. M. Berry, Secretary, 

1912. 8°, 109 pp. Postage 10 cents. 

31. Proceedings of Fifth Annual Drainage Convention held at Raleigh, 
N. C, November 26 and 27, 1912. Compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, State 
Geologist. 8°, 56 pp., 6 pi. Postage 5 cents. 

32. Public Roads are Public Necessities, by Joseph Hyde Pratt, State 
Geologist, 1913. 8°, 62 pp. Postage 5 cents. 



PUBLICATIONS 



121 



33. Forest Fires in North Carolina during 1912 and National and Associa- 
tion Cooperative Fire Control, by J. S. Holmes, Forester, 1913. 8°, 63 pp. 
Postage 5 cents. 

34. Mining Industry in North Carolina during 1911-12, by Joseph Hyde 
Pratt, State Geologist, 1914. 8°, 314 pp., 23 pi., 12 figs. Postage 15 cents. 

Gives detailed report on Gold Mining in various counties with special report on Metal- 
lurgical Processes used at the Iola Mine, by Claud Hafer; description of a Cyanide Mill, 
by Percy Barbour; the new milling process for treating North Carolina Siliceous Gold Ores 
at the Montgomery Mine, including a description of the Uwarrie Mining Company's Plant; 
notes on the Carter Mine, « Montgomery County, by Claud Hafer; also a description of the 
Howie Mine and its mill; a detailed report of the Coggins (Appalachian) Gold Mine, by 
Joseph Hyde Pratt; a list of gems and gem minerals occurring in the United States; special 
descriptions of Localities where the Amethyst, Beryl, Emerald, and Quartz Gems Occur as 
taken from United States Geological Survey Report by Douglas B. Sterrett; a report on the 
Dan River Coal Field, by R. W. Stone, as reprinted from Bulletin 471-B of the United States 
Geological Survey ; a special report on Graphite, by Edson S. Bastin and reprinted from 
Mineral Resources of United States for 1912 ; a special report on Asbestos describing both 
the Amphibole and Chrysotile varieties ; a report on the Mount Airy Granite Quarry ; special 
report on Sand and Gravel, giving Uses, Definitions of Various Sands, etc. ; the portion of 
a Bulletin on Feldspar and Kaolin of the United States Bureau of Mines, which relates to 
North Carolina, and which takes up in detail Occurrences, Methods of Mining, and Descrip- 
tions of Localities of Feldspar and Kaolin mines in North Carolina, prepared by Mr. A. S. 
Watts. In this Economic Paper are also given the names and addresses of producers of 
the various minerals during the years covered by the report. 

35. Good Roads Days, November 5th and 6th, 1913, compiled by Joseph 
Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, and Miss H. M. Berry, Secretary. 8°, 102 pp., 
11 pi. Postage 10 cents. 

36. Proceedings of the North Carolina Good Roads Association, held at 
Morehead City, N. C, July 31st and August 1, 1913. In Cooperation with the 
North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey. — Statistical Report of High- 
way Work in North Carolina during 1912. Compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, 
State Geologist, and Miss H. M. Berry, Secretary. 8°, 127 pp., 7 figs. Postage 
10 cents. 

37. Forest Fires in North Carolina during 1913 and a Summary of State 
Forest Fire Prevention in the United States, by J. S. Holmes, Forester, 1914. 
8°, 82 pp. Postage 8 cents. 

38. Forms covering the Organization of Drainage Districts under the North 
Carolina Drainage Law, Chapter 442, Public Laws of 1909, and Amendments. 
And Forms for Minutes of Boards of Drainage Commissioners covering the 
Organization of the Board up to and Including the Issuing of the Drainage 
Bonds. Compiled by Geo. R. Boyd, Drainage Engineer. 133 pp. Postage 15 
cents. 

39. Proceedings of the Good Roads Institute held at the University of North 
Carolina, March 17-19, 1914. Held under the auspices of the Departments of 
Civil and Highway Engineering of the University of North Carolina and 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey. 8°, 117 pp., 15 figs., 
4 pi. Postage 10 cents. 

40. Forest Fires in North Carolina during 1914 and Forestry Laws of North 
Carolina, by J. S. Holmes, State Forester, 1915. 8°, 55 pp. Postage 5 cents. 

41. Proceedings of Seventh Annual Drainage Convention of the North Caro- 
lina Drainage Association held at Wilson, North Carolina, November 18 and 
19, 1914. Compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, and Miss H. M. 
Berry, Secretary, 1915. 8°, 76 pp., 3 figs. Postage 5 cents. 

42. Organization of Cooperative Forest-Fire Protective Areas in North Caro- 
lina, being the Proceedings of the Special Conference on Forest Fire Protec- 
tion held as part of the Conference on Forestry and Nature Study, Montreat, 



122 PUBLICATIONS 

N. C., July 8, 1915. Prepared by J. S. Holmes, State Forester, 1915. 8°, 39 pp. 
Postage 4 cents. 

43. Proceedings of the Second Road Institute, held at the University of 
North Carolina, February 23-27, 1915. Compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt and 
Miss H. M. Berry, Secretary, 1916. 8°, 128 pp. Postage 15 cents. 

44. Highway Work in North Carolina During the Calendar Year Ending 
December 31, 1914. Compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, and 
Miss H. M. Berry, Secretary, 1916. 8°, 64 pp. Postage 10 cents. 

45. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Drainage Convention. Held under 
the Auspices of the North Carolina Drainage Association and the North Caro- 
lina Geological and Economic Survey, Belhaven, N. C„ November' 29, 30, and 

December 1, 1915. 8°, 90 pp. Postage 10 cents. 

46. The Vegetation of Shackleford Bank, by I. F. Lewis, 1917. 8°, . . . pp. 
Postage . . . cents. 

VOLUMES 

Vol. I. Corundum and the Basic Magnesian Rocks in Western North Caro- 
lina, by Joseph Hyde Pratt and J. Volney Lewis, 1905. 8°, 464 pp., 44 pi., 
35 figs. Postage 32 cents. Cloth-bound copy $1 extra. 

Vol. II. Fishes of North Carolina, by H. M. Smith, 1907. 8°, 453 pp., 21 
— pi., 188 figs. Postage 35 cents. Price $1.50. 

Vol. III. The Coastal Plain Deposits of North Carolina, by William Bullock 
Clark, Benjamin L. Miller, L. W. Stephenson, B. L. Johnson, and Horatio N. 
Parker, 1912. 8°, 509 pp., 62 pi., 21 figs. Postage 35 cents. 

Pt. I. — The Physiography and Geology of the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, by 

Win. Bullock Clark, Benjamin L. Miller, and L. W. Stephenson. 

Pt. 11. — The Water Resources of the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, by L. W. 
Stephenson and B. L. Johnson. 

Vol. IV. The Birds of North Carolina — In press. 

BIENNIAL REPORTS 

First Biennial Report, 1891-1892, J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 1893. 8°, 
111 pp., 12 pi., 2 figs. Postage 6 cents. 

Administrative report, giving Object and Organization of the Survey; Investigations of 
Iron Ores, Building Stone, Geological Work in Coastal Plain Region, including supplies and 
drinking waters in eastern counties, Report on Forests and Forest Products, Coal and 
Marble, Investigations of Diamond Drill. 

Biennial Report, 1893-1894, J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 1894. 8°, 15 pp. 
Postage 1 cent. 

Administrative report. 

Biennial Report, 1895-1896, J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 1896. 8°, 17 pp. 
Postage 1 cent. 

Administrative report. 

Biennial Report, 1897-1898, J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 1898. 8°, 28 pp 
Postage 2 cents. 

Administrative report. 

Biennial Report, 1899-1900, J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 1900. 8°, 20 pp. 
Postage 2 cents. 

Administrative report. 



PUBLICATIONS 123 

Biennial Report, 1901-1902, J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 1902. 8°, 15 pp. 
Postage 1 cent. 

Administrative report. 

Biennial Report, 1903-1904, J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 1905. 8°, 32 pp. 
Postage 2 cents. 

Administrative report. 

Biennial Report, 1905-1906, Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, 1907. 8°, 60 
pp. Postage 3 cents. 

Administrative report; report on certain swamp lands belonging to the State, by W. W. 
Ashe; it also gives certain magnetic observations at North Carolina stations. 

Biennial Report, 1907-1908, Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, 1908. 8°, 60 
pp., 2 pi. Postage 5 cents. 

Administrative report. Contains Special Report on an examination of the Sand Banks 
along the North Carolina Coast, by Jay F. Bond, Forest Assistant, United States Forest 
Service ; certain magnetic observations at North Carolina stations ; Results of an Investiga- 
tion Relating to Clam Cultivation, by Howard E. Enders, of Purdue University. 

Biennial Report, 1909-1910, Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, 1911. 8°, 
152 pp. Postage 10 cents. 

Administrative report, and contains Agreements for Cooperation in Statistical Work, and 
Topographical and Traverse Mapping Work with the United States Geological Survey; Forest 
Work, with the United States Department of Agriculture (Forest Service); List of Topo- 
graphic maps of North Carolina and counties partly or wholly topographically mapped ; de- 
scription of Special Highways in North Carolina; suggested Road Legislation; list of Drain- 
age Districts and Results of Third Annual Drainage Convention ; Forestry reports relating 
to Connolly Tract, Buncombe County and Transylvania County State Farms ; certain Water- 
sheds; Reforestation of Cut-over and Abandoned Farm Lands on the Woodlands of the 
Salem Academy and College; Recommendations for the Artificial Regeneration of Longleaf 
Pine at Pinehurst ; Act regulating the use of and for the Protection of Meridian Monuments 
and Standards of Measure at the several county seats of North Carolina ; list of Magnetic 
Declinations at the county seats, January 1, 1910; letter of Fish Commissioner of the United 
States Bureau of Fisheries relating to the conditions of the North Carolina fish industries; 
report of the Survey for the North Carolina Fish Commission referring to dutch or pound-net 
fishing in Albemarle and Croatan sounds and Chowan River, by Gilbert T. Rude, of the 
United States Coast 'and Geodetic Survey ; Historical Sketch of the several North Carolina 
Geological Surveys, with list of publications of each. 

Biennial Report, 1911-1912, Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, 1913. 8°, 
118 pp. Postage 7 cents. 

Administrative report, and contains reports on method of construction and estimate of cost 
of road improvement in Stantonsbiirg Township, Wilson County ; report on road conditions 
in Lee County; report on preliminary location of section of Spartanburg-Hendersonville 
Highway between Tryon and Tuxedo ; report of road work done by United States Office of 
Public Roads during biennial period ; experiments with glutrin on the sand-clay road : 
report on Central Highway, giving Act establishing and report of trip over the Highway; 
suggested road legislation ; report on the Asheville City watershed ; report on the Struan 
property at Arden, Buncombe County; report on the woodlands on the farm of Dr. J. W. 
Kilgore, Iredell County; report on examination of the woodlands on the Berry place, Orange 
County; report on the forest property of Miss Julia A. Thorns, Ashboro, Randolph County; 
report on the examination of the forest lands of the Butters Lumber Company, Columbus 
County ; proposed forestry legislation ; swamp lands and drainage, giving drainage districts ; 
suggested drainage legislation; proposed Fisheries Commission Bill. 

Biennial Report, 1913-1914, Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, 1915. 8°, 
165 pp. Postage 10 cents. 

Administrative report, and contains reports on the work of the State convicts on Hickory 
Nut Gap Road, Henderson County, and on the link of the Central Highway in Madison 
County which is being constructed with State convicts; report on road work accomplished 
by the State Survey and by the United States Office of Public Roads during biennial period; 
suggested road legislation ; a forestry policy for North Carolina ; report on investigation. 
Timber supply of North Carolina ; reports on the examination of certain forest lands in 
Halifax County; report on the ash in North Carolina; report on the spruce forests of Mount 
Mitchell ; report on the forest fire conditions in the northeastern States, by J. S. Holmes. 
Report on the work of the United States Forest Service in North Carolina in connection 
with the purchase of forest reserves and their protection ; timber tests, including strength 
of timber, preservation of timber, timber suitable to produce pulp, distillation of certain 
woods and drying certain woods ; suggested forestry legislation ; report on the swamp lands 
and their drainage in North Carolina; siiggested drainage legislation; report on magnetic 



124 PUBLICATIONS 

observations made during biennial period; report on the economic value of the fisheries of 
North Carolina ; report on the survey made in Albemarle, Croatan, and Pamlico sounds by. 
the Coast and Geodetic Survey; suggested fisheries legislation. 

Biennial Report, 1915-1916, Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, 1917. 8°, 
.... pp. Postage . . cents. 

Samples of any mineral found in the State may be sent to the office of the 
Geological and Economic Survey for identification, and the same will be classi- 
fied free of charge. It must be understood, however, that no assays or 
quantitative determinations will be made. Samples should be in a lump 
form if possible, and marked plainly on outside of package with name of 
sender, postoffice address, etc.; a letter should accompany sample and stamp 
should be enclosed for reply. 



These publications are mailed to libraries and to individuals who may 
desire information on any of the special subjects named, free of charge, except 
that in each case applicants for the reports should forward the amount of 
postage needed, as indicated above, for mailing the bulletins desired, to the 
State Geologist, Chapel Hill, N. G. 









NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 



JOSEPH HYDE PRATT, Director and State Geologist 



BULLETIN No. 28 



LIMESTONES AND MARLS 
of NORTH CAROLINA 



BY 

G. F. LOUGHLIN, E. W. BERRY 
and J. A. CUSHMAN 




PREPARED BY 

UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

IN COOPERATION WITH THE NORTH CAROLINA 

GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 





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GEOLOGICAL BOARD 



Governor T. W. Bickett, ex officio Chairman Raleigh 

Frank R. Hewitt Asheville 

John Sprunt Hill — .Durham 

C. C. Smoot, III North Wilkesboro 

R. G. Lassiter Oxford 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director and State Geologist Chapel Hill 



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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Chapel Hill, K C, July 24, 1920. 

To His Excellency, T. W. Bickett, 

Governor of North Carolina. 

Sir : — There is herewith submitted for publication as Bulletin No. 28 
of the Survey series of publications a report on the "Limestones and 
Marls of North Carolina/' which has been prepared by the State Sur- 
vey in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey. 

With the increasing demand for lime for agricultural and building 
purposes, of marl for agricultural purposes, of crushed limestone and 
marble for concrete for buildings and roads, and of limestone for the 
manufacture of cement, this report should meet the many requests that 
are constantly being received by the Survey for information regarding 
these subjects. 

Yours respectfully, 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director 
North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey. 







CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Preface 9 

Introduction 13 

Part I — Limestone and related materials 15 

Limestone 15 

Marls 17 

Dolomite 17 

Marble 19 

Minor minerals in limestone, dolomite, and marble 20 

Lime 21 

Texture of limestones 22 

Structure of limestones 23 

Weathering of limestones 25 

Part II — Limestones in western North Carolina 27 

Introduction 27 

Geologic distribution 27 

Geographic distribution 30 

Cherokee, Clay, Macon, and Swain Counties 30 

General descriptions of the Murphy marble and adjacent rocks 30 

Character 30 

Thickness 31 

Alteration 31 

Adaptability 32 

Monumental and building stone 32 

Other uses 33 

Local descriptions 34 

Cherokee County 34 

Southwest of Murphy 34 

Northeast of Murphy 36 

Regal Marble Company 36 

TomotlaAndrews area 41 

Clay County 42 

Peachtree Creek area 42 

Macon County 43 

Red Marble Gap 43 

Ellijay Creek 43 

Swain County 43 

North Carolina Talc and Mining Co 43 

Madison County 48 

Lenses in Carolina gneiss 48 

Lenticular beds in Hiwasse slate 49 

Shady limestone 50 

Structure 51 

G. C. Buquo Lime Co 52 

Other properties 53 



Contents 5 

Part II — Continued. page 

Geographic distribution — Continued 

Mitchell County 54 

Intermont (Toecane) 54 

McDowell County 56 

Northern area 57 

Northern undeveloped part 57 

Clinchfield Lime Co 59 

Southern undeveloped part 63 

Woodlawn area 63 

Area two miles southeast of "Woodlawn 66 

Henderson, Buncombe, and Transylvania Counties 66 

Deposits northeast of Fletcher 67 

Blue Ridge Lime Company 67 

Deposits southwest of Fletcher 70 

Jackson County 71 

Cleveland and Gaston Counties 72 

Gaffney marble 72 

Extent 72 

Character 73 

Weathering 74 

Economic value 74 

Limestone at Kings Mountain gold mine 75 

Lincoln and Catawba Counties 75 

Old limestone quarry of Catawba County 76 

Shiiford quarry 77 

Keener quarry 78 

Finger quarry 78 

Stokes and Yadkin Counties 79 

Orange, Durham, and Wake Counties 79 

Part III — Limestone and marl of eastern North Carolina 81 

Introduction 81 

Area covered by the report 82 

Geological formations of eastern North Carolina 83 

Characteristics of marls 83 

Uses of marl 85 

Methods of use 85 

1. In raw state as direct surface dressing 85 

2. As ground product on land or in drill 85 

3. As ground product as filler for commercial fertilizer 86 

4. Miscellaneous 86 

Causes of limited use 86 

1. Lack of knowledge and available information 86 

2. Limited occurrence of high-grade supply at surface 87 

3. Shortage of labor 87 

4. Instability of producing companies in past 87 

5. Ease of use and availability of commercial fertilizers 88 

Effect of wider use of marls on problems of transportation 88 



6 Contents 

Part III — Continued. page 

Uses of Marl — Continued 

Ideal locations for commercial plants 89 

For rail transportation 89 

For water transportation 89 

Marls of the Upper Cretaceous 90 

Marls of the Eocene 92 

Marls of the Miocene 93 

Marls of the Pliocene 94 

Marls of the Pleistocene 95 

Marl resources by counties 96 

Eastern section 97 

Currituck and Camden 97 

Pasquotank and Perquimans 97 

Gates and Chowan 97 

Dare, Tyrrell, Washington, and Hyde 98 

Pamlico and Carteret 98 

Western section 98 

Northampton 98 

Hertford 99 

Halifax 100 

Bertie 101 

Martin 101 

Edgecombe 101 

Wilson 102 

Pitt 102 

Clayroot swamp 103 

Beaufort 104 

Styron plant 105 

Greene 105 

Wayne 106 

Flowers farm 106 

Lenoir 107 

Craven 108 

Marl deposits southeast of New Bern 108 

Township one (Maple Cypress) 109 

Near Cowan Landing 109 

Biddle Landing * 109 

One-eighth mile east of Biddle Landing 110 

One-fourth mile east of Biddle Landing 110 

Near Maple Cypress bridge 110 

Rock Landing Ill 

The Chemical Lime Company of New Bern 112 

Jones 114 

Commercial plants 115 

Trent River Marl and Lime Company 115 

Plant of North Carolina Department of Agriculture 117 

Other Trent River marl deposits 119 

Duplin 123 



Contents 7 

Part III— Continued page 

Marl resources by counties — Western section — Continued 

Onslow 124 

Belgrade 124 

Farm of Fred Nelson, Maysville 125 

Jacksonville to Richlands 126 

Sampson 127 

Robeson 128 

Pender 129 

New Hanover 131 

Brunswick 134 

Bladen 134 

Columbus 136 

Part IV — North Carolina's position in the marble, limestone, and lime 

industries ;. ., 139 

Introduction *. 139 

Marble 140 

Limestone 142 

Present uses 142 

Flux 143 

Crushed stone 143 

Agricultural limestone 146 

Requirements for other uses 147 

Portland cement 154 

Alkali manufacture 156 

Sugar manufacture 157 

Glass manufacture 157 

Paper 157 

Dead burned dolomite 158 

Basic magnesium carbonate 158 

Building stone 159 

Minor uses 159 

Lime 159 

Production in North Carolina 159 

Production and consumption in the southeastern States 160 

Relation of North Carolina's resources to requirements 163 

Building lime 163 

Chemical lime 165 

Paper manufacture 166 

Tanning 166 

Sugar manufacture 166 

Glass manufacture 166 

Calcium cyanamide 166 

Illuminating gas 166 

Oil, fat, and soap manufacture 167 

Other industries 167 

Agricultural lime 167 

Future of the marble, limestone, and lime industries in North 
Carolina 168 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Facing 
Plate Page 

I. Map showing position of North Carolina with respect to 

limestone resources in the southeastern States 27 

II. Map and sections showing distribution, extent, and geologic 
relations of the Murphy marble. (Prom Nantahala Folio 
(No. 143) and Murphy Topographic Sheet, U. S. Geological 
Survey) 30 

III. A. Hewitts limestone quarry, Hewitts, N. C 44 

B. Outcrop of limestone, Hewitts, Swain County, N. C 44 

IV. A. Hewitts limestone quarry, Hewitts, Swain County, N. C. 46 
B. First quarry opened of blue limestone at level 20 feet 

above Southern Railway track of the G. C. Buquo Lime 

Company, Hot Springs, Madison County, N. C 46 

V. Map and section showing distribution, extent, and geologic 

relations of limestone in Madison County 48 

VI. A. First quarry opened of blue limestone, at level of Southern 
Railway tracks, G. C. Buquo Lime Company, Hot Springs, 

Madison County, N. C 52 

B. View of rear of plant of G. C. Buquo Lime Company, Hot 

Springs, N. C 52 

VII. Map and sections showing distribution, extent, and geologic 
relations of limestone in northern McDowell County. (From 

Mt. Mitchell Folio (No. 124) U. S. Geological Survey) 56 

VIII. Map showing distribution, extent, and geologic relations of 
limestone in Buncombe, Henderson, and Transylvania Coun- 
ties. (From the Pisgah Folio (No. 147) and Saluda Topo- 
graphic Sheet, U. S. Geological Survey) 66 

IX. Map showing distribution, extent, and geologic relations of 

limestone in Gaston and Cleveland counties 72 

X. Map showing the geological formations and marl occurrences 

in eastern North Carolina 82 

XL A. Marl beds with overburden and sand removed ready for 

steam shovel — Trent River Marl and Lime Co 92 

B. Fifty-ton steam shovel doing the work of fifty men — Trent 

River Marl and Lime Co 92 

XII. End view of marl grinding mills, and of 12,000 tons of ground 

marl ready for shipment by rail and boat 116 

XIII. A. Working, steam shovel, and motor truck of Trent River 

Marl and Lime Company 118 

B. Side view of the mill of the Trent River Marl and Lime 
Company 118 

XIV. A. The oyster bed in the Trent marl at Polloksville 122 

B. Exposure of the Castle Hayne limestone in the quarry near 

Castle Hayne 122 



Illustrations 



9 



Facixg 
Plate Page 

XV. A. Exposure of the Castle Hayne limestone in the city rock 

quarry at Wilmington 132 

B. Marl pit in the St. Mary's formation nine miles west of 

Greenville 132 

XVI. A. Marl pit in the Duplin formation one mile east of Magnolia 136 
B. Exposure of limestone of the Duplin formation, north shore 

of Lake Waccamaw 136 

XVII. A. Working marl deposits with hand labor 138 

B. Exposure of Pleistocene coquina rock, New Hanover County 138 



Figure 

1. Sketch of a block of calcite-dolomite marble showing confinement 

of fracturing to the dolomitic beds 38 

2. Diagramatic sketch of contorted veins of white calcite in dark 
bluish gray calcite marble 39 

3. Section showing relations of dolomite marble to pegmatite near 
Toecane, Mitchell County. (After Laney) 54 



PREFACE 



North. Carolina as an agricultural State is intensely interested in a 
source of supply of lime. Since the earliest history of the state lime- 
stone in one form or another has been known to exist in eastern and west- 
ern North Carolina, but no comprehensive investigation has ever been 
made to determine the extent and quality of these various deposits. 
While this state is not as fortunately supplied with limestone deposits 
as the adjoining states of Virginia, Tennessee, and Georgia, yet there 
are sufficient localities where this rock is known to occur to warrant, on 
account of the rapidly increasing demand for this material, that a 
thorough investigation of the quantity and quality of the limestone 
should be made. At the present time the greater proportion of the lime 
used in the state, both for agricultural and building purposes, is im- 
ported. This is also true of a great deal of the crushed limestone that 
is being used for concrete work. While it is realized, from the investi- 
gation that has been made of the limestones and marls, that it is impos- 
sible — at the present time, at least — for the state to produce and fur- 
nish the material for all the purposes for which limestone and marl are 
used, yet there are certain demands for this material that can and should 
be supplied entirely from deposits within the state. Any crushed lime- 
stone that is required for concrete work should be furnished from de- 
posits within the state. Even though some of these deposits are in the 
western part of the state, freight rates should not be any greater than 
on shipments of similar materials from Tennessee and West Virginia. 

At the present time comparatively very little building lime is made 
in North Carolina, and practically all of it is high calcium lime. Build- 
ing lime is, however, made from both high calcium, high magnesium, and 
intermediate rock; and in some sections of the country a high mag- 
nesium lime is preferred to a high calcium. It is said that in eastern 
Pennsylvania, where large quantities of high magnesium lime are pro- 
duced, high calcium lime is held in disfavor by builders, whereas the 
reverse is true in Virginia, where there is a large production of high 
calcium lime. Some of the large deposits of high magnesium limestone 
in this state appear to be well suited for burning into lime and to be 
advantageously situated as regards transportation to the principal cities 
of the state. The lime producer must demonstrate that his high mag- 
nesium lime can be used satisfactorily as a building lime. This use of 
North Carolina magnesium limestone offers an opportunity of develop- 
ing into an industry of considerable importance. 

[10| 



Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 11 

What may become in the future the principal use of lime will be in 
chemical industries. There are at the present time more than one hun- 
dred uses of lime in manufacturing industries. The purity of the lime 
is the determining factor, and considerable investigation remains to be 
carried on before the essential properties of limes for different chemical 
uses are thoroughly tested and appreciated. In this field the North Caro- 
lina limestones may find a considerable use. 

The use of pulverized limestone as a fertilizer or soil amendment 
should be very largely increased, and it is believed that both limestones 
in Piedmont and western North Carolina, as well as the shell marls and 
limestones in eastern North Carolina, can be developed commercially on 
a much larger scale. Both calcium and high magnesium limestone have 
been applied to the soil in various parts of the country with satisfactory 
results. 

In paper manufacture both high calcium and high magnesium lime 
and high calcium limestone are used in the different processes ; but 
most of them call for a high calcium lime. It is possible that some of 
the magnesium limestone deposits might be utilized in connection with 
the manufacture of paper, and also some of the higher grade limestones. 
By reason of the war the supply of Austrian magnesite has been cut 
off, and while that country may again supply the demand for this min- 
eral there is at present a considerable demand for dead-burned dolomite 
to be used for flooring and lining basic open-hearth steel furnaces and 
copper furnaces. Some of the high magnesium limestones of North 
Carolina should prove suitable for this use. Another possible use of the 
magnesium limestones would be in the manufacture of "basic magnesium 
carbonate."' 

Other uses for which the North Carolina limestones and marls can be 
developed on a still larger scale would be for chicken grit, filler for as- 
phalt, and paint. 

The presence of the splendid water powers in western and Piedmont 
North Carolina in the vicinity of certain of the limestone deposits offers 
certain attractive features for the establishment of manufacturing in- 
dustries that need lime or limestone in one form or another in the manu- 
facture of their products. 

The possibility of the establishment of a cement manufacturing plant 
has always been of interest to the people of the state, particularly at the 
present time when so much cement is used in the construction of concrete 
roads. This question has been thoroughly investigated in connection 
with the investigation of the limestones of the state. As the limestone 
used in the manufacture of cement is finely ground, its original form is 
of little consequence, and may be ordinary limestone, marble, chalk, or 






12 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

marl. The investigation has not developed any very favorable deposits 
of limestone for the manufacture of cement. By far the most promising 
are those along the Murphy branch in Cherokee and Swain counties; 
near Fletcher, Henderson County; and in the vicinity of Kings Moun- 
tain, Cleveland County. It is still possible that certain of the marls and 
limestones of eastern North Carolina may, as they are developed, show 
deposits of the right quality for use in the manufacture of cement. 

While at the present time the limestone industry in the state is very 
small as compared with the production in several of the other Southern 
States, yet there is an opportunity of greatly increasing its production 
and the value of the industry. 

The present report is divided into four parts: Part I taking up a dis- 
cussion of limestone and related minerals; Part II, a geological discus- 
sion and description of localities of limestone in western North Carolina; 
Part III, of the limestones and marls in eastern North Carolina; and 
Part IV, taking up a discussion of North Carolina's position in the 
marble, limestone, and lime industries, uses of these materials, and the 
future prospects of North Carolina in this industry. 

The report has been prepared through the cooperation of the United 
States Geological Survey, and the North Carolina Geological and Eco- 
nomic Survey. The former detailed geologists from their staff to make 
the investigation. The North Carolina Department of Agriculture, 
through the State Chemist, made several analyses of limestones and 
marls, and placed at the disposal of the investigators the many analyses 
that they had previously made of the limestones, marls, etc., from dif- 
ferent sections of the state. 

The owners of the several limestone, marble, and marl deposits 
throughout the state have been very generous in permitting the investi- 
gators to visit and examine their properties, and have given them all 
information and statistics regarding production that were available. The 
State Geologist takes the opportunity here to express his appreciation 
and thanks to these gentlemen for the courtesies they have extended to 
the investigators. 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, 

State Geologist. 



THE LIMESTONES AND MARLS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

By Gr. F. Lotjghlin, E. W. Berry and J. A. Cushman. 



INTRODUCTION 

Tlie limestones, marbles, and marls have been described in previous 
reports of tlie State Survey, the first two mainly from the standpoint of 
building stone resources, 1 and the last from that of general geology and 
agriculture 2 . As economic resources these materials have never become 
of very great importance, hut the growing industrial importance of lime- 
stone and lime in the United States have made it desirable to bring the 
information on the State's resources up to date and render it readily 
available for future as well as present enterprises. North Carolina's 
consumption of lime (.02 to .03 ton per capita) is not far below the 
average for the United States (.04 ton per capita), but several of the 
limestone and marl deposits in the state are inferior in quality for certain 
important uses or deficient in quantity, and so far as the present indus- 
trial development of the state is concerned, the most important undevel- 
oped deposits are rather unfortunately situated. The proximity of the 
important deposits to abundant undeveloped water power, however, 
makes them an asset of considerable value, should certain manufactur- 
ing industries be developed in the future. 

The important formations containing limestone and marble in North 
Carolina have already been mapped and described in geologic folios of 
the U. S. Geological Survey, 3 and those containing marls in Volume III 
of the State Survey. The work of the present writers has been prin- 
cipally an economic study, but in order to bring all the available in- 
formation together, free use with due credit has been made of the text 
and maps of previous writers. 

The different sections of this report are arranged in the logical order 
for one not familiar with the character and uses of limestones and marls 
and who wishes to gain a general knowledge of the limestones and marls 
of the state. Part I aims to give only such general information as is 
necessary for an appreciation of the facts in subsequent parts. For 



iWatson, T. L., and Laney, F. B., The building and ornamental stones of North Carolina, 
with the collaboration of G. P. Merrill: N. C. Geol. Survey Bull. No. 2, p. 283, 1906. 

2 Clark, W. B., Miller, B. L., Stephenson, L. W., Johnson, B. L., and Parker, H. N., Tlie 
coastal plain deposits of North Carolina: N. C. Geol. and Econ. Survey, Vol. Ill, 1912. 
Burgess, J. L., Relation of pulverized limestone to crop production in North Carolina : N. 
C. Dept. of Agr. Bull. 245, 1918. 

"Asheville Folio (No. 116), Mount Mitchell Folio (No. 124), Nantahala Folio (No. 143), 
Pisgah Folio (No. 147). Gaffney Folio (unpublished). 

[13] 



14 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

more exhaustive information reference should be made to standard text 
books on geology, petrology, and mineralogy. Part II deals with the 
limestones and dolomites, including marbles, in western North Carolina, 
as these are of much more present and future importance than the marls 
of the eastern part of the state, which are treated in Part III. 
Part IV considers the economic importance of North Carolina in the 
marble, limestone and lime industries, from the standpoint of present 
production and of suitability of the resources for more extensive use in 
different industries which require the use of limestone or lime. 






PAET I 

LIMESTONE AND RELATED MATERIALS 



Before considering the geology and economic importance of limestone 
in North Carolina, it is appropriate to describe for the benefit of those 
not familiar with the subject the composition, properties, origin, and 
structural features of the different materials considered in this report. 
For more thorough discussions the reader is referred to standard text 
books on geology and mineralogy. 

LIMESTONE 

Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed essentially of the mineral 
calcite or calcium carbonate which chemical formula is Ca00 3 . It is 
formed by the accumulation of sediment in a body of water, particu- 
larly the ocean, but also in certain bodies of fresh water. Limestone 
differs from other sedimentary rocks (conglomerate sandstone and 
shale) in consisting almost entirely of calcium carbonate, popularly 
called carbonate of lime. Carbonate of lime is the principal constit- 
uent of shells and corals, and it is largely to the accumulation of these 
shells and corals, more or less broken and ground by the action of the 
waves, that limestones owe their origin. The shells themselves, thus 
incorporated in the rock, are known as fossils. Several different varie- 
ties of limestone owe their differences to the degree of fineness to which 
these shell fragments are reduced. In some rather recently formed 
limestones, such as the coquina, shell rock, or shell marl in the coastal 
region of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Florida, the 
shells are well preserved and the names shell rock and coquina explain 
themselves. Some beds of these limestones consist of fragments the size 
of ordinary sand grains, and others may consist of fragments as ex- 
tremely fine grained as mud. As original shells range in size from 
several inches in length to microscopic dimensions, the fineness of grain 
of the limestone may be due in part to the size of the original shells 
as well as to the degree of grinding. 

In addition to the accumulation of shell fragments, a certain amount 
of calcium carbonate, with which ocean water is nearly or quite satu- 
rated, may be extracted through the action of marine bacteria, and de- 
posited by them, or may be deposited directly wherever ocean water be- 
comes locally supersaturated, just as salt is deposited from supersatu- 
rated brine. Although saturated, ocean water contains only a very 

[15] 



16 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

small proportion of calcium carbonate, which is only slightly soluble 
in water, and in some limestones the amount contributed by direct chem- 
ical precipitation or even by bacterial action may constitute a very 
small part. In certain localities, however, calcium carbonate derived 
in these ways is the principal constituent of the limestone and may 
form small pellets, resembling the roe of a fish, cemented together by 
finely crystalline calcite. Such a rock is termed oolitic limestone. 
Where calcium carbonate is precipitated by bacterial action in fresh 
water, it forms microscopic crystals. The resulting deposit resembles 
chalk more or less closely, and is called freshwater marl. 

The fine particles of calcium carbonate, especially that precipitated 
by direct chemical action, may act as a cement and bind the shell frag- 
ments together. If the sea bottom subsides and the sediment already 
formed is buried under new accumulations, the pressure thus brought, 
upon it tends to increase the degree of consolidation, as calcium car- 
bonate readily readjusts itself or recrystallizes under such conditions. 
If the sediment becomes elevated above sea level, as have those along 
the southeastern coast, rainwater by dissolving small quantities of cal- 
cium carbonate from the upper layers and redepositing it in the lower 
layers tends further to consolidate the lower layers. Although calcium 
carbonate is only slightly soluble in water, it is considerably more sol- 
uble in water containing an appreciable amount of carbon dioxide. 
Rainwater, by extracting carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and or- 
ganic acids from the decaying vegetable matter in sort, is able to exert 
a slow dissolving action upon calcium carbonate. 

'Conditions favoring the deposition of limestone must be such that 
little or no ordinary gravel, sand or mud accumulates with it. Condi- 
tions vary from time to time, however, even in the same place. At some 
times pure limestone may be deposited ; at other times sand or mud with 
very few shells, which, when consolidated, form sandstone and shale ; at 
still other times calcium carbonate and sand or mud may be deposited 
together, forming transitional rocks appropriately called sandy or 
arenacious limestone, limy or calcareous sandstone, shaly or argilla- 
ceous limestones, and limy or calcareous shales. 

After the foregoing discussion the following terms for the designa- 
tion of different varieties of limestone need little or no explanation. 

Shell limestone — composed of shells, more or less reduced to frag- 
ments. 

Fossiliferous limestone — in which fossil shells or other animal re- 
mains, such as bones and sharks' teeth, are prominent. 

Crystalline limestone — in which the lime carbonate has accumulated 
largely by crystal growth around original crystalline particles in the 



Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 17 

shell fragments, or by recrystallization through the action of water and 
pressure. In this variety, the original character of the sediment is 
largely preserved. 

Compact, dense, fine-grained limestone — formed of finely ground 
particles or from minute shells consolidated into firm rock. 

Chalk — partly consolidated limestone formed essentially of micro- 
scopic shells. 

Cherty or flinty limestone — containing lumps or short veins or lenses 
of dense silica, known as chert or flint, which result from segregation 
of microscopic shells or sponge spicules of silica. 

MARLS 

Marl is a loosely used term whose strict definition implies fine- 
grained, soft or partly consolidated limestone containing a considerable 
percentage of muddy or clayey (argillaceous) material. Shells of 
small to large size may be present, and in the southeastern states the 
name is extended to include newly formed shell rock. It is also used 
by many to designate "green sand," composed essentially of the mineral 
glauconite, a green potassium-iron silicate, with which some calcium 
carbonate may be present. Marl may be deposited in the ocean or in 
fresh water and is accordingly designated either marine marl or fresh- 
water marl. 

DOLOMITE 

Dolomite is a mineral closely related to the mineral calcite, but dif- 
fers by containing magnesium as well as calcium. It is a double car- 
bonate of these elements and is expressed by the formula CaC0 3 , 
MgC0 3 or CaMg (C0 3 ) 2 . The difference in chemical composition of 
theoretically pure calcite and dolomite is shown by the following anal- 
yses : 4 

Calcite Dolomite 

per cent per cent 

Calcium oxide or lime (CaO) 56.04 30.4 

Magnesium oxide or magnesia (MgO) 21.9 

Carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) 43.96 47.7 

100.00 100.00 

In many dolomites a small quantity of iron carbonate (FeC0 3 ) is 
also present, as shown in certain of the analyses on page 149. 

Calcite and dolomite so closely resemble each other in appearance 
and in crystal properties that they may not be accurately distinguished 
without chemical or microscopic tests. When a specimen of calcite is 



4 Clarke, F. W., The data of geochemistry: U. S. Geological Survey Bull, 616, pp. 558 
570, 1916. 



18 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

touched with a drop of dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid a brisk foam- 
ing or effervescence results owing to the escape of carbon dioxide gas, 
while the calcium oxide becomes dissolved as calcium chloride or cal- 
cium acetate. Pure dolomite is affected only slightly if at all by these 
dilute acids. If finely ground or if treated with strong acid, dolomite 
also will effervesce. Where both minerals are present and very dilute 
acid (1 part of acid to 8 or more of water) is used, the calcite is en- 
tirely dissolved, while most .of the dolomite remains with any quartz 
feldspar clay, fine mica, or other silicate minerals as a residue. 

Rocks which consist largely or almost entirely of the mineral dolo- 
mite are also called dolomite, or dolomite rock; but in most of these 
rocks there is a small to varying amount of calcite, and they cannot be 
accurately distinguished from ordinary limestone without a chemical or 
microscopic test. 5 The rocks are more exactly designated dolomitic 
limestones. As the percentage of magnesia is an important, if not de- 
cisive, factor in the utility of the stone these rocks are frequently desig- 
nated high magnesium limestones in contrast to the high calcium lime- 
stones which consist essentially of calcite. Rocks of intermediate com- 
position are called low magnesium limestones. 

The origin of rocks consisting largely of the mineral dolomite is not 
thoroughly understood, but study of many dolomites by different geolo- 
gists has resulted in the general conclusion that, with few possible 
exceptions, they have been derived from limestone, part of whose calcium 
has been replaced by an equivalent part of magnesium before the 
rock had become thoroughly consolidated. The exact natural condi- 
tions, however, under which the magnesium united with the remainder 
of the rock and crystallized as dolomite have not been determined. 
Some marine shells and the hard secretions of certain plant organisms 
of low order called algae contain small to considerable percentages of 
magnesium carbonate, and account for the small quantities present in 
many newly formed shell limestones and coral reefs but even if a rock 
were formed entirely of the shells which contain most magnesia, the 
percentage of magnesia in the rock would be far below that of dolomite. 
Rocks with a considerable content of original magnesium carbonate are, 
however, just so much more readily changed into dolomite. The fact that 
marine life is continually extracting lime from sea water and that the sea 
water is nevertheless continually saturated with it implies that a contin- 
uous supply of lime is supplied to the ocean. This supply comes largely 
from the lime in river waters, and in part from the leaching of lime from 



5 Dale, T. N., The commercial marbles of western Vermont: U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull No. 
521, pp. 24, 25, and 28; figs. 3 and 4, 1912. When calcite and dolomite are both crystal- 
lized, twinning lamellae in calcite bisect the acute angle of the cleavage rhomb, whereas those 
in dolomite biseet the obtuse angle. 



Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 19 

newly deposited limestone. Although ocean water contains more mag- 
nesia than lime there is no comparable extraction of magnesia from sea 
water and renewal from deposits of magnesian shells. The extraction 
of lime, therefore, gradually increases the ratio of magnesia to lime in 
deposits of limestone on the sea bottom. It is also probable that renewal 
of the lime supply in ocean water promotes a reaction by which some 
of the magnesia is deposited while an equivalent quantity of lime is 

4 

dissolved. These processes of leaching and replacement if long enough 
continued, and if aided, perhaps, by certain minor factors that need not 
be discussed here, bring the magnesia lime ratio to that of dolomite, that 
is 1 :1. With this ratio established, the conditions of moist pressure at 
the sea bottom may effect crystallization of the double carbonate dolo- 
mite instead of a mechanical mixture of the two carbonates. 

Comparison of analyses of limestones and marls in North Carolina, 
(pages 149 and 151) shows that in only the geologically old forma- 
tions do rocks closely approach the composition of dolomite. This rule 
is generally applicable to limestones and dolomites throughout the earlier 
geologic formations, including those in North Carolina, and it is clear 
that even in the earlier ages certain varying factors controlled the pres- 
ervation of high calcium limestone or its partial to complete replace- 
ment by dolomite. 6 

MARBLE 

The term marble has been used by geologists to designate a limestone 
or dolomite that has become recrystallized under heat and pressure. The 
term in the building industry implies a relatively soft stone, partly or 
completely crystalline, usually composed essentially of calcite or dolo- 
mite, but including certain rocks composed of serpentine, which are 
adapted to ornamental building or monumental work. So many im- 
portant commercial marbles do not conform to the strict geologic defini- 
tion that some confusion may result unless due allowance is made for 
the dual meaning of the word. In North Carolina, on the other hand, 
most of the limestones and dolomites in the western half of the state can 
be called marbles in the geologic sense, but owing to excessive fracturing 
or unattractive color they have no commercial value 'as marbles, although 
they are adapted to various uses of limestone or dolomite. 



6 For exhaustive discussion of the origin of dolomite see: 

Steidtmann, Edward, The evolution of limestone and dolomite: Jour. Geology, vol. 19, 
pp. 323-345; 392-428, 1911. 

Steidtmann, Edward, Origin of dolomite as disclosed by stains and other methods: Bull. 
Geol. Soc. America, vol. 28, pp. 431-450, 1917. 

Clarke, F. W., The data of geochemistry: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 616, pp. 559-571, 1916. 



20 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

MINOR MINERALS IN LIMESTONE, DOLOMITE, AND MARBLE 

Attention lias already been directed to such impurities as sand aod 
clay in limestones. Sand in general consists of quartz grains with or 
without minor quantities of other mineral derived from igneous rocks, 
particularly feldspars (both orthoclase and plagioclase), mica and mag- 
netite. 

In some limestones silica deposited in an amorphous condition may 
become concentrated into flint nodules or lenses. These may develop a 
minutely crystalline texture and are then known as chert. Chert in 
turn, especially in metamorphosed limestones or marbles, becomes more 
coarsely crystalline and is identical with quartz. Microscopic isolated 
quartz grains that crystallized after deposition of the limestone have 
also been enlarged or entirely derived by crystallization of silica that 
was originally deposited in an amorphous condition. 

Newly formed microscopic feldspar crystals have also been found in 
several limestones and dolomites, including some of those described in 
this report. The soda lime variety, plagioclase, is the more common, 
but the potash variety, orthoclase or microcline, has also been noted. 
Some of the feldspars, like the quartz, are clearly enlarged sand grains, 
but others have been entirely formed subsequent to deposition of the 
limestone. These newly formed feldspars are found both in unaltered 
limestones and in the recrystallized or marbleized varieties like those of 
North Carolina. 

Mica, like feldspar and quartz, may be represented by original and 
secondary grains, but, owing to the ready deformation and minute sizes 
of the grains in most limestones, it is difficult to determine their mode 
of origin. 

Pyrite (iron disulphide) is commonly present in minute grains, which 
constitute only a small fraction of 1 per cent of the limestone. Locally, 
however, it is rather abundant, and ruins the stone for several uses. 
Its origin in such small quantities is obscure, but may be attributed to 
reduction of iron sulphate to sulphide by the decaying organic matter 
derived from marine life. In some rather recently found limestones, 
like those of the Coast Plain, iron disulphide may be present as the 
mineral marcasite, which readily oxidizes on exposure to the weather; 
but in the older limestones of the Piedmont and mountain regions it is 
present as pyrite. Pyrite also oxidizes after more prolonged exposure, 
especially where both water and oxygen can attack it, and in many of 
the limestones described in Part II it is partly or wholly changed to 
the hydrated oxide, liinonite. 



Limestones and Maels of North Carolina 21 

During the recrystallization of limestone or dolomite into marble, the 
impurities present may combine with the lime or magnesia and crystal- 
lize into a number of silicate minerals of which the following are the 
more common in North Carolina : 

Tremolite, a white to gray silicate of magnesia and lime. 
Actinolite, a green silicate of magnesia, iron, and lime, with or without 
some iron. 

Talc, white to gray hydrous silicate of magnesia. 
Serpentine, a green hydrous silicate of magnesia. 
Epidote, a green hydrous silicate of lime, alumina, and iron. 

At or near contacts with intrusive igneous rocks these and other min- 
erals in metamorphosed limestones may owe part of their constituents 
to material which emanated from the intrusive rock and invaded the 
limestone for a varying distance. 

One specimen of high calcium limestone from Hewitts, Swain County, 
when dissolved, left a residue containing considerable nuorite (calcium 
fluoride). The origin of this mineral or the source of the fluorine in 
it is not clear, but nuorite is generally regarded as a secondary mineral. 

LIME 

Lime, calcium oxide, is the residue left after burning limestone at a 
temperature of about 900° C. or 1652° F. to drive off carbon dioxide. 
The chemical reaction is as follows: 

Lime or Cal- 
cium Oxide 

+ CaO 

The term lime in commerce includes the residue left by the burning 
of dolomite or magnesian limestones, which is a mixture of lime (cal- 
cium oxide) and magnesia (magnesium oxide). The chemical composi- 
tion of lime is designated as high calcium lime, low magnesium lime, or 
high magnesium lime, whose ranges in composition are as follows : 7 

Percentage 
of magnesia 

High calcium lime to 5 

Low magnesium lime 5 to 25 

High magnesium or dolomitic lime 25 to 45 

High calcium lime is made from stone containing more than 93 per 
cent calcium carbonate; low magnesium lime from stone containing 7 
to 27 per cent magnesium carbonate; high magnesium or dolomitic lime 



Limestone or 
ciurn Carbonate 




Carbon 
Dioxide 


CaC03 


= 


002 



7 Emley, W. E., Source, manufacture, and use of lime: Mineral Resources of United States, 
1913, Part II, p. 1556, 1914 U. S. Geological Survey. 



22 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

from stone ranging from 27 per cent to a theoretical maximum of 45.7 
per cent magnesium carbonate, although a small amount of this is re- 
placed by iron carbonate. 

The importance of lime in chemical industries and agriculture is due 
to the readiness with which it enters into a number of chemical reac- 
tions and to its cheapness. In the building industry its usefulness is 
due to its ready combination with water to form slaked or hydrated lime 
according to the reaction. 

Lime Water Hydrated Lime 

CaO + H^O = Ca O2H2 

Magnesia under certain conditions also forms a similar union with 
water, but this reaction does not take place in magnesian lime as ordi- 
narily burned and slaked. The proportion of water necessary to slake 
lime, therefore, depends upon the amount of magnesia present, an im- 
portant point in the use of lime. 

Hydrated lime, when exposed to the air, gradually exchanges its water 
for carbon dioxide, which it extracts from the air, according to the 
reaction. 

Hydrated Lime Carbon Dioxide Calcium Carbonate Water Vapor 

Ca 02H2 + C02 = Ca C03 + H'20 

This reaction, called the setting of lime, results in the return of the 
lime to the form of carbonate, the chemical state in which it originally 
existed. As this change is accompanied by considerable shrinkage 
proper quantities of sand, hair or other fiber are added to prevent 
cracking. 8 

Texture of Limestones — The term texture refers to the size and ar- 
rangement of the constituent particles of a rock. A rock may be fine, me- 
dium or coarse grained. If the grains are of microscopic size the rock is 
commonly called dense ; but the word has also been applied to well com- 
pacted rocks of relatively coarse grain. The term microgranular, 
though cumbersome, is less confusing. The distinction between these 
degrees of granularity is necessarily arbitrary. 

Texture is also influenced by the degree of consolidation. Recently 
formed deposits of marl are of soft earthy texture ; the partly consoli- 
dated deposits of shell rock are loose textured or friable. Both are porous, 
finely porous if the pores or interstices among grains are invisible, 



8 A thorough discussion of the burning, slaking, and setting of lime would cover several 
pages. For a general discussion the reader is referred to Emley, W. E., The manufacture 
of lime: Bureau of Standards Technical Paper No. 16, 1913; also Mineral Resources of the 
United States, 1913, pp. 1556-1593. Special subjects are discussed in the transactions of 
tho National Lime ■ Manufacturers, and in Rock Products. 



Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 23 

coarsely porous if they are readily noticed. Rocks composed of frag- 
ments of shells or corals, or fragments derived from the erosion of other 
rocks have fragmental textures, whereas those whose grains are welded 
together by crystallization have crystalline textures. If the fragments 
or crystals show little or no variation in size, the rock is even grained, 
otherwise uneven grained. In some rocks of uneven grain, crystals or 
grains of relatively large size are scattered through a groundmass of 
uniform grains, and the texture resembles the porphyritic texture of 
granite and other igneous rocks. The term porphyritic is best restricted 
to igneous rocks, however, and the texture in question may be called 
porphyroid or pseudoporphyritic. 9 All or nearly all these textural fea- 
tures may be present in a single rock ; thus, the shell rocks of the Coastal 
Plain are a coarse or fine, even or uneven grained, fragmental, porous, 
friable rocks. The limestones in the Piedmont and Mountain regions 
are coarse or fine, even or uneven grained, crystalline, non-porous, well 
compacted rocks. 

There is no sharp textural difference between limestone and marble, 
as all gradations may be found from partly consolidated material to 
thoroughly crystalline rocks that take an excellent polish. Granular 
crystalline limestones which lack this distinctive property of marble 
contain small empty interstices or consist largely of minute irregular 
grains of untwinned calcite, some of which may preserve the organic 
structure of 6riginal shell fragments, whereas marble is free from such 
interstices and consists of more uniformly crystalline interlocking 
grains. 10 

Structure of the Limestone. — The term structure applies to features 
of a rock mass or formation as a whole rather than to its constituent 
particles. It includes original features, as well as those developed sub- 
sequent to the rock's formation. Original structures are mainly features 
of bedding. If a limestone were deposited under conditions which re- 
mained uniform for a long time, so that little or no variation in bedding 
or stratification is apparent it has a massive structure; if lines of bed- 
ding are visible several feet apart, it is thick bedded; if alternations in 
conditions of depositon took place, so that layers or strata from a few 
inches to 1 or 2 feet thick are separated by material of different char- 
acter or by planes of weakness, the rock is thin bedded. In many thin- 
bedded limestones the planes of weakness or parting contain very thin 
layers or mere films of shaley or clayey material, showing that deposi- 
tion of limestone had ceased temporarily and that a small quantity of 



9 An excellent illustration of this texture is given by T. N. Dale (Lime-producing belt of 
Mass. and Conn.: Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey to be published in 1920 or 1921.) 

10 Dale, T. N., The commercial marbles of western Vermont: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 521, 
pp. 11-12, 1912. 



24 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

mud or clay deposited in its stead, these conditions alternating during 
the formation of the entire rock. Where the movement of waves or 
currents varied, sometimes permitting deposition of fine and sometimes 
of coarse material, the resulting rock is well stratified in contrast to the 
massive rock. If the direction of currents shifted, eroding channels 
which later became filled with sediment, the newly formed layers bev- 
elling the eroded ends of older layers, the resulting rock is cross bedded. 
If changes during deposition are marked by layers of different color, the 
rock has a banded structure. 

These original structures are quite as important as textures in de- 
termining the commercial value of a limestone. The most promising 
marbles of the state owe their commercial qualities mainly . to thick- 
bedded or massive structures, accompanied by attractive banding. 
Cross bedding is not conspicuous in these rocks, although it is present 
in some of the shell rocks of the Coastal Plain and is an attractive fea- 
ture in such famous rocks as the marble of eastern Tennessee and the 
limestone of the Bedford-Bloomington district, Indiana. Thin bedding 
and abundance of shaley partings may ruin a stone for building pur- 
poses and lime burning, and in extreme cases even for crushing. 

Secondary structures are mainly due to forces of compression or strain 
within the earth, which have acted upon rock masses and deformed 
them to a greater or less degree. The most prominent structures in the 
rocks of western North Carolina are due to forces acting in a generally 
horizontal direction, which have so compressed them that they have a 
series of folds or arches and depressions technically called anticlines 
and synclines. The beds of limestone which originally lay nearly hor- 
izontal, as those in the Coastal Plain do today, now lie at various angles 
to the horizontal. Throughout the Appalachian region the thrust of 
these forces was so great in a northwestward direction that in many 
places the folds were overturned in that direction and were even broken, 
the eastward part of the fold being overthrust upon the western part 
for considerable distances. In some places, however, as the northern 
limestone area in McDowell County, the overthrust was eastward, and 
in a few places, as at Woodlawn and Hot Springs, it was nearly cir- 
cular, thrusting rocks from all directions upon a central mass. The 
planes along which this overthrusting took place are called overthrust 
faults, the term fault applying to any fracture or fissure along which 
movement has taken place, so that portions of a stratum or bed of rock 
on opposite walls are no longer in alignment. 

During such tremendous deformation, Assuring or jointing was also 
developed, the degree of Assuring depending largely upon the character 
of the rock. Rocks composed mainly of calcite can adjust themselves 






Limestones and Makes of North Carolina 25 

more readily than the other common rocks by recrystallizing under 
slowly applied, heavy pressure. While recrystallizing under this con- 
dition the rock acts like a plastic body and flows, or readjusts itself, 
without fracturing. Pressure more quickly applied, however, will pro- 
duce fractures. Dolomite possesses this property to a less degree, and 
where beds of rock composed essentially of calcite alternate with dolo- 
mitic beds, the calcitic beds may be free from serious fracturing, but 
the dolomitic beds so intensely fractured as to be useless for marble or 
building stone (see fig. 1). It is significant that the only successfully 
developed marble quarry in the state is in high calcium, or calcite 
marble. 

Fracturing to a greater or less degree also took place at times subse- 
quent to the period of intense folding and overthrusting, due to less 
intense compression, to expansion of the rocks upon relief of compres- 
sion, and to vertical uplift. Vertical uplift which has brought the 
coast plain deposits above sea level without appreciably tilting them is 
the only major force that has acted upon the marls and shell rock in 
the eastern part of the state. These formations have doubtless devel- 
oped joints through contraction which accompanied the gradual and 
partial loss of water. 1 1 

Weathering of Limestones — The latest natural process that has affected 
and still is affecting the limestones of JSTorth Carolina is that of ero- 
sion, which has reduced them to their present forms. Calcite, although 
only slightly soluble in pure water, is more soluble in rainwater contain- 
ing a small quantity of carbonic acid, and very appreciably soluble in 
water that has become acid after passing through and leaching the 
decaying vegetable matter in soils. Dolomite is less readily soluble than 
calcite under these varying conditions, but both minerals are much more 
quickly dissolved than quartz and the silicate minerals which are the 
main constituents of the rocks associated with the limestones and dolo- 
mites of North Carolina. If the rocks are much fractured or contain 
many open bedding plains or partings they can be much more rapidly 
permeated and attacked by the acid waters. Changes in temperature 
by causing rocks to expand and contract repeatedly, weaken the cohe- 
sion of the grains, and widen small fractures or joints, permitting the 
access of films of water and further hasten the dissolving process. The 
freezing of these films of water in winter also tends to pry the grains 
and rock fragments apart. The particles thus loosened, as well as any 
grains of quartz, feldspar, mica, or other minerals that may be present 



n For further discussion of the structural geology of North Carolina, the reader is referred 
to the folios Nos. 116, 124, 143, and 147 of the Geologic Atlas of the United States, by 
Arthur Keith, U. S. Geological Survey. 



26 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

in limestone, are washed into streams and rivers, rapidly where slopes 
are steep, but with extreme slowness where they are nearly horizontal. 
On steep slopes, therefore, bare rocks may be continually exposed to 
weathering until the slopes have been greatly reduced. In gently slop- 
ing areas, the rock may be dissolved or decomposed faster than the 
loosened grain can be worn away, and a residual soil accumulates. The' 
residual soil over limestones consists only of the insoluble impurities 
that were in the limestone supplemented by the insoluble remains of 
rocks that formerly overlay the limestone. It contains no calcium 
carbonate or lime capable of counteracting the acidity of soils and is 
as much in need of agricultural lime as are other soils. 

The process of weathering in limestone continues down to slightly 
below the level of permanent ground water level. Below this level the 
acidity of the water has become exhausted. Where limestones are ex- 
posed in areas above the valley bottoms, the residual soil may be seen 
to extend downward for a short distance and to be followed by a series 
of limestone pinnacles separated by soil-filled chasms, frequently called 
mud seams. These chasms are enlarged fractures whose walls have been 
dissolved away by groundwater. They taper downward and at or slightly 
below groundwater level pass into ordinary fractures or joints. Mud 
seams are present in marl quarries as well as in those of hard limestone. 
In valley bottoms, where ground water level is very close to the sur- 
face, the pinnacles have been dissolved away and the mantle of residual 
soil rests directly upon a continuous flat surface of limestone. 

The processes of weathering continued through thousands and even 
millions of years have brought about the present forms of mountains. 
Where an arched or tilted bed of limestone between masses of less 
readily weathered rock has been worn away a depression or valley has 
resulted, as illustrated by the limestone formations in Cherokee and 
Swain Counties (PL II), in Lincoln and Cleveland Counties (PL 
IX), and by the dolomitic limestone in McDowell County "(PL VII). 
The development of these and other valleys had not progressed to com- 
pletion, and it is where portions of the limestone still remain along the 
slopes of these valleys that the best quarry sites are to be found. Only 
a very small percentage of the total limestone area in the state affords 
the best quarry sites. Other sites are available in broad flat valley bot- 
toms, but the stone lies mostly, if not wholly, below ground water level, 
and the quantity of water that must be pumped may be a critical factor 
in determining the successful operation of a quarry. 












v^ 



N. C. Geological and Economic Survey 



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Map showing position of North Carolina with respect to Limestone Resources in the Southeastern States 



PAKT II 

LIMESTONE IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA 



INTRODUCTION 

The limestones of the Piedmont Plateau and the Appalachian Moun- 
tains are found in Buncombe, Cherokee, Clay, Cleveland, Henderson, 
Transylvania, Macon, Madison, Mitchell, Gaston, Catawba, Jackson, 
Lincoln, McDowell, Yadkin, Swain, and Stokes Counties. According 
to the accompanying map (PL I), these limestones in part form 
elongate areas of considerable size, and in part linear groups of com- 
paratively small lenses. Most of these areas (all except that at Hot 
Springs) lie along valleys and are so thoroughly concealed beneath soil 
that their limits have been determined only by very detailed surveys. 
The local geologic maps in this report, all of which are copies of 
published or unpublished maps of the U. S. Geological Survey, thus 
indicate considerable areas of concealed limestone, although only a few 
scattered exposures are present. 

GEOLOGIC DISTRIBUTION 

These areas include several different formations ranging in age from 
Archaen, the oldest recognized age in the earth's history, to late Cam- 
brian, which though the latest age represented in North Carolina is the 
earliest of those whose geologic history has been very definitely re- 
corded. The most extensive limestones of the country belong to several 
ages which successively follow the Cambrian and are represented in the 
neighboring States of Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee, Georgia, and 
Alabama. 

The following are most of the recognized geologic formations in 
North Carolina as correlated by Arthur Keith. The oldest formation 
is at the bottom, with those containing limestone especially designated : 



[27] 



28 



Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 



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Gaffney Quadrangle 

(Lincoln and Cleveland 

Counties) 


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Pisgah Quadrangle 

(Buncombe, Henderson 

and Transylvania 

Counties) 


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Mount Mitchell Quadrangle 

(Mitchell and McDowell 

Counties) 


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450 to 500 

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300 to 450 

350 to 1,700 
750 to 2,100 


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Nolichucky 
shale.. .. - 

Honaker lime- 
stone - 

Watauga shale 


Shady lime- 
stone 

(Marble) 


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CD d 

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Murray slate. . 

Nebo quart- 
zite 

Nichols slate— 


Nantahala Quadrangle 

(Cherokee, Macon, Clay, 

and Swain Counties) 


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200 to 350 
150 to 500 


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1,200 to 1,500 

20 to 500 

1,400 to 1,800 


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(Sequence 
broken) 

Nottely quart- 
zite 


Andrews schist 
Murphy marble 


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Brasstown 
schist... 

Tusquitee 
quartzite 

Nantahala 
slate 


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Limestones and Makes of North Carolina 



29 



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Blacksburg 
schist 

Quartzite, con- 
glomerate 
and schist 


Granite, soap- 
stone, dunite 
and serpen- 
tine 


Roan gneiss 

Carolina 
gneiss, with 
limestone 
lentils 


o 

o 

00 






Brevard schist, 
with lime- 
stone lentils. 




Granite, soap- 
stone, dunite 
and serpen- 
tine 


Roan gneiss 
Carolina gneiss 
(no lime- 
stone) 


1,000+ 








(Sequence 
broken) 

Brevard schist 
(No limestone) 




Granite, soap- 
stone, dunite 
and serpen- 
tine 


Roan gneiss 

Carolina 
gneiss, with 
limestone 
lentils 


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Cochran or 
Great Smoky 
conglomer- 
ate 


Hiwassee slate, 
with lime- 
stone lentils. 


Snowbird for- 
mation 
(sequence 
broken) 


Granite, soap- 
stone, dunite 
and serpen- 
tine 


Roan gneiss 

Carolina 
gneiss, with 
limestone 
lentils 


o 
o 
o 

SO 

o 

-pi 

o 

o 

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o 
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Great Smoky 
conglomer- 
ate 


Hiwassee slate 
(No limestone) 


(Sequence 
broken) 


Granite, soap- 
stone, dunite 
and serpen- 
tine 


Roan gneiss 
Carolina gneiss 
(no lime- 
stone) 






1 

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: 

i 1 



30 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

The fact that masses of the Shady limestone and its approximate 
equivalent, the Murphy marble, are present in widely separated coun- 
ties, shows that they are the uneroded remnants of extensive forma- 
tions that were once continuous over a great part of the present moun- 
tain region. The other limestones were also doubtless once more exten- 
sive than their present metamorphosed remnants, but probably are not 
continuous. The most extensive limestone formations of the Appala- 
chian region include the Shady limestone, Knox dolomite, and several 
formations younger than the Athens shale, which probably once ex- 
tended over western North Carolina, but have been entirely removed 
by erosion. 

Although other facts of scientific interest may be deduced from the 
foregoing table there is little of practical importance to be gained from 
it, so far as economic geology of limestones is concerned. In some re- 
gions differences in chemical composition of the limestones of different 
ages may render distinction of their respective ages of considerable im- 
portance. In North Carolina, however, high calcium and high mag- 
nesium beds, the latter predominating, are present in each limestone 
formation, and as the structure in each area is complicated and more 
or less obscure, it is not safe to predict the kind of limestone that will 
be found at any locality. Each quarry site requires careful prospecting. 
Tor this reason the limestones will be considered in geographic rather 
than geologic order. 

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION 
Cherokee, Clay, Macon, and Swain Counties 

General Description of the Murphy Marbles and Adjacent Rocks 

The most extensive of the limestone and marble formations in the 
state is that designated the Murphy marble (PL II), which forms a 
narrow band extending northeastward almost continuously from Geor- 
gia along the valleys of JSTottely and Valley rivers for nearly the entire 
length of Cherokee County. After an interruption of a few miles it 
reappears along the valley of ISTantahala River in Swain County from 
ISTantahala to Hewitts, where it pinches out. It is named from Mur- 
phy, county seat of Cherokee County, which is partly situated along 
its most continuous area. It also forms a group of narrow areas in the 
vicinity of Brasstown and Peachtree, east of Murphy, in Clay County. 

The following description is given by Keith: 12 

Character — The formation consists entirely of marble, rather fine grained 
and wholly recrystallized from its original condition. The predominant color 
is white. A large portion of the marble is of a dark-gray or blue color and 



'-Keith, Arthur, U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas, Nantahala folio, No. 143, p. 5, 1907. 



BULLETIN 28, PLATE II 




MAP 

VWltfG DISTRIBUTION 

OF THE 

fURPHY MARBLE 

&OKEE AND SWAIN COUNTIES 
NORTH CAROLINA 



30 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

The fact that masses of the Shady limestone and its approximate 
equivalent, the Murphy marble, are present in widely separated coun- 
ties, shows that they are the uneroded remnants of extensive forma- 
tions that were once continuous over a great part of the present moun- 
tain region. The other limestones were also doubtless once more exten- 
sive than their present metamorphosed remnants, but probably are not 
continuous. The most extensive limestone formations of the Appala- 
chian region include the Shady limestone, Knox dolomite, and several 
formations younger than the Athens shale, which probably once ex- 
tended over western JSTorth Carolina, but have been entirely removed 
by erosion. 

Although other facts of scientific interest may be deduced from the 
foregoing table there is little of practical importance to be gained from 
it, so far as economic geology of limestones is concerned. In some re- 
gions differences in chemical composition of the limestones of different 
ages may render distinction of their respective ages of considerable im- 
portance. In JSTorth Carolina, however, high calcium and high mag- 
nesium beds, the latter predominating, are present in each limestone 
formation, and as the structure in each area is complicated and more 
or less obscure, it is not safe to predict the kind of limestone that will 
be found at any locality. Each quarry site requires careful prospecting. 
Tor this reason the limestones will be considered in geographic rather 
than geologic order. 

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION 

Cherokee, Clay, Macon, and Swain Counties 

General Description of the Murphy Marbles and Adjacent Rocks 

The most extensive of the limestone and marble formations in the 
state is that designated the Murphy marble (PL II), which forms a 
narrow band extending northeastward almost continuously from Geor- 
gia along the valleys of Nottely and Yalley rivers for nearly the entire 
length of Cherokee County. After an interruption of a few miles it 
reappears along the valley of Nantahala River in Swain County from 
ISTantahala to Hewitts, where it pinches out. It is named from Mur- 
phy, county seat of Cherokee County, which is partly situated along 
its most continuous area. It also forms a group of narrow areas in the 
vicinity of Brasstown and Peachtree, east of Murphy, in Clay County. 

The following description is given by Keith: 12 

Character — The formation consists entirely of marble, rather fine grained 
and wholly recrystallized from its original condition. The predominant color 
is white. A large portion of the marble is of a dark-gray or blue color and 



'"Keith, Arthur," U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas, Nantahala folio, No. 143, p. 5, 1907. 



N. 0. Qco1i><ri<->tl «»>' F'rmwmic .Survey 



BULLETIN 28, PLATE II 




u 



" 



* 



1 





Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 31 

many layers consist of banded or mottled blue and white. Some of the layers 
between Nantahala and Red Marble Gap have a beautiful rose-pink color. 
The amount of this is limited, however. Except these variations in color 
and small changes in the coarseness of the grain, the formation is very 
uniform in this region. The base of the marble is almost always covered in 
this region, and the precise character of its contact with the underlying rocks 
can be seen only near Nantahala River. There it passes downward into the 
Valleytown formation by interbedding with the slates of the latter. Upward 
it passes into the Andrews schist through several feet of interbedded marble 
and schist. This transition can best be seen at Marble Creek, at the western 
border of the quadrangle. * * * In various analyses of the marble its composi- 
tion varies from 58 to 93 per cent of carbonate of calcium and from 36 to 
3 per cent of carbonate of magnesium. Accordingly the original strata in- 
cluded both limestone and dolomite. 

Thickness — Such measurements of the formation as can be obtained place 
the thickness at nearly 500 feet. The best measurements are southwest of 
Tomotla, where the formation stands nearly on edge and so continues for a 
long distance toward the southwest. Between Marble and Valleytown the 
marble spreads out over large areas. This is caused in part by the flattening of 
the dips and in part by the extreme crumpling and repetition of the layers. 
Instances of both attitudes of the marble beds can be seen in various quarries 
and openings. Along Nantahala River the formation thins down to about 
150 feet. 

Alteration. — Originally the marble consisted mainly of massive layers of 
limestone and dolomite, with the latter more frequent in the lower portion 
of the formation. With its base were interbedded argillaceous shales and with 
its top calcareous shales. During the metamorphism of the formations the 
carbonates of lime and magnesia were recrystallized with no considerable 
change of form. The argillaceous materials were for the most part trans- 
formed into various micas and other silicates forming the schists. Still 
other silicates were developed through the mass of the rock, such as tremo- 
lite and garnet; their formation involved the addition of silica, to the mate- 
rials already in the rock. They are disseminated through the formation 
rather sparingly and also are concentrated into definite beds of the marble. 
The tremolite appears crystallized in radiating bunches, with no apparent 
relation to the schistosity of the adjoining rocks. It seems probable, there- 
fore, that it was of later formation than the other minerals. Tremolite also 
appears crystallized in the same manner in the talc bodies which are found 
in the marble. Garnet is of much less frequent occurrence than the tremolite 
and is found in only a few places in the lower parts of the formation. The 
same layers which contain the garnet also carry pyrite in small grains. This 
mineral is found in disseminated grains in other layers as well. 

In the upper layers of the formation, where the marble passes into the 
Andrews schist, many crystals of ottrelite are scattered through the beds 
of marble. This mineral is characteristic of the overlying schist. Besides 
the alternating beds of marble and schist near the contact, there is present 
nearly every gradation between the ottrelite-schist and the pure marble. The 
ottrelite crystals are arranged with their cleavage at right angles to the 
general schistosity of the rock wherever that is present. 



32 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

Other deposits ocurring in the marble are layers of talc, the hydrous sili- 
cate of magnesia, which are mined throughout their course in this state and 
in Georgia. These appear at frequent intervals near Nantahala and Valley 
rivers. In the southern areas of the formation, on Feachtree and Brasstown 
creeks, no talc deposits have thus far been discovered. The principal develop- 
ment is in the vicinity of Hewitts on Nantahala River. Near Marble they 
also become prominent and appear at frequent intervals toward the south- 
west, The talc occurs in the form of lenticular bodies embedded in the 
marble. They are from a few inches up to 6 or 8 feet in thickness and the 
largest are over 100 feet long. Few attain that size, however. They appear 
to be of a secondary nature and have been produced during the metamor- 
phism of the formations. Small bits and flakes of talc are found at many 
places, but they are too lenticular in shape and distinct from the marble. 
The lenses of talc are not confined to> any one situation in the marble, but 
appear at several distinct levels. In association with the talc deposits are 
often seen beds of calcareous sandstone. These have no definite relation to 
the talc, however, and are not always present. 

Owing to the highly soluble nature of the Murphy marble its course is 
always marked by valleys. Where the formation spreads out along the upper 
part of Valley River it has caused the series of broad valley 'bottoms which 
have given the river its name. Outcrops of the marble are scarce and are 
seldom found away from the sharp stream cuts or the steep slopes. In the 
bottom lands near Andrews and those along Feachtree Creek the marble may 
be found at almost any point by digging through the few feet of stream 
gravels which form the surface. As a consequence of this solubility it has 
no soils of its own, and those which overlie its areas consist almost entirely 
of materials washed in from other formations. The rock itself when found 
is not affected to any depth by the weather. 

The Valleytown formation, which underlies the marble, consists 
mainly of mica-schist and fine-banded gneiss, but in the Nantahala 
valley these pass into mica-slate and feldspathic sandstone. The An- 
drews schist, which overlies the marble, is a thin-bedded calcareous rock 
spangled by crystals of the black micaceous mineral ottrelite whose 
flakes lie at right angles to the foliation. The Andrews schist, which 
has largely weathered to soil, forms small terraces 10 to 30 feet in 
height above the marble areas. This formation is absent in Nantahala 
valley and the Nottely quartzite, which overlies it, is there found 
forming the upper contact of the marble for part of its extent. Else- 
where a profound fault has brought up the Nantahala slate to form the 
southeast boundary of the marble. These structural relations are shown 
in (PI. II). 

Adaptability 

Monumental and Building Stone. — The adaptability of the stone for 
use as marble has been discussed by Keith 13 and by Watson and 



13 0p. cit. p. 7. 



-- 



Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 33 

Laney 14 , to whose reports the reader is referred for detailed discus- 
sion. Their general comments may be summarized as follows : 

Marble has two principal colors, white and blue. The blue stone is 
for the most part mottled or banded with white. What is probably the 
largest body of white marble is in the bottom lands of Valley River 
below Andrews. An exceptional color and one of great beauty is the rose 
pink exposed just north of Topton (Red Gap). The grain of the marble 
is for the most part uniform and medium to fine and does not appear to 
be changed by transition from one color band to another. Thin layers 
of micaceous minerals where present cause a slight schistosity, but do 
not seriously affect the strength or quarrying of the rock. Near both 
its contacts the marble is very impure, containing tremolite, talc, and 
in some places considerable quartz. Away from the contact it is very 
free from most impurities, although it does contain more or less pyrite. 

The objectionable feature to the marble as a whole is the abundance 
of joints, or fractures. According to Laney 15 there are everywhere 
two systems of joints that trend 1ST. 20° — 35° E. and K 30°— 70°W. 
respectively, and in which the joints are from one inch to a few feet 
apart. Besides these two systems there is in most places a third and in 
some a fourth system of subordinate joints. 

The thickness of soil overburden in general is from 4 to 15 feet. 

Although several quarries have been opened in this marble area, 
only one has been continuously operated. The main features of some 
of these quarries will be considered on pages 36-43. 

Other Uses. — The presence of both high calcium and high magnesium 
stone, as shown is analyses JSTos. 1 to 15 on page 149, implies that ma- 
terial is available for most or all of the industries requiring lime in any 
form, and the fact that only small quantities of stone have been shipped 
for others uses than marble is largely due to remoteness of the marble 
area from industrial centers and sources of fuel supply. Of the 15 
analyses, ISTos. 1 and 15 represent high calcium rock low enough in silica 
to make excellent flux. There is little doubt that much of the waste rock 
at the Regal quarry is also excellent for this use. Nos. 6, 7, 11 and 12 
represent high magnesium stone low enough in silica to be used as flux. 
The fact that only 6 of 15 analyses show silica within the requirement 
(2 per cent) signifies the necessity of care in the selection of stone for 
flux. 



14 Watson, T. L. and Laney, F. B., Building and ornamental stones of North Carolina: 
North Carolina Geological Survey Bull. 2, pp. 192-200, 1906. 
15 Op. cit. p. 193. 



34 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

The qualities of stone from different parts of the area for road build- 
ing are shown in the first six tests recorded on page 149. Three of these 
are somewhat below the average for the limestones of the State. Dolo- 
mite from Hewitts shows the best results as regards per cent and co- 
efficient of wear, and has a relatively high cementing value, though its 
hardness and toughness are comparatively low. 

Five of the 15 analyses on page 149 show a magnesia content low 
enough to meet the requirements for Portland cement. Further thorough 
prospecting is necessary, however, to prove the presence of high calcium 
rock free from interbedded dolomite and in sufficient readily available 
quantity to furnish a continuous supply to a modern cement plant. 

All the analyses except No. 14 show that the stone in general is of 
suitable chemical composition for the manufacture of lime for building 
purposes, but attempts to burn lime have shown that some of the rock, 
notably a high calcium stone at Hewitts, discolored during burning. 
The burned lime would doubtless be suitable for several chemical uses, 
but for certain uses the percentage of "insoluble," or of silica, alumina, 
and iron oxides, and of magnesia are with few exceptions too high. 

Local Descriptions 

Southwest of Muephy 

Southwestward from Murphy the marble forms a narrow band along 
JSTottely River, outcropping at very few places, and for the most part 
concealed beneath the narrow low flats bordering the river, where drain- 
age conditions are prohibitive for the opening of quarries. Perhaps the 
most prominent exposure is at the Kinsey quarry, close by Kinsey sta- 
tion on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. This quarry was opened 
in 1901 and was described by Laney 16 in 1906, as an excavation about 
100 feet by 80 feet in area and about 50 feet deep, partly filled with 
water. This description still applies, as little or no quarrying has been 
done since that date, although some stone, presumably the blocks of dis- 
carded marble mentioned by Laney have been sold for furnace flux. 

The marble here has the usual steep southeastward dip, and the 
quarrying followed a bed, now concealed beneath water, as far as the 
railroad's right of way. The footwall is strongly slickensided. The 
stone was described by Laney as rather coarsely crystalline and mostly 
of dark blue gray color more or less mottled or streaked with white, 
although much of it was light gray and a few blocks showed a pinkish 
tinge. The general character of the stone was so similar to that at 
Regal, northeast of Murphy, that no samples were taken for analyses. 

18 Watson, T. L. and Laney, F. B., op. cit. pp. 194-195. 



Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 35 

Joints were so numerous that it was impossible to get enough solid 
stone to warrant operating the quarry for marble. The overburden 
was 8 to 12 feet thick. The character and structure of the stone were 
apparently satisfactory for production of flux and crushed stone, al- 
though the silica or insoluble content (analyses 2, 3 and 4, page 149), 
was a little high, but the quantity above water level was not sufficient to 
warrant much outlay of capital for quarry equipment. 

Just south of Kinsey station on the southeast side of the track is 
another old quarry, in which only two small exposures remain uncon- 
cealed by the washing down of red clay soil from the overburden. 
These exposures are of fine grained but well crystallized dolomite of 
pure white color except for occasional short faint dark colored lines, 
evidently due to finely divided graphite. A qualitative analysis shows 
the presence of a small amount of iron carbonate but an almost entire 
absence of insoluble matter. Those exposures are very well situated as 
regards transportation, but considerable development work is necessary 
to re-expose the quarry face and determine the thickness of workable 
stone and of overburden in the surrounding heavily wooded area. The 
exposures are too much jointed to give promise as marble, but the stone 
is well adapted for chemical uses which require high magnesium stone 
free from silica. 

About one-half mile southwest of Kinsey marble of rather fine grain 
and dirty white color is exposed in a small railroad cut but contains so 
much tremolite, talc, and quartz in short veinlets and irregular patches, 
and pyrite in disseminated grains, that it is not adapted for any use 
except perhaps inferior crushed stone, and rip rap, and it is too far from 
any market to be considered for these. 

An abandoned quarry opened in 1901 or 1902 at 'Culberson near the 
Georgia boundary was described by Laney. 17 The quarry, close by a 
small stream was full of water and no stone could be seen in place. Soil 
overburden was at least 4 to 7 feet thick. Piles of marble blocks, ren- 
dered worthless by abundant intersecting joints, lay around the opening 
and showed the stone to be of rather uniform medium grain and of dark 
to light streaked or mottled bluish gray. This description, like those of 
the openings at Kinsey, suggest that the stone is suitable for flux and 
other chemical uses, provided it can be economically quarried ; but there 
is practically no likelihood of finding a favorable quarry site between 
Kinsey and the Georgia boundary. An analysis of the rock is given in 
column 1, page 149. 

About one-half way between Kinsey and Murphy lottery River bends 
northward and leaves the marble band, which extends northeastward 



i7 0p. cit. p. 193-194. 






36 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

along a minor valley and crosses a low divide 300 feet above the level 
of the river. It is possible that self-draining 1 openings could be made in 
this part of the marble formation, but the stone is so thoroughly con- 
cealed, even in this high ground, that no idea of the amount of stripping 
and character of the stone can be learned without development work. 

Northeast of Murphy 

Regal Marble Co. — From Murphy northeastward nearly to Tomotla 
the marble continues as a straight narrow band, almost entirely conceal- 
ed beneath soil, but containing the only active marble quarry in the 
State. This is the quarry of the Regal Marble 'Company, at Regal 
Station, three and one-half miles northeast of Murphy. The quarry was 
described by Laney 18 in 1906, when it was operated by the National 
Marble Company. 

This quarry was opened in 1902 and when visited by Laney had hard- 
ly passed the exploratory stage. A small production was made in 1903 
and 1904, but none in the following 3 years. In 1907 the quarry was 
taken over by the Casparis Marble Co., which produced steadily until 
1913, when it was succeeded by the Regal Marble Co., which has pro- 
duced steadily up to the present time. 

In 1918 the total quarried area was more than 250 feet long and 
about 75 feet wide. The northern two-thirds of the area had been 
abandoned and filled with water to within 25 feet of the surface. Pump- 
ing, quarrying, and milling machinery were operated by steam power. 
The quarry equipment included 4 derricks, 4 chennelers, and 2 gadders ; 
the mill equipment 7 gangue saws. 

According to Laney the marbje band here has a width of about 300 
yards, the beds striking 1ST 45° E and dipping about 50° SE. The stone 
seen in the quarry, mill, and dump is prevailingly dark bluish gray, 
in part more or less streaked or mottled with white, and light gray to 
white. It is on the whole rather coarse grained and has on close examina- 
tion a rather distinct schistose structure. 

The dark bluish gray variety is seen on close inspection to consist of 
blending bands of dark and medium shade, the former of coarser grain 
and predominating to such an extent that small blocks of uniform dark 
shade may be obtained. Small rod-shaped crystals of tremolite up to 
one-quarter of an inch in length and small grains of pyrite are very 
thinly scattered. In thin section the schistose structure is more pro- 
nounced, and one 'section showed a few short sealed fractures in two 
systems at 30° and 60° respectively with the plane schistosity. Mem- 
bers of a single fracture system were two or more millimeters apart. 



18 Watson, T. L., and Laney, F. B., op. cit. p. 195. 



Limestones and Makes of North Carolina 37 

The prominent elongate calcite grains are mostly one millimeter or less 
in length, though a few attain lengths of two millimeters, and practi- 
cally all grains show multiple twinning in one or two directions. The 
pyrite grains seen in thin section were one-half millimeter in diameter 
and free from oxidation. The dark coloring matter was collected as an 
insoluble residue and proved to he graphite. It mostly forms wavy 
rows of specks along the boundaries between calcite grains, but a few 
calcite grains are somewhat impregnated with it. Examination of the 
insoluble residue of a dark gray specimen found no other impurity be- 
sides graphite, and a qualitative test showed the soluble part of the rock 
to be free from iron. 

A prominently banded specimen proved to consist of light gray layers 
one-half to three-quarters inch thick, separated by a one-inch thickness 
of alternating white and dark gray strips, each one-sixteenth to one- 
quarter inch thick. Many such variations in detail may be found be- 
tween the dark variety described in the last paragraph and the light 
gray. Occasional small crystals of amphibole, presumably tremolite 
coated with graphite, are present in the dark layers, and one green rod- 
shaped crystal of actinolite, nearly an inch long, was found in a white 
layer. This was the largest crystal of any impurity noted in the salable 
stock or the waste pile, although impurities in greater quantity are 
present along both margins of the deposit. In a thin section of the 
banded variety the marked schistose structure is confined to the dark, 
graphitic layers, in which few calcite grains exceed a length of one-quar- 
ter millimeter. The light gray layers are composed of larger irregular 
but for the most part rounded grains, the more prominent averaging 
one millimeter in diameter. The larger grains inclose, or partly inclose, 
several small round grains, most of them less than one-quarter milli- 
meter in diameter, which are probably dolomite. Both the large and 
small grains show close multiple twinning. 

The light gray to white variety conforms on the whole to the descrip- 
tion of the light gray layers just given. Examination of the very small 
insoluble residue of nearly pure white specimen showed a few minute 
grains of quartz and talc, but a qualitative test of the soluble portion 
shows no iron, though considerable magnesia. The light gray stone seen 
by Laney was on the whole fine grained and schistose, but this variety 
was not conspicuous in 1918. The fine grained stone was said to be 
injured to a considerable extent by shearing strains which developed 
planes of weakness along the schistosity and fractures in transverse direc- 
tions, rendering the stone worthless for marble. Laney's statement that 
these defects are characteristic of the fine grained light colored stone 
of the whole marble area is confirmed by the writer who adds that the 



38 



Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 



fine grained light colored stone so far as tested is very dolomitic. The 
tendency of dolomite to fracture while calcite marble recrystallizes 
without injury is a characteristic of other marble regions as well. 

A conspicuous feature, shown by several blocks both in the stock piles 
and the dumps, is the presence of short contorted veins of white calcite 
lying transverse to the bed planes of the marble. The simpler contor- 
tions are S-shaped and the more complex are irregular or distorted repe- 
titions of the simpler forms, (see fig. 1). These veins were evidently 
formed prior to the intense folding and compression of the formation 
and their present contorted shapes are attributed to drag folding; that 




Graphite layers 
and veinlets 



Figure 1. — Alternating beds of (a) relatively coarse grained calcitic and (b) relatively fine 
grained dolomitic marble ; the former free from evidence of deformation other than gneissic 
structure and a few short graphitic veinlets branching from graphitic bed planes ; the latter 
cut by (1) short white veinlets of calcite, (2) short cracks produced by compression accom- 
panied by only a little shearing, and (3) F-shaped fractures produced mainly by shearing. 

Dump of Regal Marble Co., Regal, N. C. 



is the sliding of one layer of marble over another accompanied by re- 
crystallization of both the marble and the vein. The process was de- 
cidedly complicated in detail, some thin layers moving relatively in one 
direction while layers on both sides of them moved in the opposite 
direction. So far as observed, these contorted veins are more numerous 
in the dark colored marble, which also is the more schistose. It is there- 
fore reasonable to infer that the greater tendency of the dark beds to 
slide over one another was due to the relative abundance of graphite 
in them. Some of these may add to and others detract from the appear- 
ance of the stone, but, owing to the thorough recrystallization during 
the process of deformation, do not detract from its strength or dura- 
bility. 

The same process served to ruin stone where beds of calcite marble 
alternated with finer grained beds containing considerable dolomite, as 
the dolomitic beds recrystallized less readily and were more readily 
fractured. On the dump one block which contained two dolomitic layers 
in which the prominent dolomite grains were mostly less than one-fifth 
of a millimeter in diameter, showed three stages of deformation in the 



Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 



39 



dolomitic layers, (fig. 2) : first, a series of short cracks oblique to the 
bedding and filled with, white calcite veinlets which may have formed 
at the same time as the contorted veins described in the preceding para- 
graph; second, short somewhat curved cracks unfilled and nearly nor- 
mal to the sides of the bed, evidently formed by a compressive stress 
which tended to thin and spread individual layers, the calcitic layers 
recrystallizing and developing a gneissic structure while the dolomitic 
layers yielded to some extent by recrystallizing and to some extent by 
fracturing ; third, a shearing stress, probably following as a continuation 
of the compressive stress, that caused the beds to slide or flow over one 




Figure 2. — Diagramatic sketch showing the more prominent contorted white calcite veins in 
dark gray banded marble. Dump of Regal Marble Co., Regal, N. C. 



another, the calcitic beds yielding as before by recyrstallization and the 
dolomitic beds by oblique /-shaped fractures which cut obliquely across 
the veinlets and fractures of the first and second stages and end at or 
just beyond the margins of the calcitic beds. 

Jointing or fracturing on a large scale is prominent and closely spaced. 
In the openings studied by Laney 19 there were three distinct sets of 
joints, the more prominent trending ^40° W and "N 20° E. Joints in 
these sets ranged from a few inches to a few feet apart, usually two to 
six feet. The third set was subordinate but caused considerable waste 
in quarrying. In the present opening joints are less conspicuous. 
There are few solution channels or mud seams and small caves, and 
these are mostly confined to the upper four or five channel levels, which 
aggregate about 20 feet in thickness, though one small cave is exposed 
at the bottom of the pit, 20 feet lower. The walls of these upper levels 
show many short, irregular fractures branching from the prominent 
joints, which extend below the bottom of the quarry. Some of the prom- 
inent joints dip about parallel to the beds (50°-60° SE) and others 

,f '0p. cit. p. 196. 



40 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

about 40° SE, while another set dips about 50° WW. The strikes of 
these joints could not be seen, but doubtless conform to the directions 
noted by Laney. Besides these comparatively straight joints, there are 
a few irregular fractures ranging from 1 or 2 to 50 feet or more in 
length. Some of these dip northeastward, others westward at low angles, 
and still others are nearly horizontal. Water seeps along joints of all 
these systems, and water level in the abandoned pits is about 20 feet 
below the surface. 

The different periods of deformation to which the marble has been 
subjected may be summarized as follows: (1) fracturing and the filling 
of fractures with calcite veins previous to the period of metamorphism ; 
(2) folding or tilting and metamorphism, including recrystallization, 
with development of schistose structure and differential sliding or flow- 
ing of beds over one another, contorting the veins and producing local 
compression and shear fractures in the more dolomitic beds; (3') over- 
thrust faulting, which was virtually a late stage of the folding period and 
was accompanied by accessory jointing in different directions; (4) one 
or more later periods of jointing; (5) minor fractures near the surface 
•due to temperature changes; (6) enlargement of joints and minor frac- 
tures into erosion channels or mud seams by circulating water. The 
local evidence is insufficient for the exact correlation of different systems 
of joints with the third and fourth periods. The positions of all the 
joints noted are such that they could be tenatively correlated as frac- 
tures accessory to the great overthrusts of the region, but later earth 
movements may well have been responsible for some of them. 

The foregoing description is given in detail to serve as an example 
of the difficulties that must be contended with in the opening of quarries 
in this marble belt. Although joints at the Regal quarry are so close 
as to obstruct seriously the extraction of blocks large enough for mono- 
lithic columns, blocks large enough for sawing into sizes suitable for 
^ordinary monumental work are readily obtained; but from 65 to 70 
]per cent of the stone removed is waste, owing principally to fracturing 
and in minor part to contorted veinlets. The stock sold is mostly in 
small sizes. Before the war it paid to work up all small pieces that 
could sell at slightly more than cost, but owing to the present high cost 
of operation much of the smallest sized stock cannot be handled. The 
output is shipped for monumental use to various states, a considerable 
quantity having gone to California. 

About 75,000 tons of waste rock were on the dump in 1918. Some 
waste had been sold to the Tennessee Copper Mining Company, pre- 
sumably for flux, but present high freight rates have destroyed this 
market. General freedom from silica and iron (the pyrite present is prac- 



Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 41 

tically negligible) adapts the stone, either crude or burned, for certain 
industrial and chemical uses in which small to moderate quantities of 
magnesia are not objectionable. The dark gray variety appears on the 
whole to have only a very small content of magnesia, whereas the light 
gray variety, especially if fine grained, may be rather high in magnesia. 
The dark stone will yield burned lime suitable for building, agriculture, 
and many chemical uses, as well as the manufacture or refining of sugar, 
paper (soda process), tanning, and other calling for a very pure high 
calcium lime; the unburned stone is suitable for flux, crushed stone, 
pulverized stone for agriculture, and other uses in which the dark color 
is not objectionable. The light gray stone should also yield good burned 
lime for building, agriculture, and certain chemical and industrial uses. 

Tomotl a- Andrews Area. — From Tomotla northeastward to Andrews 
and Valleytown the marble belt is considerably wider than to the south- 
west, and from Marble northeastward it averages about three-quarters 
of a mile in width. Its area is marked by a broad valley only a few feet 
above drainage level and the stone is beneath 5 to 20 feet of soil and any 
quarrying would involve considerable pumping and the piling up rather 
than dumping of waste. Small outcrops principally in stream beds that 
cross the area and stone from prospects near Tomotla and Marble sta- 
tions are similar in color, texture, and occurrence to the varieties at 
Regal. 20 The only chemical analyses available (Nos. 6-7, page 149) 
are of high magnesium or dolomitic rock, from the J. T. Hays property 
near Tomotla and the C. 1ST. Hickerson place, 1% miles west of Andrews; 
but there is little doubt that high calcium rock is also present. The dip of 
the marble near Marble station is about 40° SE, and its greater width 
is due to folding and perhaps faulting which cannot be adequately 
studied from the few data available. 

The largest exposure in the whole area, a ledge 30 feet long, 20 feet 
wide, and rising 5 feet above the surrounding soil is found at the eastern 
edge of Andrews on the bank of the Valley River. It is described in 
detail by Laney. 21 The stone here is considerably coarser grained and 
less schistose than at any of the places to the southwest. The colors are 
light to dark bluish-gray, uniform in some places and mottled or streaked 
in others. The microscopic features are similar to those of the stone at 
Regal, although schistosity is less prominent. Jointing, grouped in 
two systems, "N. 20° E. and N". 70° W. is much less abundant than at 
places previously mentioned. Other outcrops in the vicinity of Andrews 
and northeastward to where the marble pinches out 'are small and much 
fractured. 



^Watson, T. L., and Laney, F. B., op. cit. p. 197. 
21 Idem, pp. 197-198. 



42 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

Fine-grained dolomitic marble of white, bluish gray, and mottled 
colors has been prospected by several drill holes at the Hickerson place 
across the river from Andrews Station and has been reported to be suf- 
ficiently free from fractures to be considered for building purposes. 22 
It is represented by analysis ISTo. 12, page 149. Pratt 23 believes it prob- 
able that the stone represented by this analysis lies near a contact with a 
talc lens or with quartzite, since according to his observations all the 
marble in the proximity of such contacts is of a dolomitic character. 
Laney 24 describes the dark bluish gray rock as similar in every respect 
to the stone described in the preceding paragraph, and that several drill 
cores 5 to 7 feet long and entirely free from joints were obtained. 

All things considered, the broad valley area east and southwest of 
Andrews is a promising place for the development of a marble quarry. 
The colors of the stone, however, bring it into direct competition with 
the marbles of Regal and Tate, Ga., to the south, and of Maryland^ 
JSTew York, and Vermont to the north; and the abundance of jointing, so 
far as indicated, is a disadvantage when compared with the great scarc- 
ity of joints at Tate and their relative scarcity at other districts. The 
high freight rates said to prevail on the Murphy Branch of the Southern 
Railway may be a further disadvantage, but these are not so serious for 
marble as for lower priced products, such as flux, crushed stone, and 
burned lime. Pumping may also become a serious factor, but is success- 
fully cared for in similarly situated quarries, both of marble and of 
limestone in JSTorth Carolina and elsewhere. The only satisfactory 
method of locating a good quarry site in this area is systematic core drill- 
ing until an area of good appearing stone relatively free from joints 
and impurities can be found that is extensive and thick enough to justify 
the necessarily large outlay of capital for development work. 

Clay County 

Peachtree Creek Area, Clay County. — -The marble deposits represented 
on Plate II along Peachtree Creek and near Brasstown in western 
Clay County and the adjacent part of Cherokee County, is a part of the 
Murphy marble and conforms to it in general description. They have 
been reported to be sufficiently free from defects to warrant careful con- 
sideration by prospective marble producers, but Laney's examinations 
in the district show the rock wherever exposed to be too much fractured 
and too impure for marble quarrying. It presumably is adapted, where 



22 Lewis, J. V., Notes on building and ornamental stone: N. C. Geol. Survey, 1st biennial 
report, p. 99, 1893. 

23 Pratt, J. H., The mining industry in North Carolina during 1901: N. C. Geol. Survey 
TCoo-onvc Parer No. 6, p. 80, 1902. 

w Op. cit., p. 198. 



~— : 



Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 43 

impurities are few or absent, to the same range of chemical uses as the 
stone in the main area to the northwest but is too far from the railroad 
to be of present commercial importance. 

Macon County 

Red Marble Gap, Macon County. — Northeast of Andrews and Valley- 
town the Murphy marble is largely eliminated by an overthrust fault 
(PL II, section A-A). A small lens is exposed, however, near Red 
Marble Gap northeast of Topton. According to Merrill, 25 who obtained 
the information from Professor Kerr, former State Geologist : 

"The rock is a beautiful light flesh pink, sometimes blotched or striped 
with blue and yellow. The texture is fine and it acquires an excellent sur- 
face to polish. The stone is stated by Prof. Kerr to occur in the side of 
the mountain in cliffs 150 feet or more in, height, and blocks of almost any 
size can be obtained. It is quite different from anything now in the market 
and would doubtless find a ready sale if once introduced." 

Although this information has been available for several years, no 
development work has been recorded. 

Ellijay Creek, Macon County. — The only other known deposits of 
limestone or marble in Macon County are those mentioned in the follow- 
ing quoted paragraph. 26 

"In Macon County, near the headwaters of Ellijay Creek, near Cullowhee 
Gap, limestone has been burned to lime for building and fertilizing purposes 
on the property of John Bryson. About one-half mile west of the gap is the 
Haskett lime quarry that was worked quite extensively some years ago." 

Four partial analyses of samples collected by Professor Kerr in 1879 

or earlier are as follows : 27 

Calcium carbonate 72.01 62.51 71.56 66.86 

Magnesium Carbonate 7.82 9.76 9.18 3.78 



79.83 72.27 80.74 70.64 

It is not known to what geologic formation these deposits belong. It 
appears probable from their geographic position that they may be lenses 
in the Carolina gneiss or in the-Brevard schist. Nothing is known re- 
garding their chemical composition, and they are too remote from rail- 
road lines to be of commercial importance. 

Swain County 

North Carolina Talc and Mining Co., Swain County. — Farther north- 
eastward along the Murphy Branch marble forms a continuous area 
from a mile south of Natahala station to a point three-fourths of a mile 



25 Merrill, G-. P., Stones for building and decoration, p. 221, 1903. 
26 Watson, T. L., and Laney, F. B., op. cit., pp. 208-209. 

27 Annual report of the No; - th Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station for 1879: The 
Observer, Raleigh, N. C, 1879. 



44 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

northeast of Hewitts station. All of this area is now owned by the 
North Carolina Talc and Mining Co. This company has produced talc 
for several years and has shipped crushed stone and burned lime in 
nearly every year since 1912 ; but in 1918 the increased cost of operation, 
together with the shortage and poor quality of fuel and labor due to 
war conditions, prevented successful operation. Development work on 
marble prospects took place as early as 1902. In 1910 the present own- 
ers took out some splendid blocks near Hewitts station for exhibition 
at the Appalachian Exposition in Knoxville, Tenn., 28 but no further 
production has been reported. 

The marble in this area crops out on the west slope, well above the 
level of JNTatahala River, and quarries can be made self draining, a de- 
cided advantage compared with the quarries and prospects in Cherokee 
County. The stone, however, is likely to be more cut by mud seams 
and caves than that in the low flat areas. Water power also can be 
developed on a larger scale, and the fact that shipments of crushed stone 
and lime have been profitably made in normal times is evidence that 
freight rates, though high, are not prohibitive. (See Plates III and IV). 

The stone for the most part is different in color and texture from that 
to the southwest in Cherokee County. The principal colors, as stated 
by Laney, 29 are light gray to nearly black and cream white to pink, in 
some places uniform and in others in alternating bands and patches. 
Some of the pinkish rock has greenish streaks and is attractive in rough 
blocks but does not take a smooth or polished surface. The combina- 
tions of color are not usual among domestic marbles. Except at one or 
two places the weathered stone has so highly developed a schistose or 
p]aty structure that it breaks into thin plates or into narrow blocks re- 
sembling sticks of cord wood. These defects may disappear, however, 
with increasing distance below the surface where strains due to changes 
of temperature are less. 

The most promising locality in the area for marble quarrying is the 
prospects already developed, which lie about half a mile southwest of 
Hewitts station and 300 to 400 feet above the railroad. The platy 
structure here is distinct but less highly developed than elsewhere, and 
Laney has suggested that marketable slabs can be obtained by sawing 
blocks parallel to the schistosity. Two drill records furnished by Mr. 
E. R. Hewitt, president and treasurer of the company, and quoted by 
Laney 30 are repeated here. 



28 Pratt, J. H., and Berry, H. M., The mining industry in North Carolina In 1908, 1909, 
and 1910: N. C. Geol. & Econ. Survey, Economic Paper No. 23, p. 114, 1911. 
20 Watson, T. L., and Laney, F. B., op. cit., pp. 200-202. 
30 Idem, p. 201. 







N. C. Geological and Economic Survey 



Bull. 28, Plate III 




A. Hewitt Limestone Quarry, Hewitt, Swain County 







B. Outcrop of limestone, Hewitt, Swain County 



Limestones and Makes of North Carolina 45 

One hole at the prospect just mentioned showed : 

1. Bluish gray, mottled and banded with white 20 feet 

2. Purplish pink, color not uniform, more or less green inter- 
banded 12 feet 

3. Pink with more or less green, green increasing with depth.. 30 feet 

This hole penetrated only the upper part of the formation, which at 
this place is reported to be about 600 feet thick. 3 1 

A second hole drilled in a ledge of "black" magnesium marble near the 
north end of the company's tramway showed : 

1. Bluish gray. 20 or 30 feet 

2. Pink with some green streaks 8 or 10 feet 

3. Purplish pink, mottled with green 20 feet 

4. Cream white 7 or 10 feet 



A third hole bored for talc just north of Hewitts station passed 
through 250 feet of the marble at an angle of 35° to' the horizontal or 
about normal to the dip. Before the adjoining properties were purchased 
by the present company borings had been made at several points, 
from the railroad siding known as Talc Mountain on the north to the 
southwest end of the area, but no records of them were saved. 

Stone for crushing and lime burning has been quarried at three 
places connected by a tramway with the lime kiln and the crusher, both 
of which are along a railroad siding. The southern and smaller quarry, 
at the south end of the tramway, consists of medium to dark bluish gray 
high calcium stone, of uniform appearance as a whole but with fine black 
bedding lines conspicuous in places. The dip here is about 60° southeast- 
ward. The exposed rock contains several small caves with mud-stained 
or rust-stained walls. Some of the caves contain stalactites. The black 
lines are more conspicuous on exposed than on freshly broken surfaces. 
The stone is of medium to fine grain and in thin section presents a very 
marked schistose character, the more conspicuous grains averaging one- 
half millimeter or less in length and less than one-quarter millimeter 
in thickness. The black lines, here as elsewhere in the Murphy marble 
belt, are due to obscure microscopic wavy rows of minute particles of 
graphite. Small grains of pyrite averaging about one-fiftieth millimeter 
in diameter are thinly but evenly scattered. Quartz, constituting less 
than 1 per cent of the section, is also rather evenly scattered in grains 
with average diameter one-twenty-fifth millimeter, and a few grains of 
sericite and plagioclase are also present. Fluorite (calcium fluoride) 
though subordinate to quartz is conspicuous in the insoluble residue. 



^Written communication by Mr. F. R. Hewitt, May 12, 1919. 



46 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

Qualitative chemical tests confirm the microscopic evidence and also dis- 
close a small, but distinctly greater than ordinary content of iron in the 
soluble portion of the rock. 

Beds between the two quarries, both in areal position and strati- 
graphic relations, are exposed along the tramway. They contain many 
small pits where talc lenses have been worked. 

The larger quarry, at the lime kiln and just south of the station, has a 
face about 40 feet high beneath a soil overburden which varies from 1 or 
2 to 5 feet in thickness. The beds dip 35° SE. The upper half of 
the rock exposed consists of a bed about 20 feet thick of light bluish 
gray rather fine grained dolomite, mostly of even color, but with occa- 
sional thin bands or fine black lines and thinly scattered patches of white 
coarse grained dolomite. It is cut in places by many short sealed frac- 
tures, some of which when broken open are spotted by brown rust. The 
weathered surface is light brown, soft, and sandy. In thin section this 
rock is uneven grained, grains with average diameter of less than one- 
tenth millimeter being grouped around twinned grains whose diameters 
range up to one-half millimeter in diameter. Insoluble minerals are 
practically absent. Qualitative chemical test shows a small but dis- 
tinctly greater content of iron than in the stone at Regal. 

This bed is underlain by ten feet of light gray rock, fine grained with 
coarse grained patches and streaks much cut up by slickensided fractures 
lined with talc and by many short white dolomitic veinlets. Short 
brown stained streaks are also present, some of them bordering the 
white dolomite veinlets. Thin sections show the presence of several 
minute pyrite grains, and suggest that the brown streaks are due to oxi- 
dation of iron contained in the dolomite of the veinlets. The talc forms 
wavy lines in part accompanied by distinctly schistose dolomite and here 
and there offset or deflected by microscopic faults and contortions. 
Insoluble minerals other than talc are practically absent. Solution of 
this rock in rather strong hydrochloric acid leaves a residue of talc and 
the filtrate yields a considerable precipitate of iron hydrate, evidently 
derived in part from the brown streaks and greenish coloring matter of 
the talc, but mainly from the dolomite. Below this bed is dolomite simi- 
lar to the upper bed in appearance, but harder and more shattered and 
cut in places by talc seams. 

The stone in this quarry, while much too shattered to be considered 
for marble quarrying, has been shipped as crushed stone and burned to 
lime for use in the preparation of wood pulp (sulphite process) for 
paper making. The upper 20 feet are suited for flux, crushed and pul- 
verized stone, and for any chemical uses requiring high magnesian lime- 



N. C. Geological and Economic Survey 



Bull. 28, Plate IV 




A. Hewitt Limestone Quarry, Hewitt, Swain County 







§ 



9lggggMXsy: : 



Ifiiil 



mm 



IIP'' 



-mm 
m 




PI 



||iilil|f i: ;:* s ' ! ' ?: 



^ r:: ^:^,'^'-" v &^ 




B. First quarry opened. Blue limestone. 20 feet above railway track. — G. C. Buquo 

Lime Company, Hot Springs, N. C. 






' 



Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 47 

stone or lime low in silica and alumina but not free from iron. The 
middle ten-foot bed appears unsuited for lime burning because of its 
.structure and content of talc. Its impurity also bars it from chemical 
and metallurgical uses whose requirements are exacting. For crushing 
it may give moderate satisfaction, but lacks the uniformity and degree 
of hardness and toughness and the bonding surface possessed by the 
overlying bed for concrete or for road metal ; as pulverized stone it can 
serve the small neighboring markets, but is hardly pure enough to com- 
mand a wider market in competition with limestones and dolomites of 
higher grade. 

North of the station the limestone area is honeycombed with pits, 
trenches and short tunnels from which talc has been mined. The stone 
debris around these workings contains a considerable quantity of impuri- 
ties, including talc, tremolite, black micaceous minerals, quartz seams, 
rusty specks derived by oxidation of pyrite. Pure stone is also present 
but the difficulty of separating it from the impure stone is discouraging 
so far as cheap quarrying is concerned. 

Mr. Hewitt 32 states that the dolomite from the quarry at the lime 
kiln burns to an excellent grade of high magnesium lime, averaging about 
54 per cent calcium oxide and 42 per cent magnesium oxide. For three 
years it supplied the demand of the Champion Fibre Company at Can- 
ton, until owing to a change in. process high magnesium lime was no 
longer needed. He states that the high calcium rock burns to lime that 
contains 96 to 98 per cent calcium oxide but is likely to burn to various 
colors — some white, some red and sandy and some dark gray to black. 
He has found no satisfactory explanation of this discoloration. Al- 
though the coloring bars it from uses where a white color only is 
required, the lime has been sold by dealers to various points in the 
South. 

The discoloration of the high calcium rock during burning, however, 
is not objectionable to the stone's use in the manufacture of Portland 
cement. The company's property is well situated with respect to raw 
materials, water power, and railroad facilities, and is the most promising 
prospect in the state for a plant of this kind. It is necessary, however, 
to prove that high calcium rock exists in sufficiently large quantities 
free from interbedded layers of dolomite. The distance from markets 
and fuel supply has also been a drawback to the establishment of a 
Portland cement plant in this part of the state. 



32 Written communication. 



48 Limestones and Marls of JSTorth Carolina 

Madison County 

The limestones (including marbles) of Madison County belong to the 
following three formations named in order of geologic age ; small lenses 
in the Carolina gneiss, larger lenticular beds in the Hiwassee slate, and 
the Shady limestone. The Shady limestone in the vicinity of Hot 
Springs is the only one of more than local interest. 

Lenses in Carolina Gneiss. 

The Carolina gneiss covers an extensive area in Buncombe County but 
extends only six or seven miles northward into Madison County in the 
vicinity of French Broad River. It consists of interbedded light and 
dark gray gneisses and mica schists, and, particularly in Madison 
County, of thin layers of hornblende schist, which marks its transition 
into the closely associated Roan gneiss. The inclosed lenses of crystal- 
line limestone are found only in the. vicinity of Marshall (PI. V), 
and are described by Keith. 33 

Associated with the gneiss, but forming an unusual exception to it in 
character, is a group of marble beds. Two of these are found in Marshall 
and five are 2 miles west and northwest of Marshall, four of these lying in a 
nearly straight line southward from French Broad River. Outcrops of the 
marble are found only in or near the streams, on account of the soluble nature- 
of the rock. At first they seem to be different outcrops of a continuous bed, 
but it is doubtful if this is the case, because at a few intervening points the 
marble is plainly absent. It is probable, therefore, that the marble deposits 
are of lenticular shape. Considerable differences in thickness can be ob- 
served, even in the small exposures near the streams, but these may be due 
to the extreme folding that all of the rocks of the region have undergone. 
The maximum thickness observed was on Walnut Creek northwest of Mar- 
shall, where the outcropping beds are 60 feet thick, with a possibility of as 
much more concealed. About 200 feet farther north the entire section was 
occupied by gneisses. South of French Broad River the thicknesses observed 
range from 10 to 35 feet. The thicknesses shown in Marshall have about 
the same variations. 

The marble is fine grained and is usually white. It contains 84 per cent 
of carbonate of calcium, 2 per cent of carbonate of magnesium, and 13 per 
cent of silica, Many portions have a somewhat greenish color, due to tremo- 
lite, which forms many small prisms and stubby crystals. Other variations 
of color are due to small knots of epidote, tremolite, and calcite, and to lenses 
of fine quartz and hornblende. These seem to be in the nature of secondary 
segregations and are of frequent occurrence throughout all the marble beds. 
The most important variation in the marble is seen in the series of thin lenses 
and sheets of silica that it contains. These are seldom over 2 inches in 



^Keith, Arthur, U. S. Geol. Survey. Geological Atlas, Asheville folio (No. 116), p. 2, 1904. 



48 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

Madison County 

The limestones (including marbles) of Madison County belong to the 
following three formations named in order of geologic age; small lenses 
in the Carolina gneiss, larger lenticular beds in the Hiwassee slate, and 
the Shady limestone. The Shady limestone in the vicinity of Hot 
Springs is the only one of more than local interest. 

Lenses in Carolina Gneiss. 

The Carolina gneiss covers an extensive area in Buncombe County but 
extends only six or seven miles northward into Madison County in the 
vicinity of French Broad River. It consists of interbedded light and 
dark gray gneisses and mica schists, and, particularly in Madison 
County, of thin layers of hornblende schist, which marks its transition 
into the closely associated Roan gneiss. The inclosed lenses of crystal- 
line limestone are found only in the. vicinity of Marshall (PI. V), 
and are described by Keith. 33 

Associated with the gneiss, hut forming an unusual exception to it in 
character, is a group of marble beds. Two of these are found in Marshall 
and five are 2 miles west and northwest of Marshall, four of these lying in a 
nearly straight line southward from French Broad River. Outcrops of the 
marble are found only in or near the streams, on account of the soluble nature 
of the rock. At first they seem to be different outcrops of a continuous bed, 
but it is doubtful if this is the case, because at a few intervening points the 
marble is plainly absent. It is probable, therefore, that the marble deposits 
are of lenticular shape. Considerable differences in thickness can be ob- 
served, even in the small exposures near the streams, but these may be due 
to the extreme folding that all of the rocks of the region have undergone. 
The maximum thickness observed was on Walnut Creek northwest of Mar- 
shall, where the outcropping beds are 60 feet thick, with a possibility of as 
much more concealed. About 200 feet farther north the entire section was 
occupied by gneisses. South of French Broad River the thicknesses observed 
range from 10 to 35 feet. The thicknesses shown in Marshall have about, 
the same variations. 

The marble is fine grained and is usually white. It contains 84 per cent 
of carbonate of calcium, 2 per cent of carbonate of magnesium, and 13 per 
cent of silica. Many portions have a somewhat greenish color, due to tremo- 
lite, which forms many small prisms and stubby crystals. Other variations 
of color are due to small knots of epidote, tremolite, and calcite, and to lenses 
of fine quartz and hornblende. These seem to be in the nature of secondary 
segregations and are of frequent occurrence throughout all the marble beds. 
The most important variation in the marble is seen in the series of thin lenses 
and sheets of silica that it contains. These are seldom over 2 inches in 



^Keith, Arthur, U. S. Geol. Survey. Geological Atlas, Asheville folio (No. 116), p. 2, 1904. 



Ji. C. Geological and Economic Survey 



BULLETIN 28, PLATE V 




MAP SHOWING 

DISmiBUTIQN 



LIMESTONE 

IN 

MADISON COUNTY TV C. 

SCALE 



Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 49 

thickness and are composed of extremely fine-grained quartz. They appear to 
represent original sedimentary bands, replaced by silica, and have been ex- 
tremely contorted and folded, like the adjoining gneisses. The value of the 
marble for building stone is much injured by these various impurities. A few 
seams of mica-schist found in the marble contain the same minerals and are 
metamorphosed to the same degree as the adjoining Carolina gneiss. There 
is, therefore, little doubt that the marbles are of substantially the same age 
as the gneiss. The gneiss is cut by Cranberry granite at many points within 
a few feet of the marble, but the granite does not touch the marble at any 
point. The presence of these marble beds makes it probable that at least part 
of the Carolina gneiss is of sedimentary origin. 

A chemical analysis of one of these lenses is given in column 17, page 
150. Recasting into mineral components shows 74.70 per cent calcium 
carbonate (instead of 85 per cent quoted above) and 2.27 per cent mag- 
nesium carbonate. These are equivalent to 72 per cent calcite and 4.97 
per cent dolomite. There remains an excess of 5.54 per cent lime, most 
of which is accounted for by tremolite, hornblende, and epidote, though 
a small quantity may be present with the soda in small untwinned grains 
of plagioclase (lime-soda feldspar) not readily distinguishable from 
quartz under the microscope. The potash is probably present in incon- 
spicuous grains of orthoclase (potash feldspar) or sericite (a potash 
mica). The iron is mostly present in epidote. 

Although some of these lenses appear on the map to be well situated 
for quarrying, the description of the stone and the chemical analyses 
give little encouragement for development. Its high content of silica 
condemns it for lime burning, or pulverized limestone or other chemical 
uses of limestone, and renders it harder to work as marble than the well 
known marbles of the country which contain very little silica. The 
presence of tremolite and hornblende (silicates of magnesia and lime 
with more or less iron), epidote (silicate of lime, iron, and alumina), 
may supply a variegated appearence to parts of the stone. The tremo- 
lite particularly, however, is likely to weather out on prolonged exposure, 
leaving a pitted surface, as are the streaks of mica schist. 

Lenticular Beds in Hiwassee Slate. 

The rocks in this formation occupy two large irregular areas north- 
northeast of Hot Springs and a third area west of Hot Springs and 
mostly across the Tennessee boundary (see PL V). The name of the for- 
mation is derived from Hiwassee River in Polk County, Tenn. The for- 
mation consists almost entirely of bluish gray or bluish black slate 
which weathers to greenish, yellowish gray, and yellow. In the areas 



50 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

north-northeast of Hot Springs many of the beds are somewhat sandy. 
All three areas are characterized by a series of interstratified lenticular 
limestone beds. According to Keith. 34 

The largest single body mentioned by Keith 35 is that on Little Laurel 
Creek just south of Allen Stand, where the thickness is over 100 feet and 
the length over 4 miles. He also states that the limestone bodies are 
all more or less siliceous, but are sufficiently pure to furnish material 
for local needs. 

Shady Limestone. 

There are two parallel areas of this formation in the vicinity of Hot 
Springs in North Carolina and others to the northwest in Tennessee. It 
is named for its occurrence in Shady Valley, Johnstown County, Tenn. 
The following paragraph is an abstract of a general description by 
Keith. 36 

The formation consists almost entirely of fine grained limestone and 
dolomite of various kinds, more or less crystalline, and near Hot Springs 
is nearly 1,000 feet thick. The prevailing colors of the fresh rock are 
bluish gray or gray and are likely to weather dull gray or black. Some 
layers are mottled gray, blue, or white, and in many places are seamed 
with calcite. Southeast of Meadow Creek Mountain, the easternmost 
area in Tennessee, contains at its base, a considerable thickness of white 
magnesian (dolomitic) limestone or marble beds, but these are less 
prominent around Hot Springs. On these layers the black surfaces of 
weathered outcrops are most noticeable. Thin seams of blue and gray 
shale are present in a few parts of the formation, and a few beds of red 
shale in its upper layers make a transition into the overlying Watauga 
shale. Siliceous impurities in the form of sand grains are found in a 
few beds of the limestone, and chert is somewhat more common. This 
mineral usually forms small round nodules with gray surfaces and con- 
centric gray and black bands inside. Another variety has the structure 
of chalcedony and occurs in lumps a foot or more in diameter. Over 
most of these areas the superficial part of the rock has been dissolved 



31 Op. cit. p. 5. 

(The limestone varies considerably within short distances. That most commonly found is 
a blue or dove-colored limestone containing many rounded grains of quartz sand. Beds of 
this kind are very prominent immediately east of Allen Stand. Associated with these, * * * are 
considerable thi'c'knesses of blue or gray oolitic limestone. The greatest, thickness of the 
calcareous beds in this vicinity is about 300 feet. In places the siliceous material is so prom- 
inent that the rock becomes a calcareous conglomerate containing pebbles of quartz and feldspar. 
This phase is seen around Allen Stand, but is very local and passes within short distances 
into the more usual kind. The same variety appears 3 miles west of Deep Gap and again on 
Paint Creek about 3 miles above its mouth. Occasionally beds of limestone conglomerate are 
found especially north of Round Mountain (west of the Tennessee boundary). The pebbles 
in the conglomerate comprise the varieties of limestone which are seen in solid layers, and 
appear to have been derived from the breaking up of the layers nearly in position. This in- 
dicates that the deposit was formed in shallow water, where erosion could affect the newly 
formed beds.) 

^Op. cit. p. 10. 

30 Op. cit. pp. 6 and 7. 



Limestones and Makls of North Carolina 51 

by weathering processes, leaving a dark red clay which contains many 
lumps of chert. An exception to this rule is the high bluff of vertically 
dipping beds exposed along the French Broad River and close to the 
Southern Railway, a mile northwest of Hot Springs. The only other 
considerable exposure is to the west at Shut-in Creek, 2 miles from the 
railroad. 

Structure. — The two areas of the Shady limestone near Hot Springs, 
as shown in PI. Y, sec. A-B, form the nearly vertical limbs of 
an inverted arch or syncline, the north side of the northern limb as well 
as both ends of both limbs being cut off by a curving fault of unusual 
character. (PL V, Madison Co. map), which is described as follows 
by Keith : 

The great fault which passes just north of Hot Springs is one of the most 
unusual in the Appalachians. Its outcrop forms a nearly complete oval and 
its planes, if extended upward, would almost unite in a dome. Starting in an 
overturned fold southeast of Stackhouse, its plane dips successively toward 
all points of the compass and dies away in another fold parallel to and 2 
miles northwest of its starting place. In its production are exhibited com- 
pression and shortening, not only in the usual northwest-southeast direction 
but in all others. The area inclosed by the fault plane thus represents a 
downthrown mass upon which the adjoining rocks were piled high from all 
sides. The plane cuts abruptly across the edges of the strata at many points, 
particularly where the mass of Max Patch granite is thrust forward upon 
them, and the usual connection of anticlinical fold and fault is not obvious 
here. * * * The dip of the plane varies from nearly flat at the foot of Bluff 
Mountain up to 50° or 60° east of Hot Springs. The evidence needed for 
measuring its maximum throw is not sufficient. It has, however, a displace' 
ment of at least three miles. 

The north-south fault which passes 2 miles east of Stackhouse is similar to 
the foregoing fault in all its features except that its plane is not so curved 
This, too, gives evidence of a considerable shortening of the earth's crust in 
an east-west direction. To account for the features which faults of this kind 
exhibit, they must be considered as planes of shearing that pass through the 
granites and sedimentary rocks and are little influenced by the attitudes of 
the stratification planes. In this respect they differ widely from the prevailing 
Appalachian faults, which lie for the most part parallel to the stratification. 

The Shady limestone in the vicinity of Hot Springs occupies two 
elongate areas of east-west trend. The southern, and by far the more 
important, extends from a little east of French Broad River westward 
beneath the town of Hot Springs, and along the mountain slope for 5 
miles. Its width is about one mile. About a mile northwest of Hot 
Springs station it forms two prominent bluffs along the railroad which 
offer by far the best site for limestone quarrying in the district if not in 
the whole state. Both bluffs are on the property of the G. C. Buquo 



* • ♦ , o « • * • 1 • * ■ ' • • • • . • • 1 



* • • **. » * i ,»•••• •;« 



52 Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 

Lime Company, whose quarry is in the northern bluff. Westward from 
these bluffs the rock is almost entirely concealed beneath the brush and 
timber covered slopes. Only cobbles and small boulders of quartzite and 
schist, evidently derived from the Hesse and JSTebo quartzites which form 
the higher slopes and summits just south of the limestone, appear on the 
surface and no adequate idea of the character of the limestone can be 
determined over most of its area. Cuts along the road just west of and 
above the bluffs show an overburden of 5 to 10 or more feet of red clayey 
soil. The only considerable exposure besides the two bluffs mentioned 
above is along Shut-in Creek, 2 miles west of Hot Springs. Other 
quarry sites favorable so far as drainage is concerned may be found 
where creeks cross the area in its western half, but the amount of strip- 
ping necessary is considerable, and distance from a railroad of 2 miles or 
more is unfavorable. 

The northern area is about 2 miles farther north, and mostly underlies 
low ground in which the opening of quarries would involve considerable 
stripping and pumping, especially in parts of the area nearest the rail- 
road. The parts underlying higher ground are not favorably enough 
situated to offer much inducement for development. 

G. C. Buquo Lime Company. — The quarry of the G. C. Buquo Lime 
Company is in the northern of the two bluffs, about a mile northwest of 
Hot Springs station, and is connected with the railroad by a siding. 
The company's property covers 160 acres, including both bluffs, or all 
the most favorably situated quarry sites. The quantity of stone readily 
available is several million tons and at the present capacity of the grind- 
ing plant (20 tons an hour) is sufficient to last for about 200 years or 
more. The grinding plant is situated just north of the quarry with 
which it is connected by a short inclined track on which cars are oper- 
ated by cable. The output is entirely pulverized limestone, 100 per cent 
of which passes through a 10-mesh, 85 per cent through a 50-mesh, and 
50 per cent through a 100-mesh screen. See Plates IY and VI. 

The quarry face when seen (August 1918) was about 100 feet long, 
and 50 fet high, and was worked on two benches. The stone blasted 
from the face was broken by sledges to proper size for the crusher. The 
beds strike westward at about right angles to the quarry face and dip 
about 75° northward. Individual beds vary from less than one foot to 
three feet in thickness and some are separated by films of reddish shale. 
Fractures are rather few 'and the prevailing absence of persistent hori- 
zontal fractures or joints detracts from the ease of quarrying, as it is 
difficult to maintain quarry benches in vertical beds without them. 



1 



1 
' ' > ' ■ I 

; '. ■ ■ 




< 
i i , 



'N. C. Geological and Economic Survey 



Bull. 28, Plate VI 




A. First quarry opened of Blue limestone at level of Southern Railway Tracks. — G. C. Buquo 

Lime Co., Hot Springs, N. C. 




B. View of rear of plant of G. C. Buquo Lime Co., Hot Springs, N. C. 



Limestones and Marls of North Carolina 53 

The stone exposed in the quarry face is mostly dark blue fine grained 
dolomite, some beds of which are crisscrossed with short veinlets of 
white dolomite coarser grained than the main rock, and several of which 
contain scattered spots of similar white dolomite. The middle part of 
the quarry face are a few dolomite beds of light gray or bluish gray 
color, some with inconspicuous white veinlets. The white dolomite is 
somewhat rusted where weathered, indicating the presence in it of a 
certain amount of iron carbonate. This feature is confirmed by a quali- 
tative test of some white dolomite from a veinlet in the dark blue rock. 
Application of dilute hydrochloric (muriatic) acid on five representative 
specimens, three of dark and two of light colored stone, produces no 
effervescence except along somewhat rusted veinlets and fractures. This 
result accords with a chemical analysis of the rock in column 18, page 
150, furnished by the G. C. Buquo Lime Co., and said to represent the 
average output of the quarry. Recalculation of this analysis shows 
59.50 per cent calcium carbonate and 39.65 per cent magnesium car- 
bonate, or 8G.85 per cent dolomite and 12.3'0 per cent calcite. Different 
analyses are said to show from 93 to 98 per cent total carbonates. Qual- 
itative tests on the five specimens collected show a uniformly very low 
content of iron, most of which is present as iron carbonate in the dolo- 
mite grains, and the remainder in minute grains of fresh to oxidized 
pyrite. 

Microscopic examination of the insoluble residues from these speci- 
mens represented by the 0.75 of sand in the analysis proves it to 
consist mainly of feldspar and quartz, with minute flakes or fibers of 
sericite (white mica) and tremolitei, pyrite, and an occasional grain 
of apatite (a calcium phosphate). The feldspar and quartz have rather 
well-developed crystal outlines. In one residue feldspar was absent; 
in another it was the most prominent constituent. In one the leading 
variety of feldspar was soda orthoclase; in another it was ordinary or- 
tholocase; and in a third it was soda lime feldspar (andesine) in detrital 
grains with secondary enlargements or rims of soda orthoclase. 

Although this stone is quarried at present only for pulverizing, it is 
also well suited for road material, as shown by the physical tests on 
page 145, which compare favorably with other limestones and dolomites 
in the state as well as in the country. It is also apparently well suited 
for burning into high magnesium lime, and for chemical uses which 
call for high magnesium stone freer than the average in insoluble mate- 
rials, and low, but not extremely low, in iron. 

Other Prop